Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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cited. United States, and as a fit and necessary

" And the Executive will in due time rec- war measure for suppressing said rebellion,
ommend that all citizens of the United do, on this first day of January, in the year
States who shall have remained loyal thereto of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
throughout the rebellion shall (upon the sixty-three, and in accordance with my pur-
restoration of the constitutional relation be- pose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the
tween the United States and their respec- full period of one hundred days from the day
tive States and people, if that relation shall first above mentioned, order and designate,



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" That on the first day of January, in the
year of our Lord one thousand eight nun-
tired and sixty-three, all persons held as
slaves within any State or designated part
of a State, the people whereof shall then be
in rebellion against the United States, shall
be then, thenceforward, and forever free ;
and the Executive Government of the United
States, including the military and naval
authority thereof, will recognize and maintain
the freedom of such persons, and will do
no act or acts to repress such persons, or
any of them, in any efforts they may make
for their actual freedom.

" That the Executive will, on the first

day of January aforesaid, by proclamation,
designate the States and parts of States, if
any, in which the people thereof, respec-
tively, shall then be in rebellion against the
United States ; and the fact that any State,
or the people thereof, shall on that day be
in good faith represented in the Congress of
the United States, by members chosen thereto
at elections wherein a majority of the quali-
fied voters of such State shall have partic-
ipated, shall, in the absence of strong coun-
tervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive
evidence that such State, and the people
thereof, are not then in rebellion against the
United States."


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as the States and parts of States wherein
the people thereof, respectively, are this day
in rebellion against the United States, the
following, to wit :

"Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the
parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jeffer
son, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, As
cension, Assumption, Terre Bonne, La-
fourche, Ste. Marie, St. Martin, and Orleans,
including the city of New Orleans), Missis
sippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Caro
lina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except
the forty-eight counties designated as West
Virginia, and also the counties of Berkeley,
Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York,
Princess Anne and Norfolk, including the
cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and
which excepted parts are, for the present,
left precisely as if this proclamation were
not issued.

" And by virtue of the power and for the
purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare
that all persons held as slaves within said
designated States and parts of States are,
and henceforward shall be, free : and that the
Kxecutive Government of the United States,
including the military and naval authorities
thereof, will recognize and maintain the free
dom of sair 1 >ersons.

" And i. ^ereby enjoin upon the people so
declared to be free to abstain from all
violence, unless in necessary self-defence ; and
f recommend to them that, in all cases when
allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable

" And T further declare and make known

that such persons, of suitable condition, will
be received into the armed service of the
United States, to garrison forts, positions,
stations, and other places, and to man ves
sels of all sorts in said service.

" And upon this act, sincerely believed to
be an act of justice, warranted by the Con
stitution, upon military necessity, I invoke
the considerate judgment of mankind, and
the gracious favor of Almighty God.

" In testimony whereof I have hereunto
set my name, and caused the seal of the
United States to be affixed.

" Done at the City of Washing
ton, this first day of January, in
[L.S.] the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-three, and
of the Independence of the United
States the eighty-seventh.

" By the President :

" WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State."

By the Emancipation Proclamation
3.003,392 slaves were set free, as follows:






North Caroliba. . .
South Carolina. . .


Virginia (part) . .
Louisiana (part) .


* The pen with which President Lincoln wrote his Proclamation of Emancipation was given to Sonntor Sunnier
by the 1 rosident, at the request of tlie former, and by him presented to the late (ioorgo Livermore. of Boston. It
is a steel pen. of the kind called "The Washington," in r, common cedar holder ;ill as plain and unostentatious as
was f.hfi Prcsid-.-nt himself.



The institution was not disturbed by the Orders in Council, President Jefferson,

proclamation in eight States, which con- who had called Congress together earlier

tained 831,780 slaves, distributed as fol- than usual (Oct. 25, 1807), sent a mes-

lows: sage to that body communicating facts in

^ his possession and recommending the pas-

Kerftucky " . . 225^490 sa e of an embar g act an inhibition

Maryland 87488 f the departure of our vessels from the

Missouri 114,405 ports of the United States." The Senate,

2 I- o? after a session of four hours, passed a

Louisiana (part) Sa,281 , ... , _ ,

West Virginia 12,761 bl11 22 to 6 laying an embargo on all

Virginia (part) 29,013 shipping, foreign and domestic, in the

ports of the United States, with specified

The remainder were emancipated by the exceptions and ordering all vessels abroad

Thirteenth Amendment to the national to return home forthwith. This was done

Constitution, making the whole number in secret session. The House, also with

set free 3,895,172. closed doors, debated the bill three days

On the preceding pages is given a fac- and nights, and it was passed by a vote

simile of the Proclamation of Emancipa- of 82 to 44, and became a law Dec. 22,

tion. 1807.

