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Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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martialled, and suspended from command Ellis, HENRY, colonial governor; born

for four years. A part of the sentence in England in 1721; studied law; appoint-

was remitted, and in 1844 he was ap- ed lieutenant - governor of Georgia, Aug.

pointed to the command of the navy-yard 15, 1750: became royal governor, May 17,

at Philadelphia. For the part which Elli- 1758. He proved himself a wise admin-

ott took in the battle of Lake Erie Con- istrator, and succeeded in establishing

gress awarded him the thanks of the na- good-will between the colonists and the

tion and a gold medal. He died in Creeks. The climate proving bad for his

Philadelphia, Dec. 10, 1845. health, he returned to England in Novem-

Elliott, JONATHAN, author; born in ber, 1760. He was author of Heat of the

Carlisle, England, in 1784; emigrated to Weather in Georgia, etc. He died Jan.

New York in 1802; served in the United 21, 1806.

States army in the War of 1812. Among Ellis, JOHN WILLIS, governor; born in

his writings are American Diplomatic Rowan county, N. C.. Nov. 25, 1820:

Code; Debate on the Adoption of the Con- graduated at the University of North

siitution; The Comparative Tariffs, etc. Carolina in 1841, and admitted to the bar

He died in Washington, D. C., March 12, in 1842. He was governor of North Caro-

1846. Una in 1858-61. In the name of his State

Elliott, SUSANNAH, heroine; born in he occupied Fort Macon. the works at
South Carolina about 1750; made for Wilmington, and the United States arse-
Colonel Moultrie s regiment two stand- nal at Fayetteville, Jan. 2, 1861. In
ards, which she embroidered; and assist- April of the same year he ordered the
rd several American officers in escaping seizure of the United States mint at
by concealing them in a hidden room in Charlotte. He died in Raleigh, N. C.,
Jier house, in 1861.

220



ELLIS ELMIBA



Ellis, SETII II., politician; was can-
date of the Union Reform party for
President in 1900, with Samuel T. Nicho
las, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-President.
They received a popular vote of 5,098.

Ellison s Mill. See MECHANICSVILLE,
BATTLE OF.

Ellmaker, AMOS, jurist; born in New
Holland, Pa., Feb. 2, 1787; admitted to
the bar in 1808; elected to the State legis
lature in 1812; appointed district judge
in 1815; attorney-general of the State in
1816; was candidate for Vice-President on
the Anti-Masonic ticket in 1832. He
died in Lancaster, Pa., Nov. 28, 1851.

Ellsworth, EPHRAIM ELMER, military
officer; born in Mechanicsville, N. Y.,
April 23, 1837; was first engaged in mer
cantile business in Troy, N. Y., and as a
patent solicitor in Chicago he acquired
a good income. While studying law he
joined a Zouave corps at Chicago, and
in July, 1860, visited some of the Eastern
cities of the Union with them and at
tracted great attention. On his return he
organized a Zouave regiment in Chicago;
and in April, 1861, he organized another
from the New York Fire Department.
These were among the earlier troops that
hastened to Washington. Leading his
Zouaves to Alexandria, Ellsworth was
shot dead by the proprietor of the Mar
shall House, while he was descending the
stairs with a Confederate flag which he




EPHRAIM ELMER KLL8WORTH.



had pulled down, May 24. 1861. His body
was taken to Washington, and lay in state
in the East Room of the White House.



It was then taken to New York, where
it lay in state in the City Hall, and, after
being carried in procession through the
streets of the city, it was conveyed to his
birthplace for burial. He was young and
handsome, and his death, being the first
of note that had occurred in the opening
war, produced a profound sensation
throughout the country.

Ellsworth, OLIVER, LL.D., jurist;
born in Windsor, Conn., April 29, 1745;




I; KLLSWOKTH.



graduated at the College of New Jer
sey in 1766; was admitted to the bar
in 1771; practised in Hartford, Conn.;
and was made State attorney. When the
Revolutionary War was kindling he took
the side of the patriots in the leg
islature of Connecticut, and was a dele
gate in Congress from 1777 to 1780. He
became a member of the State council,
and in 1784 was appointed a judge of the
Supreme Court. Judge Ellsworth was one
of the framers of the national Constitu
tion, but, fcteing called away before the
adjournment of the convention, his name
was not attached to that instrument. He
was the first United States Senator from
Connecticut (1789-95), and drew up the
bill for organizing the Judiciary Depart
ment. In 1796 he was made chief -justice
of the Supreme Court of the United States,
and at the close of 1799 he was one of the
envoys to France. He died in Windsor,
Nov. 26, 1807.

