Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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cative value is soon exhausted. The
mind needs for its continuous develop
ment more advanced branches, such as
algebra and geometry, physical geogra
phy, a foreign language, general history.
But for these the secondary school often
substitutes other branches that involve no
new methods nor more complex ideas.
and the pupil stops in the elementary
stage of growth.

The influence of the report of the com
mittee of ten has been to impel secondary
schools towards the choice of well-bal
anced courses of study containing subjects
which belong essentially to secondary edu
cation, like algebra, Latin, or physics ; and
at the same time either to discontinue
elementary branches, or to apply to the
study of these a superior method, by which
their principles are traced into higher
branches and explained.

The success of the report of the com
mittee of ten has been such as to arouse
eager interest in a similar inquiry into
the work of the elementary schools. Al
ready, in February, 1893, a committee
had been appointed by the department of
superintendence in the National Educa
tional Association. It was made to con
sist of fifteen members instead of ten,
and has been known as the committee of

The report of this committee of fif
teen was submitted to the department
of superintendents at the meeting in 1895.
Tt is the object of this paper to indicate
briefly the points that give it importance.



If one were to summarize concisely the who, in most cases, controls the licensing

history of educational progress in the of teachers in rural districts.
United States for the nineteenth century With the advent of the professional

as regards the elementary schools, he teacher and the expert supervisor, there

would say that there has been a change has arrived an era of experiment and agi-

from the ungraded school in the sparsely tation for reforms.

settled district to the graded school of The general trend of school reforms may

the city and large village. The ungraded be characterized as in the direction of se-

school held a short session of three or curing the interest of the pupil. All the

four months, was taught by a makeshift new devices h~ave in view the awakening

te~acher, had mostly individual instruc- of the pupil s inner spring of action. He

tion, with thirty or forty recitations to is to be interested and made to act along

be heard and five minutes or less of the lines of rational culture through his own

teacher s time per day for each. impulse. The older methods looked less

The graded school has classified its to interesting the pupil than to disciplin-
pupils according to the degree of advance- ing the will in rational forms. " Make
ment and assigns two classes to a teacher, the pupil familiar with self - sacrifice,
Instead of five minutes for a recitation, make it a second nature to follow the be-
there are twenty or thirty minutes, and hest of duty and heroically stifle selfish
the teacher has an opportunity to go be- desires " this was their motto, expressed
hind the words of the book and by discus- or implied. It was an education ad-
sion and questioning probe the lesson, find dressed primarily to the will. The new
what the pupil really understands and education is addressed to the feelings and
can explain in his own words. Each mem- desires. Its motto is : " Develop the
ber of the class learns more from the an- pupil through his desires and interests."
swers of his fellow-pupils and from the Goethe preached this doctrine in his Wil-
cross-questioning of the teacher than he helm Meister. Froebel founded the
could learn from a lesson of equal length kindergarten system on it. Colonel
with a tutor entirely devoted to himself. Parker s Quincy school experiment was,

The graded school continues for ten and his Cook County Normal School is,
months instead of three, and employs or a centre for the promulgation of this
may employ a professional educated teach- idea. Those who advocate an extension
er. This is the most important item of of the system of elective studies in the
progress to be mentioned in the history colleges and its introduction even into
of our education. Normal schools, 200 secondary and elementary schools justify
in number, have been created in the va- it by the principle of interest,
rious States, and it is estimated that the It is noteworthy that this word " in-
cities, large and small, have an average terest " is the watchword of the disciples
of 50 per cent, of professionally trained of the Herbartian system of pedagogy,
teachers, while the ungraded schools in Herbart, in his psychology, substituted
the rural districts are taught by persons desire for will. He recognizes intellect
who leave their regular vocations and re- and feeling and desire (Begierde). De-
sort to teaching for a small portion of the sire is, of course, a species of feeling
year. for feeling includes sensations and desires,

The urban and suburban population, the former allied to the intellect and the

counting in the large villages, is at pres- latter to the will. But sensation is not

ent about 50 per cent, of the population yet intellect, nor is desire will ; both are

of the whole country. only feeling.

