Benson John Lossing.

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land; and in May, 1864, was assigned the
same post in the army under General
Sherman. He received the brevet of ma-
jor-general in March, 1865; retired in Jan-
uary, 1881. He died in New York City,
April 29, 1884.

Easton, NICHOLAS, colonial governor;
born in 1593; came to America in 1634,
and settled in Ipswich, Mass. In 1638
he removed to Rhode Island and erected
the first house in Newport ; was govern-
or of Rhode Island and Providence in
1650-52. He died in Newport, R. I., Aug.
15. 1675.

Eastport, CAPTURE OF. Early in July,
1814, Sir Thomas M. Hardy sailed secretly
from Halifax with a squadron, consisting
of the RamUVics (the flag-ship), sloop
Martin, brig Borer, the Bream, the bomb-
ship Terror, and several transports, with
troops under Col. Thomas Pilkington. The
squadron entered Passamaquoddy Bay on
the llth, and anchored off Fort Sullivan.
at Eastport, Me., then in command of Maj.
Perley Putnam with a garrison of fifty
men, having six pieces of artillery. Hardy
demanded an instant surrender, giving
Putnam only five minutes to consider.
The latter promptly refused, but at the
importunity of the alarmed inhabitants,
who were indisposed to resist, he surren-
dered the post on condition that, while the
British should take possession of all
public property, private property should
be respected. This was agreed to, and



EATON

1,000 armed men, with women and chil- the United States Bureau of Education,

dren, a battalion of artillery, and fifty or with circulars and bulletins for sixteen

sixty pieces of cannon were landed on the years, addresses, and numerous magazine

main, when formal possession was taken articles.

of the fort, the town of Eastport, and all Eaton, JOHN HENRY, statesman; born
the islands and villages in and around in Tennessee in 1787; was United States
Passamaquoddy Bay. Several vessels laden Senator from Tennessee in 1818-29; re-
\vith goods valued at $300,000, ready to be signed to become Secretary of War under
smuggled into the United States, were President Jackson; appointed governor
seized. Sixty cannon were mounted, and of Florida Territory in 1834; resigned to
civil rule was established under British become United States minister to Spain
officials. The British held quiet posses- in 1836. He published a Life of Andrew
sion of that region until the close of the Jackson, who was his colleague in the
war. Senate for two years. He died in Wash-
Eaton, DORM AX BRIDGMAN, lawyer; born ington, D. C., Nov. 17, 1856. See EATON,
in Hardwick, Vt., June 27, 1823; grad- MARGARET L. O NEILL.
uated at the University of Vermont in Eaton, MARGARET L. O NEILL, daughter
1848; was active in promoting civil ser- of William O Neill, an Irish hotel-keep-
vice reform, and was a member of the er in Washington; born in 1796, and after
United States Civil Service Commission the death of her first husband, John B.
for many years. He was the author of Timberlake, she married John Henry
Civil Service in Great Britain; The In- Eaton, United States Senator from Ten-
dependent Movement in New York, etc.; nessee. Upon the appointment of her
and editor of the 7th edition of Kent s husband to the office of Secretary of War,
Commentaries. He died in New York Mrs. Eaton was not recognized socially
City, Dec. 23, 1900. by the wives of the other members of the
Eaton, JOHN, educator ; born in Sut- cabinet. President Jackson interfered, and
ton, N. H., Dec. 5, 1829; was graduated demanded that Mrs. Eaton should receive
at Dartmouth College in 1854; applied the usual social courtesies. In consequence
himself to educational pursuits till 1859, of these social quarrels, a disruption of the
when he entered Andover Theological cabinet took place in 1831. After Mr.
Seminary, and in 1862, after his ordi- Eaton s death his widow married an Ital-
nation, was appointed chaplain of the ian. She died in Washington, Nov. 8,
27th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In No- 1879.