Elmira, BATTLE OF. See SULLIVAN,
JOHN.



221



EL MOLING DEL BEY



El Molino del Bey, CAPTURE OF. Al
most within cannon-shot distance of the
city of Mexico is Chapultepec, a hill com
posed of porphyritic rock, and known in
the Aztec language as " Grasshoppers Hill."
It rises from the ancient shore of Lake
Tezcuco, and was the favorite resort of the
Aztec princes. It was also the site of the
palace and gardens of Montezuma.. That



kill was crowned with a strong castle and
military college, supported by numerous
outworks, which, with the steepness of the
ascent to it, seemed to make it impregna
ble. Only the slope towards the city was
easily ascended, and that was covered with
a thick forest. At the foot of the hill
was a stone building, with thick high
walls, and towers at the end, known as El




BATTLK OF KL MOLINO UKt RKY.

222



EL MOLING DEL BEY ELY



Molino del Rey " The King s Mill." About
400 yards from this was another massive
stone building, known as Casa de Mata.
The former was used (1847) as a cannon
foundry by the Mexicans, and the latter
was a depository of gunpowder. Both
were armed and strongly garrisoned. Gen
eral Scott, at Tacubaya, ascertained that
Santa Ana, while negotiations for peace
were going on, had sent church-bells out
of the city to be cast into cannon, and he
determined to seize both of these strong
buildings and deprive the Mexicans of
those sources of strength. He proposed to
first attack El Molino del Rey, which was
commanded by General Leon. The Mex
ican forces at these defences were about
14,000 strong, their left wing resting on
El Molino del Rey, their centre forming
a connecting line with Casa de Mata. and
supported by a field-battery, and their
right wing resting on the latter. To the
division of General Worth was intrust
ed the task of assailing the works
before them. At three o clock on the
morning of Sept. 8 (1847) the assaulting
columns moved to the attack, Garland s
brigade forming the right wing. The bat
tle began at dawn by Huger s 24-pounder
opening on El Molino del Rey, when Ma
jor Wright, of the 8th Infantry, fell upon
the centre with 500 picked men. On the
left was the 2d Brigade, commanded by
Colonel Mclntosh, supported by Duncan s
battery. The assault of Major Wright on
the centre drove back infantry and artil
lery, and the Mexican field-battery was
captured. The Mexicans soon rallied and
regained their position, and a terrible
struggle ensued. El Molino del Rey was
soon assailed and carried by Garland s
brigade, and at the same time the battle
around Casa de Mata was raging fiercely.
For a moment the Americans reeled, but
soon recovered, when a large column of
Mexicans was seen filing around the right
of their intrenchments to fall upon the
Americans who had been driven back,
when Duncan s battery opened upon them
so destructively that the Mexican column
was scattered in confusion. Then Sum-
ner s dragoons charged upon them, and
their rout was complete. The slaughter
had been dreadful. Nearly one-fourth of
Worth s corps were either killed or wound
ed. The Mexicans had left 1,000 dead on



the field. Their best leaders had been
slain, and 800 men had been made prison
ers. The strong buildings were blown up,
and none of the defences of Mexico out
side its gates remained to them, excepting
the castle of CHAPULTEPEC (q. v.) and
its supports.

Elwyn, ALFRED LANGDOX, philanthro
pist; born in Portsmouth, N. H., July
9, 1804; graduated at Harvard College
in 1823; studied medicine, but never
practised; became known as a philanthro
pist. He originated the Pennsylvania
Agricultural Society and Farm-school, of
which he was president in 1850; was also
president of various philanthropic insti
tutions. He was the author of Glossary
of Supposed Americanisms; and Letters
to the Hon. John Langdon, during and
after the Revolution. He died in Phila
delphia, Pa., March 15, 1884.

