Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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books and a taste for literary pursuits. Daily Advertiser in 1815, and was the
In Becember, 1840, he commenced the pub- founder, in 1817, of the New York Daily



Advertiser, with which he was connected
until the great fire in 1835, when he re
tired, with his family, to Hartford. Mr.
Dwight was one of the founders of the
American Bible Society. He was one of
the writers of the poetical essays of the
" Echo " in the Hartford Mercury. He
was also the author of a Dictionary of
Roots and Derivations. He died in New
York City, July 12, 1846.

Dwight, THEODORE, author; born in
Hartford, Conn., March 3, 1796; grad
uated at Yale College in 1814; set
tled in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1833. In as
sociation with George White it is said
that he induced about 9,000 people to
leave the East and settle in Kansas. He
was the author of a New Gazetteer of the
United States (with William Darby) ;
History of Connecticut; The Kansas War:
or the Exploits of Chivalry in the Nine
teenth Century; Autobiography of General
Garibaldi, etc. He died in Brooklyn, N.
Y., Oct. 16, 1866.

Dwight, THEODORE WILLIAM, educator
and jurist; born in Catskill, N. Y., July
18, 1822; graduated at Hamilton College
in 1840; appointed Professor of Municipal
Law in Columbia in 1858; Professor of
Constitutional Law in Cornell in 1868,
and lecturer on constitutional law in Am-
herst in I860; appointed a judge of the

Dwight, TIMOTHY; born in Norwich,
Conn., Nov. 16, 1828; graduated at Yale
in 1849; tutored at Yale 1851-55; Profes-


commission of appeals in January, 1874.
Professor Dwight was the most distin
guished teacher of law in the United
States. He died in Clinton, N. Y., June
28, 1892.


sor of Sacred Literature and New Testa
ment Greek at Yale, 1858-86; president
of Yale University, 1886-99, when he re
signed the office.

Dwight, TIMOTHY, educator; born in
Northampton, Mass., May 14, 1752;
graduated at Yale College in 1769, and
was a tutor there from 1771 to 1777, when
he became an army chaplain, and served
until October, 1778. In 1781 and 1786
was a member of the Connecticut legis
lature. In 1783 he was a settled minister
at Greenfield and principal of an academy
there; and from 1795 until his death was
president of Yale College. He published
Travels in New England and New York,
in 4 volumes. He died in New Haven,
Conn., Jan. 11, 1817.

Dyer, DAVID PATTERSON, lawyer ; born
in Henry county, Va., Feb. 12/1838; re
moved to Missouri in 1841; educated at
St. Charles College; admitted to the bar
in 1859, and practised till 1875. He was
a member of Congress in 1869-71; ap
pointed United States attorney in 1875;
removed to St. Louis; prosecuted the
great "Whisky Ring" in 1875-76; was
defeated for governor of Missouri in 1880:
delegate-at-large to the National Republi
can Convention in 1888 and 1900; and be
came United States attorney for the east
ern district of Missouri in 1902.

Dyer, ELIPIIALET, jurist; born in



Windham, Conn., Sept. 28, 1721; grad
uated at Yale College in 1740; became
a lawyer; and was a member of the
Connecticut legislature from 1745 to 1762.
He commanded a regiment in the French
and Indian War; was made a member
of the council in 1762; and, as an active
member of the Susquehanna Company,
went to England as its agent in 1763.
Mr. Dyer was a member of the Stamp Act
Congress in 1765, and was a member of
the first Continental Congress in 1774.
He remained in that body during the en
tire war excepting in 1779. He was judge
of the Supreme Court of Connecticut in
1766, and was chief -justice from 1789 to
1793. He died in Windham, May 13,
1807. Judge Dyer is alluded to in the
famous doggerel poem entitled Lawyers
and Bullfrogs, the introduction to which
avers that at Old Windham, in Connecti
cut, after a long drought, a frog-pond be
came almost dry, and a terrible battle was
fought one night by the frogs to decide
which should keep possession of the re
maining water. Many " thousands were
defunct in the morning." There was an
uncommon silence for hours before the
battle commenced, when, as if by a pre
concerted agreement, every frog on one
side of the ditch raised the w^ar-cry,
"Colonel Dyer! Colonel Dyer!" and at
the same instant, from the opposite side,
resounded the adverse shout of " Elderkin
too ! Elderkin too !" Owing to some pecu
liarity in the state of the atmosphere, the
sounds seemed to be overhead, and the
people of Windham were greatly fright
ened. The poet says:

" This terrible night the parson did fright

His people almost in despair :
For poor Windham souls among the bean
He made a most wonderful prayer.

