Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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States, and was there affirmed.

Electro-magnetic Telegraph. This
invention, conceived more than a century
ago, was first brought to perfection as an
intelligent medium of communication be-


t \veen points distant from each other by
PROF. SAMUEL F. B. MORSE (q. v.), of New
York, and was first presented to public
notice in 1838. In the autumn of 1837
lie filed a caveat at the Patent Office; and
he gave a private exhibition of its mar
vellous power in the New York Univer
sity in January, 1838, when intelligence
was instantly transmitted by an alphabet
composed of dots and lines, invented by
Morse, through a circuit of 10 miles of
wire, and plainly recorded. Morse ap
plied to Congress for pecuniary aid to
enable him to construct an experimental
line between Washington and Baltimore.
For four years he waited, for the action
of the government was tardy, in conse
quence of doubt and positive opposition.
At the beginning of March, 1842, Congress

appropriated $30,000 for his use; and in
May, 1844, he transmitted from Washing
ton to Baltimore, a distance of 40 miles,

the first message, furnished him by a
young lady " What hath God wrought!"
The first public message was the announce
ment of the nomination by the Democratic
National Convention in Baltimore (May.
1844) of James K. Polk for President of
the United States. Professor Morse also
originated submarine telegraphy. He pub
licly suggested its feasibility in a letter
to the Secretary of the Treasury in 1843.
As early as 1842 he laid a submarine cable.
or insulated wire, in the harbor of New
York, for which achievement the American
Institute awarded him a small gold medal.
In 1858 he participated in the labors and
honors of laying a cable under the sea be
tween Europe and America. (See ATLAN
TIC TELEGRAPH). Monarchs gave him med
als and orders. Yale College conferred
upon him the honorary degree of LL.D.,
and in 18,18, at the instance of the Emper
or of the French, several European govern
ments combined in the act of giving Pro
fessor Morse the sum of $80,000 in gold as
a token of their appreciation. Vast im
provements have been made since in the
transmission of messages. For more than
a quarter of a century the messages were
each sent over a single wire, only one way


at a time. Early in 1871, through the in
ventions of Edison and others, messages
were sent both ways over the same wire
at the same instant of time. Very soon
four messages were sent the same way.
Now multiplex transmission is a matter
of every-day business. See VAIL, A. H.

Eliot, ANDREW, clergyman; born in
Boston, Mass., Dec. 28, 1718; graduated
at Harvard College in 1737; ordained
associate pastor of the New North Church
in Boston, where he was sole pastor
after 1750. When the British occupied



Boston he did much to ameliorate Eliot, JARED, educator and clergyman;
the. condition of the people. He also born in Guilford, Conn., Xov. 7,* 1685;
saved valuable manuscripts, among them son of Joseph and grandson of John
the second volume of the History of Eliot; graduated at Yale College in 1706,
Massachusetts Bay, when the house of and from 1709 until his death he was
Governor Hutchinson was invested by a minister of the first church at Killing-
mob. He died in Boston, Mass., Sept. worth, Conn. He was a most practical
13 1 78. and useful man, and did much for the ad-

Eliot, CHARLES WILLIAM, educator; vancement of agriculture and manufact-
born in Boston, Mass., March 20, 1834; ures in New England. He strongly
graduated at Harvard University in urged in essays the introduction into the
18.53; was a tutor in mathematics at colonies of a better breed of sheep. In
Harvard and a student in chemistry with 1747 he wrote: "A better breed of sheep
Prof. Josiah P. Cooke, 1854-58; served as is what we want. The English breed of
Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Cotswold sheep cannot be obtained, or at
Chemistry, Lawrence Scientific School, least not without great difficulty; for
Harvard, in 1858-63; when he went wool and live sheep are contraband goods,
abroad, studied chemistry and investigated which all strangers are prohibited from
European educational methods. In 1865- carrying out on pain of having the right
60 he was Professor of Analytical Chem- hand cut off." In 1761 the London So-
istry, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- dety for the P]ncouragement of Arts,
nology, and in 1860 became president of Manufactures, and Commerce honored him
Harvard University. He is a Fellow of with its medal, for producing malleable

iron from American black sand, and he
w r as made a member of the Royal Society
of London. He was the first to introduce
the white mulberry into Connecticut, and
with it silk-worms, and published .1
treatise on silk-culture. Mr. Eliot was
also an able physician, and was particu
larly successful in the treatment of in
sanity and chronic complaints. He died
in Killingworth, Conn., April 22, 1763.