vember of the same year he was made Eaton, THEOPHILUS, colonial governor;
superintendent of freedmen, and later born in Stony Stratford, England, in
was given supervision of all military 1591 ; was bred a merchant, and was for
posts from Cairo to Natchez and Fort some years the English representative at
Smith. In October, 1863, he became the Court of Denmark. Afterwards he was
colonel of the 63d United States Colored a distinguished London merchant, and ac-
Infantry, and in March, 1865, was companied Mr. Davenport to New Eng-
brevetted brigadier-general. He was editor land in 1637. With him he assisted in
of the Memphis Post in 1866-67, and founding the New Haven colony, and was
State superintendent of public instruc- chosen its first chief magistrate. Mr.
tion in Tennessee in- 1867-69. From 1871 Eaton filled the chair of that office con-
to 1886 he was commissioner of the United tinuously until his death, Jan. 7, 1658.
States Bureau of Education, and then be- Eaton, WILLIAM, military officer; born
came president of Marietta College, O., in Woodstock, Conn., Feb. 23, 1764; grad-
where he remained until 1891; was presi- uated at Dartmouth College in 1790; en-
dent of the Sheldon Jackson College of tered the Continental army at the age
Salt Lake City in 1895-98, when he was of sixteen; and was discharged in 1783.
appointed inspector of public education In 1797 he was appointed American con-
in Porto Rico. He is author of History sul at Tunis, and arrived there in 1799.
of Thetford Academy; Mormons of To- He acted with so much boldness and tact
day; The Freedman- in the War (re- that he secured for his country the free-
port) ; Schools of Tennessee; reports of dom of its commerce from attacks by

178



EBEN-EZEB^-ECONOCHACA

Tunisian cruisers. He returned to the Choetaw Indians, arrived near Econocha-

United States in 1803; was appointed ca, or Holy Ground, a village built by

naval agent of the United States for the Weathersford upon a bluff on the left

Barbary States, and accompanied the bank of the Alabama, just below Powell s

American fleet to the Mediterranean in Ferry, Lowndes co., in an obscure place,

1804. He assisted Hamet Caramelli, the as a " city of refuge " for the wounded

rightful ruler of Tripoli, in an attempt to and dispersed in battle, fugitives from

recover his throne, usurped by his brother, their homes, and women and children.

Soon afterwards Eaton returned to the No path or trail led to it. It had been

United States, and passed the remainder of dedicated to this humane purpose by

his life at Brimfield. For his services to Tecumseh and the Prophet a few months

American commerce the State of Massa- before, and the Cherokees had been assured

chusetts gave him 10,000 acres of land, b^ them that, like Auttose, no white man

The King of Denmark gave him a gold could tread upon the ground and live,

box in acknowledgment of his services to There the Indian priests performed their

commerce in general and for the release incantations, and in the square in the

of Danish captives at Tunis. Burr tried centre of the town the most dreadful

to enlist General Eaton in his conspiracy, cruelties had already been perpetrated.

and the latter testified against him on White prisoners and Creeks friendly to

his trial. He died in Brimfield, Mass., them had been there tortured and roasted.

June 1, 1811. See TRIPOLI, WAR WITH. On the morning of Dec. 23 Claiborne ap-

Eben-Ezer or Amana Community, peared before the town. At that moment

A communistic society originating in Ger- a number of friendly half-bloods of both

many at the beginning of the eighteenth sexes were in the square, surrounded by

century. They removed to America in pine-wood, ready to be lighted to consume

1843 and settled near Buffalo, N. Y., but them, and the prophets were busy in their

removed to Iowa in 1855. mummery. The troops advanced in three

Eckford, HENRY, naval constructor; columns. The town was almost surround-
born in Irvine, Scotland, March 12, 1775; ed by swamps and deep ravines, and the
learned his profession with an uncle at Indians, regarding the place as holy, and
Quebec, began business for himself in New having property there of great value,
York in 1796, and soon took the lead in though partially surprised, prepared to
his profession. During the War of 1812- fight desperately. They had conveyed
15 he constructed ships-of-war on the their women and children to a place of
Lakes with great expedition and skill; safety deep in the forest. By a simul-
and soon after the war he built the steam- ta-neous movement, Claiborne s three col-
ship Robert Fulton, in which, in 1822, umns closed upon the town at the same
he made the first successful trip in a craft moment. So unexpected was the attack
of that kind to New Orleans and Havana, that the dismayed Indians broke and fled
Made naval constructor at Brooklyn in before the whole of the troops could get
"820, six ships-of-the-line were built after into action. Weathersford was there. The
his models. Interference of the board of Indians fled in droves along the bank of
naval commissioners caused him to leave the river, and by swimming and the use
the service of the government, but he of canoes they escaped to the other side
afterwards made ships-of-war for Euro- and joined their families in the forest,
pean powers and for the independent Weathersford, when he found himself de-
states of South America. In 1831 he serted by his warriors, fled swiftly on a
built a war- vessel for the Sultan of Tur- horse to a bluff on the river between two
key, and, going to Constantinople, organ- ravines, hotly pursued, when his horse made
ized a navy-yard there, and there he died, a mighty bound from it, and the horse
Nov. 12, 1832. and rider disappeared under the water for

Econochaca, BATTLE AT. Marching a moment, when both arose, Weathersford

from Fort Deposit, in Butler county, Ala. grasping the mane of his charger with one

(December, 1813), General Claiborne, hand and his rifle with the other. He

pushing through the wilderness nearly escaped in safety. Econochaca was plun-

30 miles with horse and foot and friendly dered by the Choctaws and laid in ashes.