Lawyer Lucifer called up his crew ;
Dyer and Elderkin, you must come, too .
Old Colonel Dyer you know well enough,
He had an old negro, his name was Cuff."

Dyer, MARY, Quaker martyr; was the
wife of a leading citizen of Rhode Island.
Having embraced the doctrines and dis
cipline of the Friends, or Quakers, she
became an enthusiast, and went to Boston,
whence some of her sect had been banished,
to give her " testimony to the truth." In
that colony the death penalty menaced
those who should return after banish
ment. Mary was sent away and returned,
and was released while going to the gal
lows with Marmaduke Stevenson with a
rope around her neck. She unwillingly
returned to her family in Rhode Island ;
but she went back to Boston again for the
purpose of offering up her life to the
cause she advocated, and she was hanged
in 1660. Mary had once been whipped on
her bare back through the streets of Bos
ton, tied behind a cart.

Dyer, OLIVER, author; born in Porter,
N. Y., April 26, 1824; was educated at
the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, Lima,
N. Y. ; taught school ; and later lectured
on and taught the Isaac Pitman system of
phonography. In 1848 he became a re
porter in the United States Senate; later
studied law and practised for a short time,
abandoning it to devote himself to jour
nalism; and was on the staff of the
Tribune, Sun, and Ledger of New York,
lie was ordained in the Swedenborgian
Church in 1876, and had charge of a
church in Mount Vernon. He was au
thor of The Wickedest Man in New
York; Great Senators of the United
States Forty Tears Ago; Life of An
drew Jackson; and Sketch of Henry W.


E Pluribus Unum. Its earliest oc- tion of the mouth of the Mississippi by
currence is in a Latin poem called More- jetties. He was authorized to undertake
turn, which is ascribed to Virgil. It was it (and was very successful), for which
suggested as the motto for the SEAL OF the government paid him $5,125,000. At
THE UNITED STATES (q. v.) by the com- the time of his death, in Nassau, N. P.,
mittee of the Great Seal, consisting of March 8, 1887, he was engaged in the pro-
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and motion of a project he had conceived of
Thomas Jefferson, on Aug. 10, 1770. constructing a ship railway across the

Eads, JAMES BUCHANAN, engineer; Isthmus of Tchuantepec, between the At-
born in Lawrenceburg, Ind., May 23, 1820. lantic and Pacific oceans. In 1881 he re
in 1861 he was employed by the national ceived the Albert medal from the British
government to construct gunboats suit- Society of Arts, the first American to be
able for use in Western rivers. In the thus honored.

space of sixty-five days he constructed The jetty system consists simply of a
seven iron-clad gunboats. In 1862 he built dike or embankment projecting into the
six more; also heavy mortar-boats. At water, whose purpose is to narrow the

channel so that the natural action of the
water will keep it clear of sediment or
other obstruction. The Mississippi River
is, at its mouth, 40 feet deep and 1%
miles wide, and carries every minute
72,000,000 feet of water to the Gulf,
which holds in solution nearly 20 per
cent, of mud and sand. The river has
three channels to the sea the Southwest
Pass, the Passe 1 Outre, and the South
Pass the first carrying out about 50
per cent, of its water, the second 40 per

cent., and the third 10 per cent. There
is a bar at the mouth of each pass, and
each has a channel through which large
vessels may pass. This channel is about
1,200 feet wide and 50 feet deep in the
large passes, and 600 feet wide and 35
feet deep in the small one. The swift
and concentrated current keeps the chan
nel open, but the bar is continually
spreading outward, and as it thus
spreads the water excavates a channel

JAMES BUCHANAN KAos. through it, though not of a uniform depth

or width. Thus, a frequent dredging of

the beginning of July, 1874, he completed the channel was necessary to prevent the
the magnificent iron railroad bridge across continual grounding of vessels upon it.
the Mississippi at St. Louis. Then he Captain Eads was the first to suggest
pressed upon the attention of the govern- that this laborious and expensive dredg-
ment hii plan for improving the nn.viga- ing process might be done away with by



the use of jetties. He reasoned that if in the Gulf. Five and i half million cubic

the banks of the passage through the bar yards of earth had been removed, mainly

could be extended, not gradually, but by the action of the strong current

immediately, into the deep water of the created by the jetty. In the construc-


Gulf some 2 miles or more, it would tion of this important improvement the

produce force enough to excavate a following amount of material had been

channel the whole length of the bar. used: W illow, 592,000 cubic yards; stone,

This project he undertook to carry out 100,000 cubic yards; gravel, 10,000 cubic

at his own expense, agreeing not to re- yards ; concrete, 9,000 tons ; piling and

ceive compensation for the work until it lumber, 12,000,000 feet. Captain Eads s

was completed; and the truth of his rea- plan has been proved to be very success-

soning was proved by the results. In ful, for the banks of the jetty continue

the winter of 1874-75 he laid his plan be- firm, and the channel is kept clear by

fore Congress, and in March, 1875, a bill the movement of the concentrated current

was passed empowering him to put it between them.