Embargo Acts. The British Orders in Unlimited in its duration and uni-
Council (Nov. 6, 1793) and a reported versal in its application, the embargo
speech of Lord Dorchester (Guy Carleton) was an experiment never before tried by
to a deputation of the Western Indians, any nation an attempt to compel two
produced much indignation against the belligerent powers to respect the rights
British government. Under the stimulus of neutrals by withholding intercourse
of this excitement Congress passed with all the world. It accomplished noth-
( March 26, 1794) a joint resolution lay- ir.g, or worse than nothing. It aroused
ing an embargo on commerce for thirty against the United States whatever spirit
days. The measure seemed to have chief- of honor and pride existed in both na-
ly in view the obstructing the supply of tions. Opposition to the measure, in and
provisions for the British fleet and army out of Congress, was violent and incessant,
in the West Indies. It operated quite and on March 1, 1809, it was repealed,
as much against the French. Subse- At the same time Congress passed a law
quently (April 7) a resolution was intro- forbidding all commercial intercourse with
duced to discontinue all commercial inter- France and England until the Orders in
course with Great Britain and her sub- Council and the decrees should be re
jects, as far as respected all articles of pealed.

the growth or manufacture of Great Bonaparte s response to the Embargo
Britain or Ireland, until the surrender of Act of 1807 was issued from Bayonne.
Ihe Western posts and ample compen- April 17, 1808. He was there to dethrone
sation should be given for all losses and his Spanish ally to make place for one
damages growing out of British aggres- of his own family. His decree authorized
sion on the neutral rights of the Ameri- the seizure and confiscation of all Ameri
cans. It was evident from the course that can vessels in France, or which might
the debate assumed and from the temper arrive in France. It was craftily an-
manifcsted by the House that the resolu- swered, when Armstrong remonstrated,
tion would be adopted. This measure that, as no American vessels could be
would have led directly to war. To avert lawfully abroad after the passage of
Ihis calamity, Washington was inclined the Embargo Act. those pretending to
to send a special minister to England, be such must be British vessels in dis-
The appointment of JOHN JAY (q. v.) fol- guise.

lowed. Feeling the pressure of the opposition

On the receipt of despatches from Minis- to the embargo at home, Pinckney was

ter Armstrong, at Paris, containing infor- authorized to propose to the British min-

ination about the new interpretation of istry a repeal of the Embargo Act, as to

the Berlin decree and also of the British Great Britain, on condition of the recall



of her Orders in Council. Not wishing the least sign of yielding while the slight-
to encounter a refusal, Pinckney sounded est doubt existed of its unequivocal fail-
Canning, the secretary of foreign af- ure, or the smallest link in the confed-
fairs, who gradually led the American eracy against her remained undissolved.

The disconcerted
American ambassador,
evidently piqued at
the result of his prop
osition, advised his
government to perse
vere in the embargo.
The embargo was far
less effectual abroad
than it was supposed
it would be, and the
difficulty of maintain
ing it strictly at home
caused its repeal in
March, 1809. The de
cided support of the
embargo given by both

Houses of Congress
was supplemented by
resolutions of the leg
islatures of Georgia,

minister into making a formal proposi- the Carolinas, Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylva-
tion. To this Canning made a reply nia, and New Hampshire. An enforce-
(Sept. 28, 1808) in writing, unsurpassed ment act was passed (January, 1809),
in diplomatic cunning and partially con- and, to make it efficient, the employment
cealed sarcasm. It also contained sound of twelve additional revenue cutters was
views on the whole subject of the orders authorized; also the fitting out for ser-
and decrees. Canning insisted that, as vice of all the ships-of-war and gunboats.
France was the original aggressor, by the This enforcement act was despotic, and
issuing of the Berlin decree, retaliation would not have been tolerated except as a
(the claimed cause of the embargo) temporary expedient, for the Orders in
ought, in the first instance, to have been Council were mild in their effects upon
directed against that power alone; and American trade and commerce compared
England could not consent to buy off a with that of this Embargo Act. It pretty
hostile procedure, of which she ought effectually suppressed extensive smug-
never to have been made the object, at gling, which was carried on between the
the expense of a concession made, not to United States and Canada, and at many
the United States, upon whom the opera- sea-ports, especially in New England,
tion of the British orders was merely in- But the opposition clamored for its re-
cidental, but to France, against which peal. At the opening of 1814 there were
country, in a spirit of just retaliation, expectations, speedily realized, of peace
they had been originally aimed. The Ber- near; also of a general pacification of
lin decree had been the beginning of an Europe. These signs were pointed to by
attempt to overthrow the political power the opposition as cogent reasons for the
of <rreat Britain by destroying her com- repeal. These considerations had weight,
merce, and almost all Europe had been added to which was the necessity for in-
compelled to join in that attempt; and creasing the revenue. Finally, on Jan.
the American embargo had, in fact, come 19 (1814), the President recommended
in aid of Napoleon s continental system, the repeal of the Embargo Act, and it was
This attempt, Canning said, was not like- done by Congress on April 14. There
ly to succeed, yet it was important to the were great rejoicings throughout the coun-
repntation of Great Britain not to show try, and the demise of the Terrapin was