- One improvement leads to another, and I have described and illustrated this

where the graded school has been estab- general trend of school reform in order

lished with its professionally trained to show its strength and its weakness,

teachers it has been followed by the ap- and to indicate the province marked out

pointment of experts as superintendents, for a report that should treat of the

until over 800 cities and towns in the branches of study and the methods of in-

nation have such supervision. The fifty struction in the elementary school and

States have each a State superintendent, suggest improvement.



While the old education in its exclusive regarding schools for the training of
devotion to will-training has slighted the teachers is seen when one recalls to mind
intellect and the heart (or feelings), the the fact that the entire upward movement
new education moves likewise towards an of the elementary schools has been in-
extreme as bad, or worse. It slights di- itiated and sustained by the employment
rect will-culture and tends to exaggerate of professionally trained teachers, and
impulse and inclination or interest. An that the increase of urban population has
educational psychology that degrades will made it possible. In the normal school
to desire must perforce construct an the candidate is taught the history of
elaborate system for the purpose of de- education, the approved methods of in-
veloping moral interests and desires, struction, and the grounds of each
This, however, does not quite succeed until branch of study as they are to be found
the old doctrine of self-sacrifice for the in the sciences that it presupposes,
sake of the good is reached. The method of eliminating politics

from the control of a city school svstem is

Our wills are ours, to make them thine. discussed in Judge Draper 8 frank and

The philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita persuasive style, and a plan in essential
holds that the goal of culture is to anni- particulars similar to that adopted in
hilate all interest and attain absolute in- the city of Cleveland is recommended for
difference this is adopted by Buddhism trial in all large cities. A small school-
in the doctrine of Nirvana. Indian re- board of five or ten members is appointed
nunciation reaches the denial of selfhood, by the mayor, which, in turn, elects a
while the Christian doctrine of renunci- school-director (but this officer may also
ation reaches only to the denial of selfish- be appointed by the mayor), who takes
ness and the adoption of altruistic in- charge of the business side of the manage-
terests. ment of schools. For the professional

However this may be, the pedagogic im- side of the work a superintendent is ap-
pulse to create devices for awakening the pointed by the school-director, with the
interest of the pupil becomes sometimes approval of two-thirds or three-fourths
a craze for novelty. Change at any price of the school-board. The terms of office
and change of any kind is clamored for. suggested are, respectively, for the mem-
It is a trite saying that change is not bers of the school-board appointed by the
progress. It is more apt to be movement mayor, five years ; for the school-director,
in a circle or even retrogression. An five years; for the superintendent, five
amusing example was lately furnished in to ten years. The superintendent ap-
educational circles. A superintendent of points all teachers from an eligible list
rural schools defended their want of classi- of candidates whose qualifications are de-
fication as an advantage. It was " individ- fined by the school-board,
ual instruction," and, as such, an improve- This plan of government is based on
ment over that of the graded school of the idea of the importance of personal
the cities. His reactionary movement re- responsibility at all points in the ad-
ceived the support of some of the advo- ministration. Only an actual trial can
cates of educational reform on the ground determine its strength or weakness. All
that it was a new departure. This hap- plans, as Judge Draper well says, pre-
pened at a time when one-half of the suppose a public spirit and a moral sense
school children in the United States are on the part of the people; they presuppose
still taught, or rather allowed to memo- a sincere desire for good schools and a fair
rize their text-books, by this method. knowledge of what good schools are and of