179



EDDIS EDGAR

Fully 200 houses were destroyed, and office many of the tea-party disguised

thirty Indians killed. The Tennesseeans themselves, and were there regaled with

lost one killed and six wounded. punch after the exploit at the wharf was

Eddis, WILLIAM, royalist; born in Eng- performed. He began, with Mr. Gill, in

land about 1745; came to America in 1769, 1755, the publication of the Boston Gazette

and settled in Annapolis, Md. He was and Country Journal, which became a

surveyor of customs till the troubles be- very popular newspaper, and did eminent

tween the colonies and the home govern- service in the cause of popular liberty,

ment became so strong that it was unsafe Adams, Hancock, Otis, Quincy, Warren,

for royalists to remain in the country. On and other leading spirits were constant

June 11, 1776, he was ordered, with others, contributors to its columns, while Mr.

by the patriot " Committee of Observa- Edes himself wielded a caustic pen. He

tion," to leave the country before Aug. 1. was in Watertown during the siege of

His time, however, was extended, and he Boston, from which place he issued the

continued in office till April, 1777, when Gazette, the " mouth-piece of the Whigs."

he returned to England. He was the au- It was discontinued in 1798, after a life,

thor of Letters from America. sustained by Edes, of forty years. He

Eddy, RICHARD, author; born in Provi- died in Boston, Dec. 11, 1803.

dence, R. L, June 21, 1828; removed to Edes, HENRY HERBERT, historian; born

Clinton, N. Y., in 1848; studied theology in Charlestown, Mass., March 29, 1849;

there, and was ordained to the ministry of is a member of many historical societies,

the Unitarian Church. In 1861-63 he was and the author of History of the Harvard

chaplain of the 60th New York Regiment; Church in Charlestown; Historical Sketch

in 1878 was elected president of the Uni- of Charlestown; editor of Wyman s

tarian Historical Society; and became edi- Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown;

tor of the Universalist Quarterly. His Foote s Annals of King s Chapel, Boston,

publications include a History of the 60th etc. ; and a contributor to the Memorial

Regiment, Neto York State Volunteers; History of Boston.

Universalism in America, a History ; Alco- Edes, PETER, patriot; born in Boston,

hoi in History; and three sermons on Lin- Mass., Dec. 17, 1756; educated at the

coin, entitled The Martyr to Liberty. Boston Latin School. Shortly after the

Eden, CHARLES, colonial governor; battle of Bunker Hill he was impris-

born in England in 1673; appointed gov- oned by General Gage, who charged him

ernor of North Carolina, July 13, 1713. with having fire-arms concealed in his

During his administration he arrested house. He spent 107 days in a room of

the pirate Edward Teach, usually called the Boston jail. He was the publisher

" Black-Beard." He died in North Caro- of an edition of the Fifth of March Ora-

lina, March 17, 1722. lions; also an oration on Washington.

Eden, SIR ROBERT, royal governor; born In 1837 the diary of his imprisonment,

in Durham, England. Succeeding Gov- containing a list of the prisoners capt-

ernor Sharpe as royal governor of Mary- ured at Bunker Hill, was published in

land in 1768, he was more moderate in Bangor, and a letter about the "Boston

his administration than his predecessors, tea-party," addressed to his grandson, ap-

He complied with the orders of Congress pears in the Proceedings of the Massa-

to abdicate the government. He went to chusetts Historical Society. He died in

England, and at the close of the war re- Bangor, Me., March 30, 1840.

turned to recover his estate in Maryland. Edgar, HENRY CORNELIUS, clergyman;

He had married a sister of Lord Balti- born in Rahway, N. J., April 11, 1811;

more, and was created a baronet, Oct. 19, graduated at Princeton College in 1831;

1776. He died in Annapolis, Md., Sept. 2, became a merchant; was licensed to

1786. preach by the Presbyterian Church in

Edes, BENJAMIN, journalist; horn in 1845. During the Civil War he spoke

Charlestown, Mass., Oct. 14, 1732; was forcibly against slavery. His published

captain of the Ancient and Honorable Ar- orations and sermons include Three Lect-

tillery Company in 1760, and one of the ures on Slavery; Four Discourses Occa-

Bos^on Sons of Liberty. In his printing- sioned ly the Death of Lincoln; An Ex-

IPO



EDGREN EDISON



position of the Last JVwie Wars; Chris- the news headings of his papers. The re-
tianity our Nation s Wisest Policy; A lations which he thus formed with tele-
Discourse Occasioned by the Death of graph operators awakened a desire to
President Garfield> etc. He died in Easton, learn telegraphy. Not content with the
Pa., Dec. 23, 1884. opportunities offered by the railway tele-

