Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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ments, and built a stockade fort. Virginia
militia, under Gen. Andrew Lewis, at
tacked and drove him from the island.
In this engagement Dunmore was wounded.
Burning several of his vessels that were
aground, Dunmore sailed away with the
remainder, with a large amount of booty,
among which were about 1,000 slaves.
After more plundering on the coast the
vessels were dispersed, some to the West
Indies, some to the Bermudas and St.
Augustine, and Dunmore himself pro
ceeded to join the naval force at New
York, and soon afterwards went to Eng
land. In 1786 Dunmore was made gov
ernor of Bermuda. He died in Ramsgate,
England, in May, 1809.

Dunmore s War. See CRESAP, MI
CHAEL; DUNMORE, JOHN MURRAY, EARL
OF; LOGAN.

Duponceau, PETER STEPHEN, philolo
gist; born in the Isle of Rh6, France,
June 3, 1760; went to Paris in 1775, where
he became acquainted with Baron Steu-
ben, and accompanied him to America as
his secretary. He was brevetted a captain
(February, 1778), and assisted Steuben in



the preparation of his system of military
tactics for the use of the United States
troops. From 1781 to 1783 he was secre
tary to Robert R. Livingston, then at the




THE OLD MAGAZINE AT WILLIAMSBUEG.

head of the foreign office of the govern
ment; and then studying law, was ad
mitted to practice in 1785, becoming emi
nent in the profession on questions of civil
and international law. He finally devoted
himself to literature and science, and
made many valuable researches into the
language and literature of the North
American Indians. In 1819 he published
a Memoir on the Structure of the Indian
Languages. When seventy-eight years of
age (1838) he published a Dissertation on
the Chinese Language; also a translation
of a Description of New Sioeden. In 1835
the French Institute awarded him a prize
for a disquisition on the Indian languages
of North America. Mr. Duponceau opened
a law academy in Philadelphia in 1821,
and wrote several essays on the subject of
law. He died in Philadelphia, April 2,
1844.

Du Pont, ELEUTIIERE IRE NEE, scientist;
born in Paris, France, June 24, 1771; son
of Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours;
emigrated to the United States in 1799;
bought a tract of land near Wilmington,
Del., where he established the powder
works, which have since been maintain
ed by the Dupont (modern form) family.
He died in Philadelphia, Pa,, Oct. 31,
1834.

Dupont, SAMUEL FRANCIS, naval officer ;
born in Bergen Point, N. J., Sept. 27.
1803; entered the United States navy as



163



DUPORTAIL DTJQUESNE



midshipman at twelve years of age, and
became commander, Oct. 28, 1842. He
saw much active service on the California
coast during the war with Mexico, clear
ing the Gulf of California of Mexican ves
sels. He was promoted to captain in
1855; and in October, 1861, he pro
ceeded, in command of the South Atlantic
squadron, to capture Port Royal Island,
on the South Carolina coast, to secure
a central harbor and depot of supplies on
the Southern shores. In July Commodore
Dupont was made a rear-admiral, and in
April, 1863, he commanded the fleet which
made an unsuccessful effort to capture
Charleston. Admiral Dupont assisted in
organizing the naval school at Annapolis,
and was the author of a highly com-




SAMUEL FRANCIS DUPONT.

mended report on the use of floating bat
teries for coast defence. He died in Phila
delphia, June 23, 1865.

Duportail, Louis LEBEGUE, CHEVALIER,
military officer; born in France in 1736;
came to America in the early part of the
Revolutionary War, and was appointed
brigadier-general in the Continental army
in November, 1777, and major - general,
November, 1781. He was directing engi
neer at the siege of Yorktown in the fall
of 1781. Returning to France, he was
named marechal-de-camp ; and in Novem
ber, 1790, was made minister of war. In
December, 1791, he resigned; and when
engaged in military service in Lorraine,
he received a warning of the designs of
the Jacobins, and sought safety in



America. He died at sea in 1802, when
returning to France.

Dupratz, ANTOINE SIMON LE PAGE, ex
plorer; born, in Tourcoing, France, in
1689; settled on the Mississippi River
among the Natchez Indians in 1720. For
eight years he explored the regions water
ed by the Missouri and Arkansas rivers.
He published a History of Louisiana, or of
the Western Parts of Virginia and Caro
lina. He died in Paris, France, in 1775.

