Benson John Lossing.

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was imprisoned in Salem as a witch, and
although the practice of punishing sup
posed witches was meeting with public dis
approbation the superstitious party clam
ored for her conviction. She was tried
in Charlestown, Mass., in February, 1693,
and was acquitted. Later her persecutor,
Minister Parris, was driven out of Salem.

Daughters of Liberty, a society of
women founded in Boston in 1769, pledg
ing themselves to refrain from buying
English goods.

Daughters of the American Revolu
tion, a society organized in Washington,
D. C., Oct. 11, 1890. All women above
eighteen years of age who are descended
from patriots, soldiers, sailors, or civil
officers who supported the cause of inde
pendence, are eligible to membership. In
1900 there were 492 State chapters in
fourteen States and Territories, in the
District of Columbia, and in Hawaii, with
a total membership of about 27,000. The
president-general was Mrs. Daniel Man
ning; recording secretary - general, Mrs.
Albert Ackers, Nashville, Tenn. The
membership was reported as 35,092 in
February, 1901.

Daughters of the Confederacy, an
organization established in Nashville,
Tenn., Sept. 10, 1894. Its membership
consists of the widows, wives, mothers,
sisters, and lineal female descendants of
the men who served in the Confederate
army and navy, or who were connected
in any way with the Confederate cause.
The objects of the society, as declared in

the constitution, are "social, literary, his
torical, monumental, benevolent, and hon
orable in every degree." In 1900 there
were 400 chapters in the United States,
North and South, with about 8,000 mem
bers. The president was Mrs. Kate Cabell
Currie, Dallas, Tex.; recording secretary,
Mrs. John P. Hickman, Nashville, Tenn.

Daughters of the King, THE, a re
ligious society of the Protestant Episco
pal Church, founded in New York City,
Easter evening, 1885. It is often con
fused with the KING S DAUGHTERS ( q. v. ) ,
a society from which it differs in many
lespects. Its chief purposes are to aid
rectors in their parish work and to ex
tend Christianity among young women.
In 1900 the president of the council was
Mrs. E. A. Bradley; secretary, Miss
Elizabeth L. Ryerson. The office of the
council is in the Church Missions House,
281 Fourth Avenue, New York City.

Daughters of the Revolution, an
organization established in New York
City, Aug. 20, 1891. Any woman is
eligible for membership who is a lineal
descendant of a military, naval, or marine
officer, or of a soldier or marine or sailor
in actual service under the authority of
any State or colony or of the Continental
Congress, or of the Congress of any of the
colonies or States, or of a signer of the
Declaration of Independence, or of a mem
ber of the Continental Congress, or of any
colonial or State Congress, and of any
other recognized official who supported
the cause of American independence.
State societies exist in a large number of
States. In 1900 the president-general
was Mrs. Henry Sanger Snow; recording
secretary-general, Mrs. L. D. Gallison.
The office of the general society is at 156
Fifth Avenue, New York.

Davenant, SIR WILLIAM, dramatist and
poet; born in Oxford, England, in 1605;
son of an innkeeper, at whose house
Shakespeare often stopped while on his
journeys between Stratford and London,
and who noticed the boy. Young Davenant
left college without a degree. Showing
much literary talent, he was encouraged
in writing plays by persons of distinction,
and on the death of Ben Jonson in 1637
he was made poet-laureate. He adhered
to the royal cause during the civil war
in England, and escaped to France, where



he became a Roman Catholic. After the spiritual retreats for the laity. In 1800

death of his King he projected (1651) a he accepted a professorship in the College

colony of French people in Virginia, the of St. Mary s; in 1810 went West and

only American province that adhered to founded the St. Thomas Theological

royalty, and, with a vessel filled with Seminary in Bardstown, Ky. ; and in 1823

French men, women, and children, he secured a charter from the Kentuckv

sailed for Virginia. The ship was capt- legislature raising the institution he had

ured by a parliamentary cruiser, and the founded to the grade of a university. He

passengers were landed in England, where died in Bardstown, Ky., in 1841.

the life of Sir William was spared, it is be- Davidson, GEORGE, astronomer ; born in

lieved, by the intervention of John Milton, Nottingham, England, May 9, 1825; came

the poet, who was Cromwell s Latin secre- to the United States in 1832; gradu-

tary. Sir William had a strong personal ated at the Central High School, Phila-

resemblance to Shakespeare, and it was delphia, in 1845; engaged in geodetic field

currently believed that he was a natural and astronomical work in the Eastern

son of the great dramatist. This idea Sir States in 1845-50, and then went to San

William encouraged. He died in April, 1G68. Francisco, and became eminent in the

Davenport, HENRY KALLOCK, naval coast survey of the Pacific; retiring after

officer; born in Savannah, Ga., Dec. 10, fifty years of active service in June, 1895.