hailed as a good omen of commercial
prosperity. The Death of the Embargo
was celebrated in verses published in the
Federal Republican newspaper of George
town, in the District of Columbia. These
were reproduced in the New York Even
ing Post, with an illustration designed by
John Wesley Jar vis, the painter, and
drawn and engraved on wood by Dr. Alex
ander Anderson. The picture was re
drawn and engraved by Dr. Anderson, on
a reduced scale, in 1864, after a lapse of
exactly fifty years. The lines which it
illustrates are as follows:


" Reflect, my friend, as you pass by,
As you are now, so once was I :
As / am now, so you may be
Laid on your back to die like me !
I was, indeed, true sailor born ;
To quit my friend in death I scorn.
Once Jemmy seemed to be my friend,
But basely brought me to my end !
Of head bereft, and light, and breath,
I hold Fidelity in death :
For Sailors Rights I still will tug ;
And Madison to death I ll hug,
For his perfidious zeal displayed
For Sailors Rights and for Free-trade.
This small atonement I will have
I ll lug down Jemmy to the grave.
Then trade and commerce shall be free,
And sailors have their liberty.
Of head bereft, and light, and breath,
The Terrapin, still true in death,
Will punish Jemmy s perfidy
Leave trade and brother sailors free."


Yes, Terrapin, bereft of breath,
We see thee faithful still in death.

Never mind thy head thou lt live with
out It ;
Spunk will preserve thy life don t doubt


Down to the grave, t atone for sin,
Jemmy must go with Terrapin.
Bear him but off, and we shall see
Commerce restored and sailors free!
Hug, Terrapin, with all thy might
Now for Free-trade and Sailors Right.
Stick to him, Terrapin ! to thee the nation
Now eager looks then die for her salva


INGTON, 15th April, 1814."

The continued aggressions of the British
upon American commerce created a power
ful war party in the United States in
1811, and a stirring report of the com
mittee on foreign relations, submitted to
Congress in November, intensified that
feeling. Bills were speedily passed for
augmenting the army, and other prepara
tions for war were made soon after the
opening of the year 1812. The President
was averse to war, but his party urged
and threatened him so pertinaciously that
he consented to declare war against Great
Britain. As a preliminary measure he
sent a confidential message to Congress
(April 1, 1812) recommending the pas
sage of an act laying an embargo for sixty
days. A bill was introduced to that effect
by Mr. Calhoun, of South Carolina, which
prohibited the sailing of
any vessel for any foreign
port, except foreign ships
with such cargoes as they
might have on board when
notified of the act. The
bill was passed (April 6),
and was speedily followed
by a supplementary act
(April 14) prohibiting ex
portation s by land,
whether of goods or specie.
The latter measure was
called the land embargo.
It was vehemently de
nounced, for it suddenly
suppressed an active and
lucrative trade between the
United States and Canada.
It was ascertained that the British
blockading squadron in American waters
, was constantly supplied with provisions
e. from American ports by unpatriotic men;


also that British manufactures were being ing gratuitously. He died in Camden,
introduced on professedly neutral vessels. N. Y., in August, 1775.
Such traffic was extensively carried on, Emerson, RALPH WALDO, author;
especially in New England ports, where leader of the transcendental school of
magistrates were often leniently disposed New England; born in Boston, May 25,
towards such violators of law. In a con- 1803; graduated at Harvard in 1821;
fidential message (Dec. 9, 1813) the Presi- taught school five years, and in 1826 was
dent recommended the passage of an em- licensed to preach by the Middlesex
l-argo act to suppress the traffic, and one (Unitarian) Association. In the winter
passed both Houses on the 17th, to remain of 1833-34, after returning from Europe,
in force until Jan. 1, 1815, unless the war he began the career of a lecturer arid es-
should sooner cease. It prohibited, under sayist. Marrying in 1835, he fixed his
severe penalties, the exportation, or at
tempt at exportation, by land or water, of
any goods, produce, specie, or live-stock;
and to guard against evasions even the
coast trade was entirely prohibited. This
bore heavily on the business of some of
the New England sea-coast towns. No
transportation was allowed, even on inland
waters, without special permission from
the President. While the act bore so
heavily on honest traders, it pretty effect
ually stopped the illicit business of
speculators, knaves, and traders, who en
riched themselves at the expense of the
community." This act, like all similar
ones, was called a "terrapin policy"; and
illustrative of it was a caricature repre
senting a British vessel in the offing, some
men embarking goods in a boat on the
shore, and a stout man carrying a barrel residence at Concord, Mass., and was a
of flour towards the boat, impeded by contributor to, and finally editor of, The
being seized by the seat of his pantaloons Dial, a quarterly magazine, and organ of
by an enormous terrapin, urged on by a the New England transcendentalists. He
man who cries out, " D n it, how he nicks lived the quiet life of a literary man and
em." The victim exclaims, " Oh ! this philosopher for more than forty years,
cursed Ograbme!" the letters of the last He published essays, poems, etc. He died
word, transposed, spell embargo. This act in Concord, Mass.. April 27, 1882.
was repealed in April, 1814. Emigrant Aid Company. See TTIAYEK.