Ely, ALFRED, lawyer; born in Lymc,
Conn., Feb. 18. 1815; settled in Rochester,
N. Y., in 1835; admitted to the bar in
1841 ; member of Congress in 1859-03.
He was taken prisoner by the Confederates
while visiting the battle-field of Bull Run
in July, 1861, and confined in Libby
prison for six months; was then ex
changed for Charles J. Faulkner, the min
ister to France, who had been arrested
for disloyalty. W 7 hile in Libby prison
he kept a journal, which was later pub
lished as the Journal of Alfred Ely, a
Prisoner of War in Richmond. He died
in Rochester, N. Y., May 18, 1892.

Ely, RICHARD THEODORE, political econ
omist; born in Ripley, N. Y., April 13,
1854; graduated at Columbia University
in 1870; became Professor of Politi
cal Economy in the University of Wis
consin in 1892. Among his works are
French and German Socialism; Taxation
in American States; Socialism and Social
Reform; The Social Law of Service; The
Labor Movement in America, etc.

Ely, WILLIAM G., military officer; born
about 1835; joined the National army on
the first call for volunteers. On June
13, 1863, he was captured in the engage
ment at Fort Royal Pike. After spend
ing eight months in Libby prison, he en
deavored to make his escape with 108
others through the famous underground
passage dug beneath Twentieth Street.
Four days later fifty of the number, 111-



223



ELZEY EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATIONS

eluding Colonel Ely, were retaken. He tifications, and when they brought their

was, however, soon afterwards exchanged, women and children with them he issued

and led his regiment, on June 4, 1801, rations to them and charged them to the

at the battle of Piedmont; received the service of the men. The President sustain-

brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers ed General Butler s action in this case and

in the same year. the example was followed by other com-

Elzey, ARNOLD, military officer ; born in manders. The government ordered strict
Somerset county, Md., Dec. 18, 1816; accounts to be kept of the labor thus per-
graduated at the United States Military formed, as it was not yet determined that
Academy in 1837; served with distinction these laborers should be regarded as free,
through the Florida and Mexican wars. On Aug. 6, 1861, the President signed an
When the Civil War broke out he resigned act passed by Congress which declared that
from the National army and entered when any slave was employed in any mili-
that of the Confederates ; was promoted tary or naval service against the govern-
on the field to the rank of brigadier-gen- ment the person by whom his labor was
eral by Jefferson Davis for gallant ser- claimed, that is, his owner, should forfeit
vice, and later attained to that of major- all claims to such labor. The intent at the
general. He died in Baltimore, Md., Feb. time this bill was passed was that it should
21, 1871. be in force only tentatively, for few were

Emancipation Proclamations. For then able to see what proportions the
many years there has been a fiction that war would assume and what other meas-
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler issued the first ures would be found necessary to end it.
proclamation freeing the slaves. Thn<t General Fr6mont, then in command of the
officer never issued such a proclamation, Western Department of the army, chose
but he was the first to suggest to the gov- to assume that the confiscation act of
ernment a partial solution of the very Congress had unlimited scope, and Aug.
perplexing question as to what was to be 31, 1861, issued a proclamation confis-
done with the slaves during the Civil War. eating the property and freeing the
It was held that the Constitution of the slaves of all citizens of Missouri who had
United States did not give to Congress, or taken, or should take, up arms against
to the non-slave-holding States, any right the government. This action of Fremont
to interfere with the institution of slavery, embarrassed President Lincoln greatly.
This was reaffirmed by Congress in a reso- For whatever may have been his hope that
lution passed by the House, Feb. 11, 1861, the outcome of the war would be the final
without a dissenting voice, to reassure the abolition of slavery, he could not fail to
South that, in spite of the election of Mr. see that to permit the generals of the
Lincoln, the Xorth had no intention of army to take such a course then in this
usurping power not granted by the Con- matter was rather premature. He ac-
stitution. But when, after the outbreak cordingly wrote to General Fremont re-
oi the war, the army began to occupy questing him to modify his proclamation,
posts in the seceding and slave-holding The general replied with a request that
States, the negroes came flocking into th^ the President himself would make the
Union lines, large numbers being set free necessary modifications. President Lin-
by the disorganized condition of affairs coin therefore issued a special order,
from the usual labor on the farms and Sept. 11, 1861, declaring that the emanci-
plantations of the South. Then the ques- pation clause of General Fremont s procla-
tion arose, What can be done with them? mation "be so modified, held, and con-
General Butler, when they came into his strued as to conform with and not to
camp at Fort Monroe, detained them and transcend the provisions on the same sub-
refused to surrender them upon the appli- ject contained in the act of Congress ap-
cation of their owners on the plea that proved Aug. 6," preceding,
they were contraband of war, that is, Another instance of the kind occurred
property which could be used in military at the hands of General Hunter, the fol-
operations, and therefore, by the laws of lowing year. That officer, being in corn-
war, subject to seizure. He set the able- mand at Hilton Head, N. C., proclaimed
bodied men to work upon government for- the States of Georgia, Florida, and South