1820; joined the navy in 1838; command- He then became Professor of Geography in

ed the steamer Hetzel in 1861-64; took the University of California. Of his

part in~the engagements on James River numerous publications, The Coast Pilot

and off Roanoke Island; and was promoted of California, Oregon, and Washington;

captain in 1868. He died in Franzensbad, and The Coast Pilot of Alaska are uni-

Bohemia, Aug. 18, 1872. versally known and esteemed.

Davenport, JOHN, colonist; born in Davidson, JOHN WYNN, military

Coventry, England, in 1597. Educated at officer; born in Fairfax county, Va., Aug.

Oxford, he entered the ministry of the Es- 18, 1824; graduated at West Point in

tablished Church. He finally became a 1845, entering the dragoons. Accompany-

Non-conformist, was persecuted, and re- ing Kearny to California in 1846, he

tired to Holland, where he engaged in was in the principal battles of the war

secular teaching in a private school. He with Mexico. He was also active in

returned to London and came to America New Mexico, afterwards, against the Ind-

in June, 1637, where he was received with ians. In 1861 he was made major of

great respect. The next year he assisted cavalry, and early in 1862 brigadier-

in founding the New Haven colony, and general of volunteers, commanding a bri-

was one of the chosen " seven pillars " gade in the Army of the Potomac. After

(see NEW HAVEN). He concealed GofTe serving in the campaign on the Peninsula,

and Whalley, two of the "regicides," in he was transferred (August, 1862) to the

his house, and by his preaching induced Department of the Mississippi, and co-

the people to protect them from the King s operated with General Steele in the capt-

commissioners sent over to arrest them ure of Little Rock, Ark. He was brevet-

(see REGICIDES). In 1668 he was or- ted major-general of volunteers in March,

daihed minister of the first church in 1865; promoted to lieutenant-colonel,

Boston, and left New Haven. He was the 10th Cavalry, in 1866; was Professor of

author of several controversial pamphlets, Military Science in Kansas Agricultural

and of A Discourse about Civil Govern- College in 1868-71; promoted to colonel,

mcnt in a Nciv Plantation. He died in 2d Cavalry, in 1879. He died in St. Paul,

Boston, March 15, 1670. Minn., June 26, 1881.

David, JEAN BAPTIST, clergyman; born Davidson, WILLIAM, military officer;

in France, in 1761; educated at the born in Lancaster county, Pa., in 1746;

Diocesan Seminary of Nantes ; became a was appointed major in one of the North

priest in 1785; came to the United States Carolina regiments at the outbreak of

in 1792; and was superintendent of mis- the Revolution; took part in the battles

sions in lower Maryland. He was the of Brandywine, Germantown, and Mon-

first priest in America to establish mouth; commissioned brigadier-general;



and was at Cowan s Ford, N. 0., Feb. 1, and able supporter. In 1709 lie was gov-
1781, when the British army under Corn- ernor of North Carolina, but was soon
wallis forced a passage. During the fight afterwards sent as one of the envoys to
General Davidson was killed. the French Directory. Very soon after

Davie, WILLIAM RICHARDSON, military his return he withdrew from public life,
officer; born near Whitehaven, England, In March, 1813, he was appointed a ma-
June 20, 1756; came to America in 1764 jor-general, but declined the service on
with his father, and settled in South account of bodily infirmities. He died in
Carolina with his uncle, who educated Camden, S. C., Nov. 8, 1820.
him at the College of New Jersey (where Davis, ANDREW JACKSON, spiritualist;

born in Blooming Grove, Orange co., N. Y.,
Aug. 11, 1826. While a shoemaker s ap
prentice in Poughkeepsie, early in 1843,
remarkable clairvoyant powers were de
veloped in him by the manipulation of
mesmeric influences by William Leving-
ston. He was quite uneducated, yet while
under the influence of mesmerism or ani
mal magnetism he would discourse fluent
ly and in proper language on medical,
psychological, and general scientific sub
jects. While in a magnetic or trance
state he made medical diagnoses and gave
prescriptions. In March, 1844, he fell
into a trance state without any previous
manipulations, during which he con
versed for sixteen hours, as he alleged,
with invisible beings, and received inti
mations and instructions concerning the
position he was afterwards to occupy as
a teacher from the interior state. In
1845, while in this state, he dictated to
Rev. William Fishbough his first and
most considerable work, The Principles of