Eliot, JOHN, the Apostle to the Indians :
born either in Nasing, Essex, or Widford.
Hertfordshire, England, presumably in
1604, as he was baptized in Widford, Aug.
5, 1604. Educated at Cambridge, he re
moved to Boston in 1631, and the next
year was appointed minister at Roxbury.
Seized with a passionate longing for the
conversion of the Indians and for improv
ing their condition, he commenced his
labors among the twenty tribes within
the English domain in Massachusetts in
1he American Academy of Arts and October, 1646. He acquired their Ian-
Sciences, the American Philosophical So- guage through an Indian servant in his


<nety, etc. He has given many note
worthy addresses on educational and
scientific subjects. He is the author of
Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis

family, made a grammar of it, and trans
lated the Bible into the Indian tongue.
It is claimed that Eliot was the first
Protestant minister who preached to the

(with Prof. Francis H. Storer) ; Manual Indians in their native tongue. An Ind-
of Inorganic Chemistry (with the same) ; ian town called Natick was erected on the
Five American Contributions to Civiliza- Charles River for the " praying Indians "
tion, and other Essays; EduoatioTKil Re- in 1657, and the first Indian church was
form, etc. established there in 1660. Fhiring King




Philip s War Eliot s efforts in behalf of
the praying Indians saved them from de
struction by the white people. He trav
elled extensively, visited many tribes,
planted several churches, and once
preached before King Philip, who treated
him with disdain. He persuaded many to

adopt the customs of civilized life, and
lived to see twenty-four of them become
preachers of the Gospel to their own
tribes. His influence among the Indians
was unbounded, and his generosity in
helping the sick and afflicted among them
was unsparing. Cotton Mather affirmed,
We had a tradition that the country
could never perish as long as Eliot was
alive." He published many small works
on religious subjects, several of which
were in the Indian language. His great
est work was the translation of the Bible
into the Indian language (1661-66), and
was the first Bible ever printed in Amer
ica. It is much sought after by collectors.
The language in which it was written has
perished. He died in Roxbury, Mass.,
May 20, 1690.

The Brief Narrative. This was the
last of Eliot s publications relating to the
progress of Christianity among the
American Indians. Its full title was:

" A Brief Narrative of the Progress of
the Gospel amongst the Indians in New Eng
land, in the Year 1670, given in by the Rever
end Mu. JOHN ELLIOT, Minister of the Gospel
there, in a LETTER by him directed to the
Right Worshipfull the COMMISSIONERS under
his Majesties Great-Seal for Propagation of
the Gospel amongst the poor blind Natives in



those United Colonies. LONDON, Printed which vested in the crown the supremacy

tor John Allen formerly living in Little- claimed by the pope; the mass was abol-

Bntain at the Rising-Sun, and now in Went- i A

north Street near Bel-Lane, 1671." lshed and the lltur gy of Edward VI. re
stored. In one session the whole system

Eliot, JOHN, clergyman; born in Bos- of religion in England was altered by the

ton, Mass., May 31, 1754; son of Andrew will of a single young woman. When

Eliot; graduated at Harvard College in Francis II. of France assumed the arms

1772; succeeded his father as minister and title of King of England in right

of the New North Church in November, of his wife, Mary Stuart, Elizabeth sent

1779; was one of the founders of the an army to Scotland which drove the

Massachusetts Historical Society. He French out of the kingdom. She sup-

published a Biographical Dictionary of ported the French Huguenots with money

Eminent Characters in New England, and troops in their struggle with the

He died in Boston, Mass., Feb. 14, J813. Roman Catholics in 15G2. In 1563 the

Eliot, SAMUEL, historian; born in Bos- Parliament, in an address to the Queen,
ton, Mass., Dec. 22, 1821; graduated entreated her to choose a husband, so as
at Harvard College in 1839; professor of to secure a Protestant succession to the
History and Political Science in Trinity crown. She returned an evasive answer.
College in 1856-04. His publications in- She gave encouragement to several suitors,
elude Passages from the History of Lib- after she rejected Philip, among them
erty; History of Liberty (in five parts, Archduke Charles of Austria, the Duke of
the last of which is entitled the Amer- Anjou, and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leices-
ican Nation) ; and a Manual of United ter. The latter remained her favorite un-
States History between the Years 1792 til his death in 1588. During the greater
and 1850. He died in Beverly, Mass., part of Elizabeth s reign, Cecil, Lord Bur-
Sept. 14, 1898. leigh, was her prime minister. For more