Duquesne, FORT, a fortification erected /
by the French on the site of the city of V
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1754. While Captain
Trent and his company were building this
fort, Captain Contrecceur, with 1,000
Frenchmen and eighteen cannon, went
down the Alleghany River in sixty bateaux
and 300 canoes, took possession of the un
finished fortification, and named it Fort
Duquesne, in compliment to the captain-
general of Canada. Lieutenant-Colonel
Washington, with a small force, hurried
from Cumberland to recapture it, but
was made a prisoner, with about 400 men,
at Fort Necessity. In 1755 an expedition
for the capture of Fort Duquesne, com
manded by GEN. EDWARD BRADDOCK
(q. i).), marched from Will s Creek (Cum
berland) on June 10, about 2,000 strong,
British and provincials. On the banks
of the Monongahela Braddock was de
feated and killed on July 9, and the ex
pedition was ruined.

Washington was a lieutenant-colonel
under Braddock in the expedition against
Fort Duquesne, in 1755, and in that of
1758. In the former he was chiefly in
strumental in saving a portion of the
British and provincial troops from utter
destruction. At the battle near the Mo
nongahela, where Braddock was killed, ev
ery officer but Washington was slain or
wounded; and he, alone, led the surviv
ors on a safe retreat. He was not injured
during the battle. To his mother he
wrote: "I luckily escaped unhurt,
though I had four bullets through my
coat, and two horses shot under me."
To his brother he wrote: "By the all-
powerful dispensation of Providence, I
have been protected beyond all human
probability or expectation. Death was
levelling my companions on every side."
An Indian chief, who, fifteen years after
wards, travelled a long way to see Wash-



164



DUQUESNE DURAND



ington when he
was in Ohio, said
he had singled him
out for death, and
directed his fellows
to do the same.
He fired more than
a dozen fair shots
at him, but could
not hit him. " We
felt," said the
chief, " that some
Manitou guarded
your life, and that
you could not be
killed."

The expedition of
1758 was c o m -
manded by Gen.
John Forbes, who
had about 9,000
men at his dis
posal at Fort
Cumberland and
Eaystown. These
included Virginia

troops under Colonel Washington, the Forbes intended to propose an abandon-
Royal Americans from South Carolina, ment of the enterprise, when three
and an auxiliary force of Cherokee Ind- prisoners gave information of the ex-
ians. Sickness and perversity of will treme weakness of the French garrison,
and judgment on the part of Forbes Washington was immediately sent for-
caused delays almost fatal to the expedi- ward, and the whole army prepared to
tion. He was induced, by the advice of follow. When the Virginians were within
some Pennsylvania land speculators, to a day s march of the fort, they were dis
use the army in constructing a military covered by some Indians, who so alarmed
road farther north than the one made by the garrison by an exaggerated account
Braddock. Washington, who knew the oi the number of the approaching troops
country well, strongly advised against that the guardians of Fort Duquesnc, re-
this measure, but he was unheeded, and duced to 500, set it on fire (Nov. 24), and
so slow was the progress of the troops fled down the Ohio in boats with such
towards their destination, that in Sep- haste and confusion that they left every-
tember, when it was known that there thing behind them. The Virginians took
were not more than 800 men at Duquesne, possession the next day, and the name
Forbes, with 0,000 troops, was yet east of the fortress was changed to Fort Pitt,
of the Alleghany Mountains. Major in honor of the great English statesman.
Grant, with a scouting-party of Colonel Durand, ASIIER BROWN, painter and en-
Bouquet s advance corps, was attacked graver; born in Jefferson, N. J., Aug. 21,

His paternal ancestors were Hugue-
Jlis father was a watch-maker, and




OF FOliT Dl QCI.S.NK.



(Sept. 21), defeated, and made a pris



oner. Still Forbes went creeping on. r.ots.

wasting precious time, and exhausting the in his shop he learned engraving. In 1812

patience and respect of Washington and he became an apprentice to Peter Mave-

other energetic officers; and when Bou- rick, an engraver on copper-plate, and be-

quet joined the army it was 50 miles came his partner in 1817. Mr. Durand s

from Fort Duquesne. The winter WHS ap- first large work was his engraving on

preaching, the troops were discontented, copper of Trumbull s Declaration of /-

and a council of war was called, to which dependence. He was engaged upon it a

165



DURANT DUSTIN

year, and it gave him a great reputation. Dustin, HANNAH, heroine; born about
His engravings of Musidora and Ariadne 1660; married Thomas Dustin, of Haver-
place him among the first line-engravers of hill, Mass., Dec. 3, 1677. When, in the
his time. In 1835 he abandoned that art spring of 1697, the French and Indians
for painting. Mr. Durand was one of the devastated the New England frontier set-
first officers of the National Academy of tlements, Haverhill, within 30 miles of
Design, and was its president for several Boston, suffered severely, forty of its in-
years. He died in South Orange, N. J., habitants being killed or carried into cap-
Sept. 17, 1886. tivity. Among the latter were a part of