he graduated in 1776), and adopted him Nature, her Divine Revelations, and a
as his heir. He prepared himself for Voice to Mankind, which embraces a wide
the law as a profession, but became an ac- range of subjects. He afterwards pub-
tive soldier in the Revolution in a troop of lished several works, all of which he
dragoons. When he was in command of claimed to have been the production of his
the troop he annexed it to Pulaski s mind under divine illumination and the
Legion. He fought at Stono, Hanging influence of disembodied spirits. Among
Rock, and Rocky Mount; and at the head his most considerable works are The
of a legionary corps, with the rank of Great Harmonia, in 4 volumes ; The
major, he opposed the advance of Corn- Penetralia; History and Philosophy of
wallis into North Carolina. After the Evil; The Harbinger of Health; Stellar
overthrow of the American army at Cam- Key to the Summer Land; and Mental
den he saved the remnant of it; and he Diseases and Disorders of the Brain. Mr.
was a most efficient commissary under Davis may be considered as the pioneer
General Greene in the Southern Depart- of modern spiritualism,
ment. He rose to great eminence as a Davis, CHARLES HENRY, naval officer;
lawyer after the war, and was a delegate born in Boston, Jan. 16, 1807; entered
to the convention that framed the na- the naval service as midshipman in 1823;
tional Constitution, but sickness at home was one of the chief organizers of the ex-
compelled him to leave before the work pedition against Port Royal, S. C., in
was accomplished. In the convention of 1861, in which he bore a conspicuous part.
North Carolina he was its most earnest For his services during the Civil War he




received the thanks of Congress and pro
motion to the rank of rear-admiral. In
1865 he became superintendent of the
Naval Observatory at Washington. He
was a recognized authority on tidal ac
tions and published several works on that
subject. He died in Washington, D. C.,
Feb. 18, 1877.

Davis, CUSIIMAN KELLOGG, statesman;
born in Henderson, N. Y., June 16, 1838;


graduated at the University of Michi
gan in 1857; studied law and began prac
tice in Waukesha, Wis. During the Civil
War he served three years in the Union
army. In 1865 he removed to St. Paul,
Minn. He was a member of the Minne
sota legislature in 1807 ; United States
district attorney for Minnesota in 1868-
73; governor of Minnesota in 1874-75;
and elected to the United States Senate
in 1887, 1893, and 1899. For several years
he was chairman of the Senate committee
on foreign relations, and was a member
of the commission to negotiate peace with
Spain after the war of 1898. He pub
lished The Law in Shakespeare. He died
in St. Paul, Nov. 27, 1900.

Davis, DAVID, jurist; born in Cecil
county, Md., March 9, 1815; graduated
at Kenyon College, O., 1832; admitted
to the bar of Illinois in 1835; elected
to the State legislature in 1834; and
appointed a justice of the Supreme Court
of the United States in 1862. He resign
ed this post to take his seat in the United
States Senate on March 4, 1877, having
been elected to succeed JOHN A. LOGAN

III. B 1

((/. v.) . In 1872 he was nominated for
Piesident by the Labor Reform party, but
declined to run after the regular Demo
cratic and Republican nominations had
been made. He resigned in 1883 and re
tired to Bloomington, 111., where he died
June 26, 1886.

officer; born in Thompson, Conn., July 26,
1839; entered the Union army as quarter
master s sergeant in the llth Connecticut
Infantry, Nov. 27, 1861 ; became first lieu
tenant April 5, 1862; and was mustered
out of the service, April 20, 1866. On
Jan. 22, 1867, he was appointed captain
in the 14th United States Infantry. At
the beginning of the war with Spain he
was commissioned brigadier-general of vol
unteers; and on Oct. 19, 1899, he was
promoted to colonel of the 23d United
States Infantry; and on the reorganiza
tion of the regular army, in February,
1901, he was appointed one of the new
brigadier - generals. He was for several
years a member of the board on Public
War Records ; commanded a division in
the early part of the war with Spain ; in
May, 1899, was appointed governor-general
of Porto Rico; and in 1904 governor of the
American zone of the Panama Canal ces

Davis, HENRY GASSAWAY, legislator ;
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 16, 1823; re
ceived a country-school education; was an
employee of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail
road Company for fourteen vears; after-



ward engaged in banking and coal-mining
in Piedmont, W. Va. ; and was president
of the Piedmont National Bank. In 1865
he was elected to the House of Delegates
of West Virginia ; was a member of the
national Democratic conventions in 1868
and 1872; State Senator in 1867-69; and
a United States Senator in 1871-83. He
also served on the Inter-continental Rail
way Commission, as chairman of the
American delegation to the Pan-American
Congress, and was the Democratic candi
date for Vice-President in 1904.