Elizabeth, QUEEN OF ENGLAND; born in than twenty years from 1564 England was
Greenwich, Sept. 7, 1533; daughter of at peace with foreign nations, and enjoyed
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. Under the great prosperity. Because of the opposite
tuition of Roger Ascham she acquired interests in religion, and possibly because
much proficiency in classical learning, and of matrimonial affairs, Elizabeth and
before she was seventeen years of age Philip of Spain were mutually hostile,
she was mistress of the Latin, French, and and in 1588 the latter sent the " invincible
Italian languages, and had read several Armada " for the invasion of England,
works in Greek. By education she was It consisted of over 130 vessels and 30,000
attached to the Protestant Church, and men. It was defeated and dispersed (Aug.
was persecuted by her half-sister, Mary, 8 ) , and in a gale more than fifty of the
who was a Roman Catholic. Elizabeth Spanish ships were wrecked. On the death
never married. When quite young her of Leicester the Queen showed decided
father negotiated for her nuptials with partiality for the Earl of Essex. Her
the son of Francis I. of France, but it treatment and final consent to the execu-
failed. She flirted awhile with the am- tion, by beheading, of Mary, Queen of
bitious Lord Seymour. In 1558 she de- Scots, has left a stain on the memory of
clined an offer of marriage from Eric, Elizabeth. She assisted the Protestant
King of Sweden, and also from Philip of Henry IV. of France in his struggle with
Spain. Her sister Mary died Nov. 17, the French Roman Catholics, whom Philip
1558, when Elizabeth was proclaimed of Spain subsidized. Her reign was vigor-
Queen of England. With caution she pro- ous, and is regarded as exceedingly bene-
ceeded to restore the Protestant religion ficial to the British nation. Literature
to ascendency in her kingdom. Her re- was fostered, and it was illustrated dur-
form began by ordering a large part of the ing her reign by such men as Spenser,
church service to be read in English, and Shakespeare, Sidney, Bacon, and Raleigh,
forbade the elevation of the host in her Elizabeth was possessed of eminent ability
presence. Of the Roman Catholic bishops, and courage, but her personal charac-
only one consented to officiate at her coro- lor was deformed by selfishness, incon-
nation. In 1559 Parliament passed a bill stancy, deceit, heartlessness, and other un-




womanly faults. She signified her will the soil. The Elizabethtown settlers ob-

on her death-bed that James VI. of Scot- tained their land from the Indians, with

land, son of the beheaded Mary, should the consent of Governor Nicolls; but al-

be her successor, and he was accordingly ready the Duke of York, without the

crowned as such. She died March 24, knowledge of Nicolls or the settlers, had

1(503. sold the domain of New Jersey to Berke-

Elizabethtown Claimants. For more ley and Carteret. The new proprietors ig-

than a century the dispute between the nored the title of the settlers, and made

first settlers at Elizabethtown, N. J. (who demands as absolute proprietors of the

came from Long Island and New Eng- soil, which the latter continually resisted

land), and, first, the proprietors of New themselves, and so did their heirs. Fre-

Jersey, and, next, the crown, arose and quent unsuccessful attempts at ejectment

continued concerning the title to the lands were made; the settlers resisted by force,

on which these settlers were seated. The The Assembly, called upon to interfere,

dispute occurred in consequence of con- usually declined, for that body rather fa-

flicting claims to eminent domain, caused vored the Elizabethtown claimants. Final-

by a dispute about the original title of ly. in 1757. Governor Belcher procured an



act of assembly by which all past differ
ences should be buried. It was not ac
ceptable; and in 1751 the British govern
ment ordered a commission of inquiry to
determine the law and equity in the case.
The proprietors also began chancery suits
against the heirs of the Elizabethtown set
tlers, and these were pending when the
Revolution broke out (1775) and settled
the whole matter.

Elizabethtown, or P^lizabeth, as the place
is now called, was settled in 1GG5; was the
colonial capital from 1755 to 1757, and
the State capital till 1790, when Trenton
became the seat of government; and be
came a city in 1805. It contains an old
tavern where Washington stopped on his
way to New York for his first inaugura
tion, Gen. Winfield Scott s home, the Bou-
dinot House, and the old Livingston Man
sion. The College of New Jersey, now
Princeton University, chartered in 174G.
was opened here in May, 1747.

Elizabethtown Expedition, a military
movement in the War of 1812-15, in
which an American force under Major
Forsyth captured Elizabethtown (near
Brockville), Canada, Feb. 7, 1813, released
the American prisoners, seized some of the
garrison and a quantity of stores, and re
turned to the United States without the
loss of a man.