Edgren, AUGUST HJALMAR, author: graph, he, with a neighbor who had simi-
born in Wermland, Sweden, Oct. 18, lar inclinations, built a line a mile long
1840; graduated at the University of Up- through a wood which separated their
sola; came to the United States, and homes. Edison made the instruments, but
joined the National army in January, having no way of getting a battery felt
1802; was promoted first lieutenant and at a loss as to how he should proceed. He
assigned to the Engineer Corps in An- soon thought of a novel expedient, but
gust, 1863. Soon after he returned to its application proved a total failure.
Sweden. His publications include The Lit- Having noticed that electric sparks were
eraturc of America; The Public Schools generated by rubbing a cat s back, he fas-
and Colleges of the United States; Amer- tened a wire to a cat s leg, and rubbing
ican Antiquities, etc. its fur briskly, watched for an effect upon

Edict of Nantes, THE, an edict pro- the instrument, but none followed. While
mulgated by Henry IV. of France, which engaged in commercial telegraphy in Cin-
gave toleration to the Protestants in cinnati in 1867, he conceived the idea of
feuds, civil and religious, and ended the transmitting two messages over one wire
religious wars of the country. It was at the same time, totally ignorant that
published April 13, 1598, and was con- this had been attempted by electricians
firmed by Louis XIII. in 1610, after the many years before. He continued to make
murder of his father; also by Louis XIV. experiments in every branch of telegraphy,
in 1652; but it was revoked by him, Oct. attending to his office duties at night and
22, 1685. It was a great state blunder, experimenting in the daytime. In 1869
for it deprived France of 500,000 of her he retired from the operator s table, and,
best citizens, who fled into Germany, Eng- leaving Boston, where he was then em-
land, and America, and gave those coun
tries the riches that flow from industry,
skill, and sobriety. They took with them
to England the art of silk-weaving, and
so gave France an important rival in that
branch of industry.

Edison, THOMAS ALVA, electrician;
born in Milan, O., Feb. 11, 1847. He was
taught by his mother till he was twelve
years old, when he began work as a news
paper boy, obtaining an exclusive contract
tor the sale of newspapers on the Detroit
division of the Grand Trunk Railway. He
continued at this work for five years.
Meanwhile he bought a small printing
outfit, which he carried on the train, and
by which he printed a small weekly paper,
Called The Grand Trunk Herald. Its sub
scription list showed 450 names. When
the Civil War broke out the enormous in
crease in newspaper traffic confined his

whole attention to that branch of his busi- ployed, wont to New York with original
ness. He conceived and carried out the apparatus for duplex and printing teleg-
idea of having large bulletin-boards set raphy, the latter being the basis of nearly
up at every station along the line of the all the subsequent Gold and Stock Ex-
railroad, on which he caused to be chalked change telegraph reporting instruments,
by telegraph operators and station agents In New York he soon formed an alliance

181




fHOMAS ALVA KDISOV.



EDMONDS EDUCATION




GEOKGK FRANKLIN EDMUNDS.



with electricians and manufacturers, and, elusion of twenty-five years of uninter-
after a few years of varied experience with rupted service. In 1897 he was chosen
partners in the laboratory and in the shop, chairman of the monetary commission
he removed to Menlo Park, N. J., in 1876,
where he established himself on an inde
pendent footing, with everything which
could contribute to or facilitate invention
and research. In 1886 Mr. Edison bought
property in Llewellyn Park, Orange, N.
J., and later removed there from Menlo
Park. His inventions are many and
varied. His contributions to the develop
ment of telegraphy are represented by
sixty patents and caveats assigned to the
Gold and Stock Telegraph Company of
New York, and fifty to the Automatic
Telegraphy Company. His inventions in
clude the incandescent electric light, the
carbon telegraph transmitter, the micro-
tasimeter for the detection of small
changes in the temperature; the mega
phone, to magnify sound ; the phonograph,
the patent of which he sold for $1,000,000;
the aerophone ; the kinetoscope, etc. On
Sept. 27, 1889, he was made a Chevalier
of the Legion of Honor by the French gov
ernment, appointed by the Indianapolis monetary