Durant, HENRY TOWLE, philanthropist; the family of Thomas Dustin, who was in
born in Hanover, N. H., Feb. 20, 1822; the field when the savages first appeared,
graduated at Harvard College in 1841; Mounting his horse, he hastened to his
admitted to the bar in 1846; and be- house to bear away his wife, eight chil-
came connected with Rufus Choate and dren, and nurse to a place of safety. His
other celebrated lawyers in practice in youngest child was only a week old. He
Boston. Later he devoted himself to the ordered his other children to fly. While
promotion of education, and through his he was lifting his wife and her babe from
efforts Wellesley College was founded at the bed the Indians attacked his house,
a cost of $1,000,000. It was opened in " Leave me," cried the mother, " and fly
1875, was maintained by him at an ex- to the protection of the other children."
pense of $50,000 a year until his death, Remounting his horse he soon overtook the
and afterwards was aided by his widow, precious flock, and placing himself be-
He died in Wellesley, Mass., Oct. 3, 1881. tween them and the pursuing Indians, he

Durell, EDWARD HENRY, jurist; born in defended them so valiantly with his gun
Portsmouth, N. H., July 14, 1810; gradu- that he pressed back the foe. Meanwhile
ated at Harvard in 1831; removed to New the savages had entered the house, ordered
Orleans in 1836. He held many offices the feeble mother to rise and follow them,
under the State government ; resisted se- killed the infant, and set fire to the dwell-
cession in 1861 ; president of the Louisiana ing- Half dressed, she was compelled to
constitutional convention in 1864. Among go with her captors through melting snow
his publications are History of Seventeen in their hasty retreat, accompanied by
Years from I860 to 1877; Essay on the her nurse. They walked 12 miles the first
History of France; etc. He died in Scho- clay without shoes, and were compelled to
harie, N. Y., March 29, 1887. lie on the wet ground at night, with no

Durrie, DANIEL STEELE, antiquarian; covering but the cold gray sky. This was
born in Albany, N. Y., Jan. 2, 1819; repeated day after day, until they reached
appointed librarian of the State Historical an island in the Merrimac 6 miles above
Society of Wisconsin in 1858; published Concord, N. H., the home of the leader of
genealogies of the Steele and Holt the savages, who claimed Mrs. Dustin and
families; also a Bibliographica Genea- her nurse as his captives. They were
logica Americana; History of Madison, lodged with his family, which consisted
Wis.; History of Missouri; and the Wis- of two men, three women, seven children.
consin Biographical Dictionary. and a captive English boy, who had been

Duryee, ABRAM, military officer; born with them more than a year. They were
in New York City, April 29, 1815; joined told that they would soon start for an
the State militia in 1833; became colonel Indian village where they would be com-
of the 27th Regiment, now the 7th, in pelled to "run the gantlet"; that is, be
1849; commanded his regiment during the stripped naked, and run for their lives be-
Astor Place riots. In April, 1861, he tween two files of Indian men, women,
raised a regiment known as " Duryee s and children, who would have the privilege
Zouaves," which took part in the battle of of scoffing at them, beating them, and
Big Bethel. In 1861 he was promoted to wounding them with hatchets,
brigadier-general, and served with the The two women resolved not to endure
Army of the Potomac until 1863, when he the indignity. Mrs. Dustin planned a
resigned. He died in New York City, means of escape, and leagued the nurse
Sept. 27, 1890, and the English boy with her in the exe-

166



DUSTIN DUTCH GAP CANAL



cution of it. Believing in the faithful
ness of the lad and the timidity of the
women, the Indians did not keep watch
at night. Through inquiries made by the
lad, Mrs. Dustin learned how to kill a
man instantly, and to take off his scalp.
Before daylight one morning, when the
whole family were asleep, Mrs. Dustin"
and her companions instantly killed ten
of the slumberers, she killing her captor,
and the boy despatching the man who
told him how to do it. A squaw and a
child fled to the woods and escaped. After
scuttling all the boats but one, they fled
in it down the river, with provisions from
the wigwam. Mrs. Dustin remembered
they had not scalped the victims, so, re
turning, they scalped the slain savages,
and bore their trophies away in a bag, as
evidence of the truth of the story they
might relate to their friends. At Haver-
hill they were received as persons risen
from the dead. Mrs. Dustin found her hus
band and children safe. Soon afterwards
she bore to the governor, at Boston, the
gun, tomahawk, and ten scalps, and the
general court gave these two women $250



shire erected a commemorative monu
ment in 1874. On it are inscribed the
names of Hannah Dustin, Mary Neff, and
Samuel Leonardson, the latter the Eng
lish lad.