Elk Creek, or HONEY SPRINGS, a local
ity in the Indian Territory, where, on July
17, 1803, Gen. James G. Blunt, with a
force of Kansas cavalry, artillery, and
Indian home guards, defeated a Confeder
ate force under Gen. S. H. Cooper, the
latter losing nearly 500 in killed and


Elkins, STEPHEN BENTON, legislator;
born in Perry county, Ohio, Sept. 26,
1841 ; graduated at the Missouri Univer
sity in 1800; admitted to the bar in 1803;
captain in the 77th Missouri Regiment
1802-03; removed to New Mexico in
1804, where he engaged in mining; elect
ed member of the Territorial legislature
in 1804; became attorney-general of the
Territory in 1808; United States district
attorney in 1870; member of Congress in
1873-77; Secretary of War in 1891-94;
and elected United States Senator from
West Virginia in 1895 and 1001.

Elkswatawa, Indian, known as the

Prophet; brother of the famous Tecumseh ;
born in Piqua, the seat of the Piqua
clan of the Shawnees, about 4 miles
north of Springfield, 0., early in 1775. He
was a shrewd deceiver of his people by
means of pretended visions and powers of
divination. By harangues he excited the
superstition of the Indians; and such be
came his fame as a " medicine-man," or
prophet, that large numbers of men, wom
en, and children of the forest came long


distances to see this oracle of the Great
Spirit, who they believed could work mir
acles. His features were ugly. He had
lost one eye in his youth, and, owing to
dissipation, he appeared much older than
his brother Tecumseh. The latter was
really an able man. and used this brother
as his tool. The Prophet lost the con
fidence of his people by the events of the
battle of Tippecanoe. On the evening be
fore the battle the demnrogue pre
pared for treachery and murder. He
brought out a magic bowl, a sacred
torch, a string of holy beans, and his
followers were all required to touch these
talismans and be made invulnerable, and
then to take an oath to exterminate
the pale-facea. When this was aecom
] dished the Prophet wont through a



long series of incantations and mystical revenue at Newport. Mr. Ellery was a
movements ; then, turning to his highly strenuous advocate of the abolition of
700 in

He died in Newport, Feb. 15,

CHARLES, engineer; born in
co., Pa., Jan. 1,


excited band about 700 in number slavery,
he told them that the time to attack 1820. "
the white men had come. " They are Ellet,
in your power," he said, holding up Penn s Manor, Bucks
the holy beans as a reminder of their
oath. " They sleep now, and will never
awake. The Great Spirit will give light to
us and darkness to the white men. Their
bullets shall not harm us; your weapons
shall be always fatal." Then followed
war songs and dances, until the Indians,
wrought up to a perfect frenzy, rushed
forth to attack Harrison s camp, without
any leaders. Stealthily they crept through
the long grass of the prairie in the deep
gloom, intending to surround their en
emy s position, kill the sentinels, rush
into the camp, and massacre all. The re
sult of the battle of TIPPECAXOE (q. v.)
caused the Indians to doubt his inspira
tion by the Great Spirit. They covered
him with reproaches, when he cunningly
told them that his predictions concerning
the battle had failed because his wife had

touched the sacred vessels and broken the 1810; planned and built the first wire
charm. Even Indian superstition and suspension bridge in the United States,
credulity could not accept that transparent across the Schuylkill at Fairmount ; and
falsehood for an excuse, and the Prophet planned and constructed the first sus-
was deserted by his disappointed followers pension bridge over the Niagara River
and compelled to seek refuge among the below the Falls, and other notable
Wyandottes. bridges. When the Civil War broke out

Ellery, WILLIAM, a signer of the he turned his attention to the construc-
Declaration of Independence ; born in tion of steam "rams 5 for the Western
Newport, R. I., Dec. 22, 1727; grad
uated at Harvard in 1747; became
a merchant in Newport; and was
naval officer of Rhode Island in
1770. He afterwards studied and
practised law at Newport, and gain
ed a high reputation. An active
patriot, he was a member of Con
gress from 1770 to 1785, excepting
two years, and was very useful in
matters pertaining to finance and
diplomacy. He w r as especially ser
viceable as a member of the marine
committee, and of the board of ad
miralty. During the occupation of
Rhode Island by the British he suf
fered great loss of property, but
bore it with quiet cheerfulness as a

sacrifice for the public good. He was rivers, and a plan proposed by him to
chief - justice of the Superior Court of the Secretary of War (Mr. Stanton) was
Rhode Island, and in 1790 collector of the adopted, and he soon converted ten or




twelve powerful steamers on the Missis- fancy-pieces. Having acquired the tech-

sippi into "rams," with which he ren- localities of the art, his chief employ-

dered great assistance in the capture of ment for a time was copying engravings

Memphis. In the battle there he was in oil, and afterwards he attempted por-

struck by a musket-ball in the knee, from traits. He practised portrait-painting in

the effects of which he died, in Cairo, 111., the interior of New York for about ten