Edmonds, JOHN WORTH, lawyer; born conference, which reported to Congress a
in Hudson, N. Y., March 13, 1799; grad- scheme of currency reform,
uated at Union College in 1816; ad- Education. Popular education made
mitted to the bar in 1819; elected to the rapid progress in the United States dur-
New York Assembly in 1831, and the New ing the nineteenth century. In 1776 there
York Senate in 1832; became a circuit were seven colleges in the English-
judge in 1845, and was appointed to the American colonies, and the common
Court of Appeals in 1852. He was the schools were few and very inferior. At
author of Spiritualism; Letters and the end of the school year, 1898-99, the
Tracts on Spiritualism, besides a number population of the country was estimated
of law books. He died in New York Cily, at 76,000,000, of which 20y 2 per cent.
April 5, 1874. was enrolled in the public elementary

Edmunds, GEORGE FRANKLIN, states- and high schools, or 15,138,715; and the
man; born in Richmond, Vt., Feb. 1, total in all schools, elementary, second-
1 828 ; took an early and active part in ary, and higher, both public and private,
Vermont politics, serving several terms in was 16,738,362. Of the total enrolment,
both houses of the legislature; was 10,389,407 were in average daily attend-
speaker of the House of Representatives ance in the public schools. There was a
and president pro tern, of the Senate. In total of 415,660 teachers (males, 131,793;
1866 he entered the United States Senate females, 283,867), to whom $128,662,880
as a Republican, and till 1891 was one was paid in salaries. All public-school
of the foremost men in Congress. Towards property had a value of $524,689,255. The
the close of his senatorial career he was receipts of the school-year were $194,-
the author of the acts of 1882 and 1887 998,237; the expenditures, exclusive, of
for the suppression of polygamy and the payments on bonded debts, $197,281,603.
regulation of affairs in Utah, and of the The expenditure per capita of population
anti-trust law (1890). In 1886 he framed was $2.67, and the average daily expendi-
tlie act for counting the electoral vote, ture per pupil, 13.3 cents. These figures
He resigned his seat in 1891 at the con- exclude statistics of the education of the

182



EDUCATION



blind, the deaf, and other defective
classes, which are treated separately in
this work, and also SECONDARY SCHOOLS
(q. v.).

Education, AMERICAN PUBLIC. See
HOLLAND, JOSIAII GILBERT.

Education, CHAUTAUQUA SYSTEM OF.
See CHAUTAUQUA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION.

Education, ELEMENTARY. WILLIAM
TORREY HARRIS (q. v.), the U. S. Com
missioner of Education since 1889, one of
the highest authorities on the subject of
education, writes as follows:

At the meeting in 1892 the National
Educational Association appointed a com
mittee of ten persons to consider and re
port upon the subjects of study and the
methods of instruction in secondary
schools, including public high schools,
private academies, and schools preparing
students for college. President Eliot, of
Harvard, was appointed chairman, with
nine associates, four of whom were presi
dents of colleges, one a professor in a col
lege, two principals of public high
schools, and one head master of a pre
paratory school. This committee of ten,
as it is generally called, had author
ity to select the members of special con
ferences and to arrange meetings for the
discussion of the principal subjects taught
in preparatory schools. The subjects rep
resented were Latin, Greek, English, other
modern languages, mathematics, natural
philosophy (including physics, astronomy,
and chemistry), natural history (and
biology, including botany, zoology, and
physiology), history (including also civil
government and political economy),
geography (including physical geography,
geology, and meteorology). The National
Educational Association appropriated the
sum of $2,500 towards defraying the ex
penses of the conferences.

The report was completed and pub
lished in the spring of 1894. Thirty
thousand copies were distributed by the
national bureau of education, and since
then edition after edition has been print
ed and sold by the National Educational
Association through an agent.

No educational document before pub
lished in this country has been more
widely read or has excited more helpful
discussion. The secondary instruction of



the country has been considered to be the
weakest part of the entire system, al
though it is conceded on all hands that
the teachers in secondary schools are, on
the average, much superior in profes
sional and general culture to the teachers
in elementary schools, if not to those in
colleges. The reason for this defect in
secondary schools has been found in the
course of study. A majority of the pub
lic high schools and a larger majority of
the private academies dilute their sec
ondary course of study by continuing ele
mentary studies beyond their proper limit.
Arithmetic, descriptive geography, gram
mar, history of one s native country, lit
erature written in the colloquial vocabu
lary, are each and all very nourishing to
the mind when first begun, but their edu



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 28 of 76)