224



EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATIONS

Carolina, in his department, under mar- tained in the act. Finally, in September,

tial law, and May 9, 18(52, issued an he issued the following warning procla-

order in which occurred these words: mation:

" Slavery and martial law in a free " PROCLAMATION,
country are altogether incompatible. The If Abraham Llnt . , ni Pres ident of the
persons in these States Georgia, Florida, United States of America, and Commanuer-
and South Carolina heretofore held as in-chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do
slaves are therefore declared forever her f by Proclaim and declare that hereafter,
f m, , ^, . , as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for
free. Though President Lincoln had the object of practically restoring the con-
been bitterly censured by extremists for stitutional relation between the United
his action towards General Fremont, and states and each of the States, and the peo-
thouoh he knew that to interfere with ple thei eof > in which States that relation is

lere witn 01 . may be suspen ded or disturbed.

General Hunter would only bring upon That it is my purpose, upon the next

him even a worse storm of reproaches, meeting of Congress, to again recommend

he did not shrink from what he believed * he ad P tion of a practical measure tender-

i .,,.,_, TT - j- j. ! in pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or

his duty in the matter. He immediately rejection of all slave States, so-called, the

issued a proclamation sternly revoking people whereof may not then be in rebellion

General Hunter s order, saying that the a S a inst the United States, and which States

government had not had anv knowledge ^^^^^3^

ot the general s intention to issue an gradual abolishment of slavery within their

order, and distinctly stating that "neither respective limits ; and that the efforts to

General Hunter nor any other commander c loniz e Persons of African descent, with

their consent, upon this continent or else-

or person has been authorized by the gov- whei . e> with tne previously obtained consent

ernment of the United States to make of the governments existing there, will be

proclamation declaring the slaves of any continued.

State free " " T further rrnke known " " That on the flrst day of Januai T> in the

lurtner make known, year Qf our Lord one tnousand eight hnn .

he continued, "that whether it be com- dred and sixty-three, all persons held as

potent for me, as commander-in-chief of slaves within any State, or designated part

the army and navy, to declare the slaves ! )f a state the P e P le whereof shall then be

f ox ox f m rebellion against the United States, shall

of any State or States free; and whether, be th en, thenceforward, and forever free;

at any time or in any case, it shall have and the Executive Government of the United

become a necessity indispensable to the States, including the military and naval

.naintenanee of the government to exer- ?/ ,S J^^A"^

cise such supposed power, are questions do no act or acts to repress such persons,

which, under my responsibility, I reserve or any of them, in any efforts they may

to myself, and which I cannot feel justi- ^etor ^i-ctua^frc.do m.

fied m leaving to commanders in the of j anuary aforesaid, by proclamation, des-

field." Though much displeasure was ex- ignate the States and parts of States, if

pressed bv many at the time concerning an y- in which the people thereof respectively

the position thns taken by the President, %?%? S St TnT^at X

it was generally admitted later that he people thereof, shall on that day be in go >d

was justified in taking it, since it was faith represented in the Congress of the

from no lack of sympathy with the cause Unitod States by members chosen thereto

, . , . J ,, ... . . . , . at elections wherein a majority ot the quah-

of emancipation that he withheld his fied voters of such state snall have par tic-

sanction from the premature attempts ipated. shall, in the absence of strong coun-

to secure it. tervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive

On Tnlv IT, 1SH9 Prmrrroci -,i evidence that such State, and the people

n July 10, 18t>4 Congress passed an thereof> are not then ln rebellion against

act for the suppression of slavery, one the United States.

provision of which declared the absolute " That attention is hereby called to an act

"freedom of the slaves of rebels" under of Congress entitled An Act to make an

, . ,. , ,, . , , additional Article of War, approved March

certain operations of war therein defined. 13 18G2< and wnich act ls In the W0 rds and