Davis, HEXRY WINTER, legislator ; born
in Annapolis, Md.. Aug. 16, 1817: gradu
ated at Kenyon College in 1837; elected

to Congress as a Whig in 1854, and at
the dissolution of that party joined the
American or Know -Nothing party, and
was re-elected to Congress in 1858. In
1861 he announced himself in favor of an
unconditional Union while a candidate
for re-election. He was overwhelmingly
defeated, but in 1863 was re-elected. Al
though representing a slave State, Senator
Davis was a strong antislavery advo
cate. He died in Baltimore, Md., Dec. 30,

Davis, ISAAC, patriot; born in 1745;
took part in the fight with the British
soldiery at Concord bridge, April 19, 1775,
and was killed by the first volley.


Davis, JEFFERSON, statesman; born in was a continuous ovation. He made
Christian county, Ky., June 3, 1808; twenty-five speeches on the way. Mem-
graduated at West Point in 1828; served bers of the convention and the authorities
as lieutenant in the BLACK HAWK WAR of Montgomery met him eight miles from
(q. v.) in 1831-32, and resigned in 1835 the city. He arrived at the Alabama
to become a cotton-planter in Mississippi, capital at eight o clock at night. Can-
He was a member of Congress in 1845-46, non thundered a welcome, and the shouts
and served as colonel of a Mississippi regi- of a multitude greeted him. Formally re-
ment in the war with Mexico. He was ceived at the railway station, he made a
United States Senator from 1847 to 1851, speech, in which he briefly reviewed the
and from 1857 to 1861. He was called to position of the South, and said the time
the cabinet of President Pierce as Secre- for compromises had passed. " We are
tary of War in 1853, and remained four now determined/ he said, "to maintain
years. He resigned his seat in the Senate our position, and make all who oppose us
in January, 1861, and was chosen pro- smell Southern powder and feel Southern
visional President of the Southern Con- steel. ... We will maintain our rights
federacy in February. In November, 1861, and our government at all hazards,
he was elected permanent President for six We ask nothing we want nothing and
years. Early in April, 1865, he and his we will have no complications. If the
associates ia the government fled from other States join our Confederacy, they
Richmond, first to Danville, Va., and then can freely come in on our terms. Our
towards the Gulf of Mexico. He was ar- separation from the Union is complete,
rested in Georgia, taken to Fort Monroe, and no compromise, no reconstruction,
and confined on a charge of treason for can now be entertained." The inaugural
about two years, when he was released on ceremonies took place at noon, Feb. 18, on
bail, Horace Greeley s name heading the a platform erected in front of the portico
t of bondsmen for $100,000. He was of the State-house. Davis and the Vice-
never tried. He published The Rise and President elect, ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS
Fall of the ^Confederate Government (q. v.) , with Rev. Dr. Marly, rode in
L881). He died in New Orleans, La., an open barouche from the* Exchange
Dec ; <* 1889. Hotel to the capitol, followed by a multi-
Mr. Davis was at his home, not far tude of State officials and citizens. The
from Vicksburg, when apprised of his oath of office was administered to Davis
election as President of the Confederacy by Howell Cobb, president of the Con
formed at Montgomery, February, 1861. gress, at the close of his inaugural ad-
He hastened to that city, and his journey dress. In the evening President Davis held



a levee at Estelle Hall, and the city was
brilliantly lighted up by bonfires and
illuminations. President Davis chose for
his constitutional advisers a cabinet com
prising Robert Toombs, of Georgia, Sec
retary of State; Charles G. Memminger,
of South Carolina, Secretary of the
Treasury; Le Roy Pope Walker, of Ala
bama, Secretary of War ; Stephen R.
Mallory, of Florida, Secretary of the
Navy, and John H. Reagan, of Texas,
Postmaster-General. Afterwards, Judah
P. Benjamin was made Attorney-General.
Two days after President Lincoln s call