The sub-committees on training of the best means of creating them. Where

teachers and on organization of city the whole people possesses political power,

school systems have brought forward, in the intelligent and virtuous citizens must

their respective reports, the latest de- exert a continual influence or else the

vised measures for the perfection of nor- demagogues will come into office. For the

mal schools and the procurement of ex- natural representative of the weakling

pert supervisors for city school systems, classes is the demagogue. Whether the

The importance of the recommendations citizen is weak in intellect, or thrift, or



morals, it is all the same; he will vote peal to experimental psychology in dealing
for the demagogue as ruler. with the question of the time devoted to
The report on the correlation of studies the several branches. For example, it
is an attempt to reconcile the old and the often discusses the danger of too much
new in education by discovering what in thoroughness of drill in teaching and the
the course of study is or should be perma- use of processes that become mechanical
nent and what in the nature of things is after some time. The rapid addition of
transient. It admits the claims of the new numbers, the study of the geometrical
education, as to making the appeal to the solids, the identification of the colors of
child s interest paramount, so far as this the spectrum, the reading of insipid pieces
relates to the methods of instruction, but written in the colloquial vocabulary, the
it finds a limit to this in the matters to memorizing of localities and dates; all
be taught. It discusses the educational these things may be continued so long un-
value of the five principal factors of the der the plea of " thoroughness " as to para-
course of study in order to determine lyze the mind, or fix it in some stage of ar-
clearly where the proposed new branches rested growth.

of study belong and what they add to the The committee have been at much pains

old curriculum. These five components of to point out the importance of leaving a

a course of study are: (1) Grammar, as a branch of study when it has been studied

study of the structure of language; (2) long enough to exhaust its educational

Literature, as a study of the art form of value. It is shown in the case of arithme-

language literature as furnishing a reve- tic that it ought to be replaced by algebra

lation of human nature in all its types; two years earlier than is the custom in

(3) Mathematics, as furnishing the laws the public schools at present. The arith-
of matter in movement and rest the laws metical method should not be used to solve
grounded in the nature of space and time; the class of problems that are more easily

(4) Geography, as a compend of natural solved by algebra. So, too, it is contended
and social science unfolding later, in that English grammar should be discon-
secondary and higher education, into tinued at the close of the seventh year,
geology, botany, zoology, meteorology on and French, German, or Latin preferably
the one hand, and into anthropology and the last substituted for it. The edu-
sociology, economics and politics on the cative value of a study on its psychological
other; (5) History, as showing the origin side is greatest at the beginning. The
and growth of institutions, especially of first six months in the study of algebra
the state. It appears that these five or Latin it is claimed that even the first
branches cover the two worlds of man and four weeks are more valuable than the
nature, and that all theoretical studies fall same length of time later on. For the
within these lines. This is the correlation first lessons make one acquainted with a
of study. Each essential branch has some new method of viewing things,
educational value that another does not In recommending the introduction of
possess. Each branch also serves the func- Latin and algebra into the seventh and
tion of correlating the child to his environ- eighth years of the elementary school
ment namely, to the two worlds of course, the committee are in accord with
nature and human society. the committee of ten, who urged the

Hitherto, we are told in this report, earlier commencement of the secondary

the course of study has been justified on course of study.

psychological grounds " literature culti- The committee urge strongly the subor-
vates the memory and the imagination " ; dination of elocution and grammar in the
" arithmetic the reason," etc. But each reading exercises to the study of the con-
branch has in some measure a claim on tents of the literary work of art, holding
all the faculties. Arithmetic cultivates that the best lesson learned at school is
the memory of quantity, the imagination the mastery of a poetic gem or a selection
of successions, and the reason in a peculiar from a great prose writer. It is contend-
figure of the syllogism different from the ed that the selections found in the school
three figures used in qualitative reasoning, readers often possess more literary unity

The report, however, makes frequent ap- than the whole works from which they



were taken, as in the case of Byron s Bat- called Fort Lyman after their commander.

tie of Waterloo from Childe Harold. The A garrison of 2,500 men under the Earl of