into execution. The work was begun in Eagan, CHARLES PATRICK, military offi-
June, 1875. The jetties were laid out cer ; born in Ireland in January, 1841;
parallel with the current of the river, served through the Civil War in the 1st
and at right angles with the Gulf cur- Washington Territory Infantry; was corn-
rent, extending with a slight curve 2% missioned 2d lieutenant 9th United States
miles out from the mouth of the river. Infantry in 18G6; and became brigadier-
Piles were first driven in to mark the general and commissary-general May 3,
path of the jetties; then willows fastened 1898. During the American-Spanish War
together in enormous mattresses were he was in charge of the commissary de-
sunk, and these filled in with stones and partment of the army, and in January,
gravel. This work was done on the 1899, was tried by court-martial for criti-
South Pass, the narrowest of the three cising General Miles during an investiga-
channels of the Mississippi delta. Cap- tion into the character of supplies furnish-
tain Eads wished to try his experiment ed to the army during the war; was sus-
011 the Southwest Pass, the deepest and pended from rank and duty for six years
widest channel, but Congress would not on Feb. 9; and was restored and imme-
permit him to do so. The work of mak- diately retired Dec. 0, 1900.
ing the South Pass jetties was completed Eagle, the standard of the Persian and
July 9, 1879. A channel 30 feet deep, the Roman; also adopted by Charlemagne
with a minimum width of 45 feet, had with a second head as the standard of the
been made from the river to deep water holy Roman empire of Germany. The



eagle was the standard of France during England; China - Collecting in America;

the empire, as it is now of Austria. Rus- Customs and Fashions in Old New Eng-

sia, and Prussia. The great seal of the land; Life of Margaret Winthrop; Diary

United States (see SEAL OF THE UNITED of a Boston School -Girl; Costume of

STATES) bears a shield on the breast of Colonial Times; Colonial Dames and

the eagle. The $10 gold coin of the Goodwives; Old Narragansett; Colonial

United States is also called an eagle. It Days in Old New York; Curious Punish-

was first coined in 1794. No eagles were ments of Bygone Days; Home Life in

coined between 1805 and 1837. The $20 Colonial Days; Child Life in Colonial

gold coin is popularly known as the double Days; Coach and Tavern Days; and was

eagle. part author of Early Prose and Verse;

Eagle, HENRY, naval officer; born in Historic New York; Chap Book Essays;

New York City, April 7, 1801 ; entered the Old-Time Gardens, Sundials, and Roses of

navy in 1818; and had command of the Yesterday; etc.

bomb-vessel JEtna and also a part of the Earle, PLINY, inventor; born in Leices-
Gulf fleet during the Mexican War. At ter, Mass., Dec. 17, 1762; became connect-
the beginning of the Civil War he carried ed with Edward Snow in 1785 in the man-
important messages from Brooklyn to ufacture of machine and hand cards for
Washington. While in command of the carding wool and cotton. Mr. Earle had
Monticello he was engaged in the first first made them by hand, but afterwards
naval engagement of the war, silencing the by a machine of his own invention,
guns of Se well s Point battery, Va., May OLIVER EVANS (q. v.) had already invent-
19, 1861. He was promoted commodore in ed a machine for making card-teeth, which
1862; retired in January, 1863. He died produced 300 a minute. In 1784 Mr. Crit-
in November, 1882. tenden, of New Haven, Conn., invented a

Eagle, JAMES PHILLIP, clergyman ; born machine which produced 86,000 card-
in Maury county, Tenn., Aug. 10, 1837; teeth, cut and bent, in an hour. These
acquired a country-school and a collegiate card-teeth were put up in bags and dis-
education; served in the Confederate tributed among families, in which the
army in the Civil War, and attained the women and children stuck them in the
rank of colonel. After the war he became leather. Leicester was the chief seat of
a Baptist minister and cotton-planter; this industry, and to that place SAMUEL
was a member of the Arkansas legislature SLATER (q. v.) , of Rhode Island, went
for four years; and of the constitutional for card clothing for the machines in his
convention in 1874; one of the commis- cotton-mill. Hearing that Pliny Earle
sioners to adjust the debt of the Brook- was an expert card-maker, he went to him
Baxter war over the governorship in 1874; and told him what he wanted. Mr. Earle
and was governor of Arkansas in 1889-93. invented a machine for pricking the holes