for troops, President Davis issued a procla
mation, in the preamble of which he said
the President of the United States had
" announced the intention of invading the
Confederacy with an armed force for the
purpose of capturing its fortresses, and
thereby subverting its independence, and
subjecting the free people thereof to the
dominion of a foreign power." He said
it WHS the duty of his government to re
pel this threatened invasion, and " defend
the rights and liberties of the people by
all the means which the laws of nations
and usages of civilized warfare placed at



its disposal." tic invited the people of family and property, riding rapidly 18
the Confederacy to engage in privateering, miles. They were near Irwinsville, south
and he exhorted those who had " felt the of Macon, Ga. The tents were pitched at
wrongs of the past " from those whose night, and the wearied ones retired to
enmity was " more implacable, because rest, intending to resume their flight in
unprovoked," to exert themselves in pre- the morning. General Wilson, at Macon,
serving order and maintaining the author- hearing of Davis s flight towards the Gulf,
ity of the Confederate laws. This procla- had sent out Michigan and Wisconsin
mation was met by President Lincoln by cavalry, whose vigilance was quickened
a public notice that he should imme- by the offered reward of $100,000 for the
diately order a blockade of all the South- arrest of the fugitive. Simultaneously,
ern ports claimed as belonging to the Con- from opposite points, these two parties
federacy; and also that if any person, approached the camp of Davis and his lit-
under the pretended authority of such tie party just at dawn, May 11, 1865.
States, or under any other pretence, Mistaking each other for foes, they ex-
should molest a vessel of the United changed shots with such precision that
States, or the person or cargo on board two men were killed and several wounded
of her, such person would be held amen- before the error was discovered. The
able to the laws of the United States for sleepers were aroused. The camp was
the prevention and punishment of piracy, surrounded, and Davis, while attempting
With this opposing proclamation the to escape in disguise, was captured and
great Civil War was actively begun. conveyed to General Wilson s head-

In April, 1865, Mr. Davis s wife and quarters. Davis had slept in a wrapper,
children, and his wife s sister, had and when aroused hastily pulled on his
accompanied him from Danville to boots and went to the tent-door. He ob-
Washington, Ga., where, for prudential served the National cavalry. " Then you
reasons, the father separated from the are captured?" exclaimed his wife. In
others. He soon learned that some Con- an instant she fastened the wrapper
federate soldiers, believing that the treas- around him before he was aware, and

then, bidding him
adieu, urged him
to go to a spring
near by, where his
horse and arms
were. He complied,
and as he was
leaving the tent-
door, followed by
a servant with a
water - bucket, his
sister-in-law flung
a shawl over his
head. It was in
this disguise that
he was captured.
Such is the story
as told by C. E. L.
Stuart, of Davis s
staff. The Confed
erate President
was taken to Fort
Monroe by way of

ure that was carried away from Rich- Savannah and the sea. Keagan, who was
mond was with Mrs. Davis, had formed captured with Davis, and Alexander II.
a plot to seize all her trunks in search Stephens were sont to Fort Warren, in
of it. He hastened to the rescue of his Pngton Harbor.



Inaugural Address. The following is
the text of the inaugural address, deliv
ered at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 18, 1861:

Gentlemen of the Congress of the Con
federate States of America, Friends, and
Fellow-Citizens, Called to the difficult
and responsible station of chief executive
of the provisional government which you
have instituted, I approach the discharge
of the duties assigned me with an humble
distrust of my abilities, but with a sus
taining confidence in the wisdom of those
who are to guide and aid me in the ad
ministration of public affairs, and an
abiding faith in the virtue and patriotism
of the people. Looking forward to the
speedy establishment of a permanent gov
ernment to take the place of this, and
which by its greater moral and physical
power will be better able to combat with
the many difficulties which arise from the
conflicting interests of separate nations,
1 enter upon the duties of the office to
which I have been chosen with the hope
that the beginning of our career as a
confederacy may not be obstructed by
hostile opposition to our enjoyment of
the separate existence and independence
which we have asserted, and which, with
the blessing of Providence, we intend to

Our present condition, achieved in a
manner unprecedented in the history of
nations, illustrates the American idea
that governments rest upon the consent
of the governed, and that it is the right
of the people to alter and abolish govern
ments whenever they become destructive
to the ends for which they were estab
lished. The declared compact of the
Union from which we have withdrawn
was to establish justice, insure domestic
tranquillity, provide for the common de
fence, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 76)