importance of studying the unity of a London, and later under General Webb,

work of art is dwelt upon in different made several expeditions against Canada,

parts of the report, and the old method After Munro s defeat at FORT WILLIAM

of parsing works of art censured. HENRY (q. v.) the remnant of the Amer-

An example of the Herbartian correla- ican army fled to Fort Edward. During
tion is found in the method recommended Burgoyne s advance in July, 1777, General
for teaching geography namely, that the Schuyler sought shelter here. See Hue-
industrial and commercial idea should be BARDTON, BATTLE OF: McCREA, JANE.
the centre from which the pupil moves Edward VII., ALBERT EDWARD, King
out in two directions from the supply of of Great Britain and Emperor of India;
his needs for food, clothing, shelter, and born in Buckingham Palace, Nov. 9,
culture he moves out on the side of nat- 1841; eldest son of Queen Victoria and
ure to the "elements of difference," that Ihe Prince Consort; created Prince of
is to say, to the differences of climate, soil, Wales and Earl of Chester a month after
productions, and races of men, explaining his birth: educated by private tutors,
finally by geology, astronomy, and meteor- at Christ Church, Oxford, and at Cam-
ology how these differences arose. On the bridge. In 1800, under the guidance of
other hand, he moves towards the study the Duke of Newcastle, he visited the
of man, in his sociology, history, and United States, where he received an en-
economics, discovering what means the thusiastic welcome. President Buchanan
race has invented to overcome those " ele- and his official family extended to him
ments of difference " and supply the mani- a grand entertainment at the national
fold wants of man wherever he lives by capital, and the cities which he visited
making him participant in the produc- vied with one another in paying him
tions of all climes through the world com- high honors. The courtesies so generous-
merce. ly extended to him laid the foundation

Likewise in the study of general his- for the strong friendship which he always

tory the committee suggest that the old afterwards manifested for Americans,

method of beginning with the earliest ages After this trip he travelled in Germany,

be discontinued and that a regressive Italy, and the Holy Land. In 1863 he

method be adopted, proceeding from married the Princess Alexandra, daughter

United States history back to English of Christian IX., King of Denmark, and

history, and thence to Rome, Greece, and after his marriage he made prolonged

Judea, and the other sources of our civili- tours in many foreign countries, most

zation. notably in Egypt and Greece in 1869, and

In contrast to this genuine correlation in British India in 1875-76. He has al-

the report describes an example of what ways been exceedingly fond of out-door

it calls "artificial correlation" where sports and athletics in general, and has

Robinson Crusoe or some literary work of kept himself in close touch with his peo-

art is made the centre of study for a con- pie. On the death of Queen Victoria,

siderable period of time, and geography, Jan. 22, 1901, he succeeded to the throne,

arithmetic, and other branches taught in- and was formally proclaimed king and

cidontally in connection with it. emperor at St. James s Palace, London,

Educational Land Grants. The United on the 24th.

States has granted nearly 100,000,000 Edward, FORT, a defensive work built

acres to the individual States for educa- by the New England troops in 1755 on the

tional endowments, or the erection of east bank of the Hudson River, 45 miles

schools and colleges. In many instances north of Albany.

these grants were mismanaged, but in Edwards, JONATHAN, theologian; born

others they have proved of great service, in East Windsor, Conn., Oct. 5, 1703;

Edward, FORT, on the Hudson River, graduated at Yale College in 1720, having

forty-five miles north of Albany; built by begun to study Latin when he was six

the 6,000 New England troops in the years of age. He is said to have reasoned

French and Indian war in 1755; originally out for himself his doctrine of free-will



before he left college, at the age of seven- fice i>atil its organization as a State in
teen. He began preaching to a Prenby- 1818. From 1818 till 1824 he was United
terian congregation before he was twenty States Senator, and from 1826 to 1830
years old, and became assistant to his governor of the State. He did much, by
grandfather, Rev. Mr. Stoddard, minister promptness and activity, to restrain Indian
at Northampton, Mass., whom he sue- hostilities in the Illinois region during the
ceeded as pastor. He was dismissed in War of 1812. He died in Belleville, 111.,
1750, because he insisted upon a purer July 20, 1833. See A. B. PLOT.
and higher standard of admission to the Edwards, OLIVER, military officer; born

in Springfield, Mass., Jan. 30, 1835; was
commissioned first lieutenant in the 10th
Massachusetts Volunteers at the outbreak
of the Civil War, and was promoted brig
adier-general, May 19, 1865, for " con
spicuous gallantry." He received the
surrender of Petersburg, Va., and com
manded Forts Hamilton and Lafayette, in
New York Harbor, during the draft riots
of 1863. He was mustered out of the
army in 1866.