Dutch Gap Canal. There is a sharp
bend in the James River between the
Appomattox and Richmond, where the
stream, after flowing several miles, ap
proaches itself within 500 yards. To
flank Confederate works and to shorten
the passage of the river 6 or 7 miles,
General Butler set a large force of
colored troops at work, in the summer of
1864, in cutting a canal for the passage
of vessels across this peninsula. This
canal \vas completed, with the exception
of blowing out the bulkhead, at the close
of December, 1864. It was 500 yards in
length, 60 feet in width at top, and 65
below the surface of the bluff. It was
excavated 15 feet below high-water mark.
On New Year s Day, 1865, a mine of
12,000 Ibs. of gunpowder was exploded
under the bulkhead, and the water
rushed through, but not in sufficient
depth for practical purposes, for the mass




[ANNAH IM STtN ESCAPING FKOM



each, as a reward for their heroism. They of the bulkhead (left to keep out the
received other tokens of regard. The water) fell back into the opening after
island where the scene occurred is called the explosion. The canal was then swept
Dustin s Island. On its highest point by Confederate cannon, and could not be
citizens of Massachusetts and New Hamp- dredged. As a military operation, it was

167



DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY

a failure. It was excavated in 140 days, of America or the West Indies between
and has since been made navigable. Newfoundland and the Strait of Magellan,
While a greater part of the National except with the permission of the corn-
naval force on the James River was on pany. It was vested with sovereign
the expedition against FORT FISHER powers, to be exercised in the name of the
( q. v.}, the Confederates sent down from States-General, and to report to that body,
the shelter of Fort Darling, on Drewry s from time to time, all its transactions.
Bluff, a squadron of vessels for the pur- The government of the company was
pose of breaking the obstructions at the vested in five separate chambers of mana-
lower end of the Dutch Gap Canal, and gers, the principal one at Amsterdam, and
destroying the pontoon bridges below, so the other four in as many separate cities,
as to separate the National troops lying General executive powers were intrusted
on both sides of the James. The squad- to a board of nineteen delegates, called the
ron moved silently under cover of dark- College of Nineteen, in which one dele-
ness, but was observed and fired upon gate represented the States-General, by
when passing Fort Brady. The vessels whom the company was guaranteed pro-
responded, and dismounted a 100-pounder tection, and received assistance to the
Parrott gun in the fort. The Fredericks- amount of $380,000.

burg broke the obstructions at Dutch Gap The company was organized on June
and passed through, but two other 21, 1623; and with such a charter,
iron-clads and an unarmored gunboat such powers, and such privileges, it be-
grounded. At dawn the gunboat Drewry gan the settlement and development of
had been abandoned, and a shell from a New Netherland. The English claimed
National battery exploded her magazine, the domain, and the Dutch hastened to ac-
when she was blown to a wreck. So hot quire eminent domain, according to the
was the fire from the shore that the voy- policy of England, by planting permanent
age of the Confederate vessels was settlements there; and the same year
checked, and all but the ruined Drewry (1023) they sent over thirty families,
fled up the river. chiefly Walloons, to Manhattan. The
Dutch West India Company. The management of New Netherland was in-
Dutch East India Company was a great trusted to the Amsterdam chamber. Their
monopoly, the profits of the trade of which traffic was successful. In 1624 the ex-
were enormous. Their ships whitened the ports from Amsterdam, in two ships, were
Indian seas, and in one year the share- worth almost $10,000, and the returns
holders received in dividends the amount from New Netherland were considerably
of three-fourths of their invested capital, more. The company established a trad-
It was believed that trade with the West- ing-post, called Fort Orange, on the site
ern Continent might be made equally of Albany, and traffic was extended east-
profitable, and as early as 1607 William ward to the Connecticut River, and even
Ussellinx suggested a similar association to Narraganset Bay; northward to the
to trade in the West Indies. The States- Mohawk Valley, and southward and west-
General of Holland were asked to incor- ward to the Delaware River and beyond,
porate such an association. The govern- To induce private capitalists to engage in
nient, then engaged in negotiations for a the settlement of the country, the corn-
truce with Spain, refused; but when that pany gave lands and special privileges to
truce expired, in 1621, a charter was such as would guarantee settlement and
granted to a company of merchants which cultivation. These became troublesome
gave the association almost regal powers landholders, and in 1638 the rights of the
to " colonize, govern, and protect " New company, it was claimed, were interfered
Netherland for the term of twenty-four with by a settlement of Swedes on the
years. It was ordained that during that Delaware. In 1640 the company establish-
time none of the inhabitants of the United ed the doctrines a-nd rituals of the Re-
Provinces (the Dutch Republic) should be formed Church in the United Provinces
permitted to sail thence to the coasts of as the only theological formula to be al-
Africa between the tropic of Cancer and lowed in public worship in New Nether-
the Cape of Good Hope; nor to the coasts land, The spirit of popular freedom,