This gave the President a wide field for figures following :

the exercise of executive power, but lie " He it enacted &// the Senate and House

used it with great prudence. The patient ?J!3ZV$^ *S3%?-ft

Lincoln hoped the wise men among the after the following shall be promulgated as

Confederates might heed the threat con- an additional article of war for the srovern-
III. P 225



EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATIONS

ment of the army of the United States, and have been suspended or disturbed) be corn-
shall be obeyed and observed as such : pensated for all losses by acts of the United

" Article . All officers or persons in the States, including the loss of slaves,

military or naval service of the United " In witness whereof I have hereunto set

States are prohibited from employing any nay hand and caused the seal of the United

of the forces under their respective com- States to be affixed.

mands for the purpose of returning fugitives " Done at the city of Washington, this

from service or labor who may have escaped twenty-second day of September, in the year

from any persons to whom such service or of ur Lord one thousand eight hundred and

labor is claimed to be due ; and any officer sixty-two, and of the Independence of the

who shall be found guilty by a court martial United States the eighty-seventh.

of violating this article shall be dismissed " ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

from the service. " By the President :

" Sec. 2. And Ic it further enacted, That " WILLIAM H. SEWARD., Secretary of State."
this act shall take effect from and after its

passage. This warning was unheeded, and on the

o/;t 1 "ct t e nm, e ed n n A t n h A a e n t d to e S ,p P re e s C s 1 r **, mentioned the President issued the

surrection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, following proclamation:
to Seize and Confiscate Property of Rebels,

and for other Purposes," approved July 17, " PROCLAMATION.
1862, and which sections are in the words

and figures following : " Whereas, On the 22d day of September,

" Sec. 9. And lie it further enacted, That in the J rear of our Loi>d one thousand eight
all slaves of persons who shall hereafter be hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was
engaged in rebellion against the Government issued by the President of the United States,
of the United States, or who shall in any containing, among other things, the follow-
way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping i n &> t w t :

from such persons and taking refuge within ; That on th e first day of January, in

the lines of the army ; and all slaves captured th e year of our Lord one thousand eight

from such persons, or deserted by them and hundred and sixty-three, all persons held

coming under the control of the Government as slaves within any State or designated

of the United States ; and all slaves of such Part of a State, the people whereof shall then

persons found on (or) being within any be in rebellion against the United States,

place occupied by rebel forces and after- shall be then, thenceforward, and forever

ward occupied by the forces of the United free; and the Executive Government of

States, shall be deemed captives of war, and the United States, including the military

shall be forever free of their servitude, and and naval authorities thereof, will recognize

not again held as slaves. an( i maintain the freedom of such persons,

" Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That and will do no act or acts to repress such

no slave escaping into any State, Territory, persons, or any of them, in any efforts they

or the District of Columbia, from any other may make for their actual freedom.

State, shall be delivered up, or in any way That the Executive will, on the first

impeded or hindered of his liberty, except day of January aforesaid, by proclamation,

for crime, or some offence against the laws, designate the States and parts of States,

unless the person claiming said fugitive shall if any, in which the people thereof, respec-

first make an oath that the person to whom tively, shall then be in rebellion against the

the labor or service of such fugitive is alleged United States ; and the fact that any State,

to be due is his lawful owner, and has not or the people thereof, shall on that day be

borne arms against the United States in the in good faith represented in the Congress

present rebellion, nor in any way given aid of the United States by members chosen

and comfort thereto ; and no persons en- thereto at elections wherein a majority of the

gaged in the military or naval service of the qualified voters of such States shall have

United States shall, under any pretence participated, shall, in the absence of strong

whatever, assume .to decide on the validity countervailing testimony, be deemed con-

of the claim of any person to the service elusive evidence that such State, and the

or labor of any other person, or surrender people thereof, are not then in rebellion

up any such person to the claimant, on pain against the United States.

of "being dismissed from the service. "Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln,

" And I do hereby enjoin upon and order President of the United States, by virtue of
till persons engaged in the military and naval the power in me vested as Commander-in-
service of the United States to observe, obey, chief of the Army and Navy of the United
and enforce, within their respective spheres States in time of actual armed rebellion
of service, the act and sections above re- against the authority and Government of the



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 35 of 76)