Edwards, PIERREPONT, jurist; born in
Northampton, Mass., April 8, 1750; the
youngest son of Jonathan Edwards, Sr. ;
graduated at the College of New Jersey
in 1768. His youth was spent among
the Stockbridge Indians, where his father
was missionary, and he acquired the
language perfectly. He became an emi
nent lawyer ; espoused the cause of the

communion - table. Then he began his patriots, and fought for liberty in the
missionary work (1751) among the Stock- army of the Revolution. He was a mem-
bridge Indians, and prepared his greatest ber of the Congress of the Confederation
work, on The Freedom of the Will, which in 1787-88, and in the Connecticut con-
was published in 1751. He was inaugu- vention warmly advocated the adoption of
rated president of the College of hjw the national Constitution. He was judge
Jersey, in Princeton, Feb. 16, 1758, and of the United States District Court in
died of small-pox, March 22, 1758. He Connecticut at the time of his father s
married Sarah Pierrepont, of New Haven, death. Mr. Edwards was the founder of
in 1727, and they became the grand- the "Toleration party" in Connecticut,
parents of Aaron Burr. which made him exceedingly unpopular

Edwards, NINIAX, jurist; born in with the Calvinists. He died in Bridge-
Montgomery county, Md., in March, 1775. port, Conn., April 5, 1826.
William Wirt directed his early educa- Egbert, HARRY C., military officer ; born
tion, which was finished at Dickinson Col- in Pennsylvania, Jan. 3, 1839; joined the
lege, and in 1819 he settled in the Green 12th United States Infantry, Sept. 23,
Eiver district of Kentucky. Before he 1861 ; served with distinction in the ac-
\vas twenty-one he became a member of tions of Gaines s Mills, Malvern Hill, Cedar
the Kentucky legislature; was admitted Mountain, Gettysburg, etc. He was taken
to the bar in Kentucky in 1798, and to prisoner at Cedar Mountain and at Get-
that of Tennessee the next year, and rose tysburg, and was seriously wounded at
very rapidly in his profession. He passed Bethesda Church. When the war with
through the offices of circuit judge and Spain broke out he was lieutenant-colonel
judge of appeals to the bench of chief-jus- of the 6th United States Infantry, which
lice of Kentucky in 1808. The next year he commanded in the Santiago campaign
he was appointed the first governor of the until he was shot through the body at
Territory of Illinois, and retained that of- El Caney, July 1, 1898. He was pro-



moted colonel of the 22d Infantry, and
before his wound was completely healed
sailed for the Philippine Islands. He ar
rived at Manila with his command, March
4, 1899, and while leading a charge
against Malinta he received a wound,
from which he died March 26 following.

Eggleston, EDWARD, author; born in
Vevay, Ind., Dec. 10, 1837; was mainly
self-educated; later became a minister
in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His
publications of a historical character in
clude History of the United States and
Its People; Household History of the
United States and Its People; A First
Book of American History; and The Be
ginners of a Nation. He died at Lake
George, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1902.

Eggleston, GEORGE CARY, author; born
in Vevay, Ind., Nov. 26, 1839; brother of
Edward Eggleston ; began the practice of
law in Virginia; served in the Confed
erate army during the Civil War, and
then removed to the West. His publica
tions include Red Eagle and the War
ivith the Creek Indians; Strange Stories
from History; an edition of Haydn s Dic
tionary of Dates; and compilations of
American War Ballads and Southern Sol
dier Stories.

Eggleston, JOSEPH, military officer;
born in Amelia county, Va., Nov. 24, 1754;
was graduated at William and Mary Col
lege in 1776; joined the cavalry of the
American army; became captain, and ac
quired the reputation of being an officer
of great efficiency. In 1781 he displayed
remarkable bravery in the action of Guil-

ford Court-house and in the siege of Au
gusta; later in the same year he won the
first success in the battle of Eutaw by a
well-directed blow against the vanguard
of the British column. He held a seat
in Congress in 1798-1801. He died in

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 29 of 76)