Eames, WILBERFORCE, librarian; born in the leather a tedious process by hand

in Newark, N. J., Oct. 12, 1855; appointed and it worked admirably. A few years

assistant in the Lenox Library, 1885; li- afterwards Eleazer Smith (see WHITTE-

brarian in 1893. He is the author of MORE, AMOS) made a great improvement

many bibliographical books, among them by inventing a machine that not only

an account of the early New England cat- pricked the holes, but set the teeth more

echisms, a comparative edition of the va- expertly than human fingers could do.

rious texts of Columbia s letter announc- About 1843 William B. Earle, son of

ing the discovery of America, and editor Pliny, improved Smith s invention, and

of several volumes of Sabin s Dictionary the machine thus produced for making

of Books relating to America, besides card clothing proved the best ever made,

many articles on bibliographical subjects. By Mr. Earle s first invention the labor of

Earle, ALICE MORSE, author; born in a man for fifteen hours could be perform-
Worcester, Mass.. April 27, 1853. She ed in fifteen minutes. Mr. Earle possessed
lias written extensively on the manner and extensive attainments in science and liter-
customs of the colonial periods in New ature. He died in Leicester, Nov. 19, 1832.
England and New York. Among her publi- Earle, THOMAS, statesman ; born in Lei-
cations are The Sabbath in Puritan New coster, Mass., April 21, 1796; removed to



Philadelphia in 1817; he edited succes
sively The Columbian Observer, Standard,
Penn&ylvanian, and Mechanics Free Press
and Reform Advocate. He was a member
of the Pennsylvania constitution conven
tion of 1837, and is believed to have draft
ed the new constitution. He died in Phila
delphia, July 14, 1849.

Early, JUBAL ANDERSON, military offi
cer; born in Franklin county, Va., Nov.
3, 1816; graduated from West Point in
1837, and served in the Florida war the
same year. In 1838 he resigned his com
mission and studied law. In 1847 he


served as a major-general of volunteers
during the war with Mexico. He was ap
pointed colonel in the Confederate ser
vice at the outbreak of the Civil War. He
was one of the ablest and most successful
of the Confederate generals, but was de
feated at Winchester, Fisher s Hill, and
Cedar Creek. At Gettysburg he com
manded a division of Lee s army, and the
second at Cedar Creek, where Sheridan
arrived in time to rally his men after his
famous ride. In 1888 he published a book
giving the history of the last year of the
Civil War, during which time he was in
command of the army of the Shenandoah.
He died in Lynchburg, Va., March 2, 1894.
Earthquakes. On June 1, 1638, be
tween the hours of 3 and 4 P.M., the
weather clear and warm, and the wind
westerly, all New England was violently
shaken by an internal convulsion of the
earth. It came on with a noise like con-


tinued thunder, and the shock lasted about
four minutes. The earth shook with such
violence that in some places the people
could not stand upright without difficulty,
and many movable articles in the houses
were thrown down. The earth was unquiet
for twenty days afterwards. On Jan. 26,
1663, a heavy shock of earthquake was
felt in New England and in New York,
and was particularly severe in Canada,
where it was recorded that " the doors
opened and shut of themselves with a
fearful clattering. The bells rang with
out being touched. The walls were
split asunder. The floors separated and
fell down. The fields put on the appear
ance of precipices, and the mountains
seemed to be moving out of their places."
Small rivers were dried up; some moun
tains appeared to be much broken a-nd
moved, and half-way between Quebec and
Tadousac two mountains were shaken
down, and formed a point of land extend
ing some distance into the St. Lawrence.
On Oct. 29, 1727, there was a severe
earthquake in New England, lasting about
two minutes. Its course seemed to be
from the Delaware River, in the south
west, to the Kennebec, in the northeast,
a distance of about 700 miles. It oc
curred at about twenty minutes before
eleven o clock in the morning, and the
sky was serene. Pewter and china were
cast from their shelves, and stone walls
and chimney-tops were shaken down. In
some places doors were burst open, and
people could hardly keep their feet.
There had been an interval of fifty-five
years since the last earthquake in New
England. On the same day the island of
Martinique, in the West Indies, was
threatened with total destruction by an
earthquake which lasted eleven hours.
On Nov. 18, 1755, an earthquake shock
was felt from Chesapeake Bay along the
coast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, about 800
miles; and in the interior it seems to
have extended, from northwest to south
east, more than 1,000 miles. In Boston
100 chimneys were levelled with the roofs
of the houses, and 1,500 shattered. The
vane on the public market was thrown to
the earth. At New Haven, Conn., the
ground moved like waves of the sea; the
houses shook and cracked, and many
chimneys were thrown down. It oc-