168



BUTTON DWIGHT

which the Dutch brought with them from lication of Arcturus: a Journal of Books
Holland, asserted its rights under the and Opinions, in connection with Cor-
tyranny of WILLIAM KIEFT (q. v.) , and a nelius Matthews, which was continued
sort of popular assembly was organized at about a year and a half. He contributed
New Amsterdam. Its affairs in New to the early numbers of the New York
Netherland were necessarily under the di- Review. In 1847, in connection with his
rect management of a director-general brother George, he commenced the Liter-
or governor, whose powers, as in the ary World, a periodical which continued
case of Kieft and Stuyvesant, were (with an interval of a year and five
sometimes so arbitrarily exercised that months) until the close of 1853. In
much popular discontent was mani- 185G the brothers completed the Cyclo-
fested, and their dealings with their pcedia of American Literature, in 2 vol-
neighbors were not always satis- nines, a work of great research and value,
factory to the company and the States- To this Evert added a supplement in 1865.
General; yet, on the whole, when we His other important works are, Wit and
consider the spirit of the age, the colony, Wisdom of Kidney Smith; National Por-
which, before it was taken possession of trait-Gallery of Eminent Americans; His-
by the English in 1604, was of a mixed tory of the War for the Union; History
population, was managed wisely and well ; of the World from the Earliest Period
and the Dutch West India Company was to the Present Time; and Portrait Gal-
one of the most important instruments in lery of Eminent Men and Women of
planting the good seed from which our Europe and America (2 volumes). Mr.
nation has sprung. Duyckinck s latest important literary

Button, CLARENCE EDWARD, military labor was in the preparation, in connection

officer; born in Wallingford, Conn., May with WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT (q. v.}, of

15, 1841; graduated at Yale College a new and thoroughly annotated edition

in 1860; served in the National army in of Shakespeare s writings. Evert died in

1862-64 and took part in several impor- New York City, Aug. 13, 1878. His

tant engagements; was appointed a second brother, GEORGE LONG, was born in New

lieutenant of ordnance, U. S. A., Jan. 20, York City, Oct. 17, 1823; graduated

1864; and was promoted major May 1, at the University of the City of New

1890. After the close of the Civil War York in 1843. Besides his assistance in

he was assigned to duty with the United the conduct of the Literary World and

States Geological Survey. His publi- the preparation of the Cyclopcedia of

cations include Geology of the High American Literature, he published biog-

Plateaus of Utah; Hawaiian Volcanoes; raphies of George Herbert (1858), Bishop

The Charleston Earthquake of 1886; Ter- Thomas Ken (1859), Jeremy Taylor

tiary History of the Grand Canon Dis- (1860), and Bishop La timer (1861). He

trict; Mount Taylor and the Zuiii died in New York City March 30, 1863.

Plateau, etc. Bwight, THEODORE, journalist; born

Buval, GABRIEL, statesman; born in in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 15, 1764;

Prince George county, Md., Dec. 6, 1752; was a grandson of the eminent theologian

was a member of Congress, 1794-96, when Jonathan Edwards; became eminent as a

he resigned upon his appointment as judge lawyer and political writer; was for

of the Supreme Court of Maryland. In many years in the Senate of Connecticut;

1811 he was appointed to the United and in 1806-7 was in Congress, where

States Supreme Court and served until he became a prominent advocate for the

1836, when he resigned. He died in Prince suppression of the slave-trade. During

George county, March 6, 1844. the War of 1812-15 he edited the Mirror,

Buyckinck, EVERT AUGUSTUS, author; at Hartford, the leading Federal news-
born in New York City, Nov. 23, 1816; paper in Connecticut; and was secretary
graduated at Columbia College in 1835. of the HARTFORD CONVENTION (q. v.) in
His father was a successful publisher, 1814, the proceedings of which he pub
and Evert early showed a love for lished in 1833. He published the Albany



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 26 of 76)