June 21, 1862. Mr. Ellet proposed to years, when he went to the city (1845),

General McClellan a plan for cutting off where he soon rose to the head of his pro-

the Confederate army at Manassas, which fession as a portrait-painter. It is said

the latter rejected, and the engineer wrote that he painted 700 portraits, many of

and published severe strictures on Me- them of distinguished men. His like-

Clellan s mode of conducting the war. nesses were always remarkable for fidel-

Ellet, ELIZABETH FRIES, author; born ity, and for beauty and vigor of coloring,

in Sodus Point, N. Y., in 1818; was au- He died in Albany, Aug. 25, 1868.

thor of Domestic History of the- American Elliott, CHARLES WYLLYS, author; born

Revolution; Women of the American Rev- in Guilford, Conn., May 27, 1817. His pub-

olution; Pioneer Women of the West; and lications relating to the United States in-

Quecns of American Society. She died elude New England History, from the

June 3, 1877. Discovery of the Continent ~by the North-

Ellicott, ANDREW, civil engineer; born men, A. D. 968, to 1776; and The Book

of American Interiors, prepared from ex
isting Houses. He died Aug. 23, 1883.

Elliott, JESSE DUNCAN, naval officer;

in Bucks county, Pa., Jan. 24, 1754. His
father and uncle founded the town of
Ellicott s Mills (now Ellicott City), Md.,
in 1790. Andrew was much engaged in born in Maryland, July 14, 1782; entered
public surveying for many years after the United States navy as midshipman in
settling in Baltimore in 1785. In 1789
he made the first accurate measurement
of Niagara River from lake to lake, and
in 1790 he was employed by the United
States government in laying out the city
of Washington. In 1792 he was made
surveyor-general of the United States, and
in 1796 he was a commissioner to de
termine the southern boundary between
the territory of the United States and
Spain, in accordance with a treaty.
From Sept. 1, 1813, until his death, Aug.
29, 1820, he was professor of mathematics
and civil engineering at West Point.

Elliott, CHARLES, clergyman; born hi
Greenconway, Ireland, May 16, 1792; be
came a member of the Wesleyan Church :
came to the United States about 1815;
joined the Ohio Methodist conference in
1818. He was the author of History of
the Great Secession from the Methodist
Episcopal Church ; Southwestern Method
ism; two publications against slavery, etc.


April, 1804: and rose to master. July 24,
1813. He was with Barron in the Tripoli-

He died in Mount Pleasant, la., Jan. 0, tan War, and served on the Lakes with



Chauncey and Perry in the War of 1812-
painter; 15. He captured two British vessels, De-

born in Scipio, N. Y., in December, 1812; troit and Caledonia, at

Fort Erie, for

was the son of an architect, who pre- which exploit he was presented by Con-
pared him for that profession. He be- gress with a sword. He was in command
came a pupil of Trumbull, in New York, of the Niagara in Perry s famous combat
and afterwards of Quidor, a painter of on Lake Erie, to which the Commodore




went from the Lawrence during the ac- Ellis, GEORGE EDWARD, clergyman ; born
tion. He succeeded Perry in command on in Boston, Mass., Aug. 8, 1814; grad-
Lake Erie in October, 1813. Elliott was uated at Harvard in 1833; ordained n
\vithDecatur in the Mediterranean in 1815, Unitarian pastor in 1840; president of the
and was promoted to captain in March, Massachusetts Historical Society, and an-
1818. He commanded the West India thor of History of the Battle of Bunker
squadron (182D-32); took charge of the Hill, and biographies of John Mason, Will-
navy-yard at Charleston in 1833 ; and af- iam Penn. Anne Hutchinson, Jared Sparks,
terwards cruised several years in the Med- Count Rumford, etc. He died in Boston,
iterranean. On his return he wa-s court- Mass., Dec. 20, 1894.

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 34 of 76)