curred at four o clock in the morning, 2,000 houses were overthrown; and half
and lasted four and a half minutes. At of the island of Madeira, 660 miles south-
the same time there was a great tidal- west from Portugal, became a waste,
wave in the West Indies. In April, the The last earthquake of consequence was
same year, Quito, in South America, was on Aug. 31, 1886, when a large part of
destroyed by an earthquake ; and eighteen the city of Charleston, S. C., was de-
days before the earthquake in North stroyed, with many lives.
America there w r as an awful and exten- East India Company, THE. At the
sive one in southern Europe that extend- close of 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted a
ed into Africa. The earth was violently charter to a company of London mer-
shaken for 5,000 miles even to Scotland, chants for the monopoly of the trade over
In eight minutes the city of Lisbon, with a vast expanse of land and sea in the re-
50,000 inhabitants, was swallowed up. gion of the East Indies, for fifteen years.
Other cities in Portugal and Spain were The charter was renewed from time to
partially destroyed. One half of Fez, in time. The first squadron of the company
northern Africa, was destroyed, and more (five vessels) sailed from Torbay (Feb.
than 12,000 Arabs perished. In the islan L 15, 1601) and began to make footholds,
of Mitylene, in the Grecian Archipelago, speedily, on the islands and continental



shores of the East, establishing factories
in many places, and at length obtaining
a grant (1698) from a native prince of
Calcutta and two adjoining villages, with
the privilege of erecting fortifications.
This was the first step towards the ac-
quirement by the company, under the
auspices of the British government, of
vast territorial possessions, with a popu-
lation of 200,000,000, over which, in 1877,
Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress,
The company had ruled supreme in India,
with some restrictions, until 1858, when
the government of that Oriental empire
was vested in the Queen of England.
Though the company was not abolished,
it was shorn of all its political power, as
it had been of its trade monopoly. The
East India Company first introduced tea
into England, in the reign of Charles

Eastman, HARVEY GRIDLEY, educator;
born in Marshall, Oneida co., N. Y., Oct.
16, 1832: after attending the common
schools of his neighborhood, completed his
education at the State Normal School at
Albany; and at the age of twenty-three
opened a commercial school at Oswego,
N. Y., having been a teacher in a similar
school kept by his uncle in Rochester. In
that school he first conceived the plan of a
commercial or business college. On Nov. 3,
1859. Mr. Eastman opened a business col-
lege in Poughkeepsie, with a single pupil.
In 1865 there were more than 1,700 stu-
dents in the college. It was the first insti-
tution in which actual business was
taught. Mr. Eastman was a very liberal
and enterprising citizen, foremost in every
judicious measure which promised to bene-
fit the community in which he lived. He
was twice elected mayor of the city, and
held that office at the time of his death,
in Denver, Col., July 13, 1878. On the
day of his funeral the city was draped in
mourning and nearly all places of busi-
ness were closed, for he was eminently re-
spected as a citizen and as a public officer,

Easton, JAMES, military officer ; born in
Hartford, Conn.: became a builder, and
settled in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1763. Ac-
tive in business and strong in intellect, he
became a leader in public affairs there,
and was chosen to a seat in the Massa-
chusetts Assembly in 1774. He was also
colonel in the militia, and held the posi-
ill. M 1

tion of leader of the minute-men of that
town. When the expedition to assail
Ticonderoga was organized in western
Massachusetts, Colonel Easton joined
Allen and Arnold in accomplishing the
undertaking, and it was he who bore the
first tidings of success to the Provincial
Congress of Massachusetts. He died in
Pittsfield, Mass.

Easton, JOHN, colonial governor; son
of Nicholas; was governor of Rhode Island
in 1690-95. He was the author of a Nar-
rative of the Causes which led to Philip s
Indian War.

Easton, LANGDON CHEVES, military offi-
cer; born in St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 10, 1814;
graduated at the United States Mili-
tary Academy in 1838; and served in the
Florida, Mexican, and Civil wars. In
December, 1863, he was appointed chief
quartermaster of the Army of the Cumber-

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 27 of 76)