Embry, JAMES CRAWFORD, clergyman; ELI.

born of negro parents in Knox county, Emigration. See IMMIGRATION.
Ind., Nov. 2, 1834; became a minister in Emmet, THOMAS ADDIS, patriot; born
the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Cork, Ireland, April 24, 1763; grad-
in 1863; author of Condition and Pros- uated at Trinity College, Dublin; first
pects of the Colored American. studied medicine, and then law, and was

Embury, PHILIP, clergyman; born in admitted to the Dublin bar in 1791. He
Ballygaran, Ireland, Sept. 21, 1729; came became a leader of the Association of Unit-
to New York in 1760, and at the solicita- ed Irishmen, and was one of a general
tion of Barbara Heck he began to hold committee whose ultimate object was to
services in his own house, and later on in secure the freedom of Ireland from British
a rigging-loft. This was the foundation rule. With many of his associates, he was
of Methodism in the United States. The arrested in 1798, and for more than two
first Methodist church was built in John years was confined in Fort George, Scot-
Street in 1768, under the supervision of land. His brother Robert, afterwards
Embtiry. he himself working on the build- engaged in the same cause, was hanged ip




Dublin in 1803. Thomas was liberated and Emott, JAMES, jurist; born in Pough-

banished to France after the treaty of keepsie, N. Y., March 14, 1771; grad-

Amiens, the severest penalties being pro- uated at Union College in 1800, and began

nounced against him if he should return the practice of law at Ballston Centre, but

to Great Britain. His wife was permitted soon removed to Albany. He represented

to join him, on condition that she should that district in the legislature in 1804. He

never again set foot on British soil. He practised law a while in New York City,

came to the United States in 1804, and be- and then returned to Poughkeepsie. Ho

came very eminent in his profession in the was in Congress from 180!) to 1813, and

city of New York. He was made attorney- was a leader of the Federal party therein,

general of the State in 1812. A monu- He was again in the legislature (1814-17).

ment an obelisk was erected to his and was speaker of that body. From 1817

memory in St. Paul s church-yard, New to 1823 he was first judge of Dutchess

York, on Broadway. He died in New county, and was judge of the second cir-

York, Nov. 14. 1827. cuit from 1827 to 1831, when, in compli-

Emmons, GEORGE FOSTER, naval officer; ance with the then law of the State, that

born in Clarendon, Vt., Aug. 23, 1811; piohibited the holding of a judicial office

entered the navy in 1828; took part in sev- by a citizen over sixty years of age, he re-

eral engagements during the Mexican tired from public life with his intellect in

War; served through the Civil War, and full vigor. He died in Poughkeepsie, April

in I860 commanded the Ossipee, which 10, 1850.

carried the United States commissioners Empire State, a popular name given

to Alaska for the purpose of hoisting the to the State of New York, because it is

American liag over that region. He was the most populous, wealthy, and politi-

promoted rear-admiral in 1872; retired in cally powerful State in the Union. 11

1873; author of The Navy of the United is sometimes called the "Excelsior State."

State* from 111-5 to 1853. He died in from the motto EXCELSIOR " higher "-

Princeton, N. J., July 2, 1884. OP. its seal and coat-of-arms. The city of

Emory, WILLIAM HELMSLEY, military New York, its commercial metropolis,
officer : born in Queen Anne s county, and the largest city in the Union, is some-
Md., Sept. 0, 1811; graduated at West times called the Empire City."
Point in 1831. He was appointed lieu- Emucfau, BATTLE OF. On a bend in
tenant of the topographical engineers July the Tallapoosa River, in Alabama, was
7, 1833: was aide to General Kearny in a Creek village named Emucfau. Jack-
California in 1846-47, and was made lieu- son, with a considerable force, approaching
tenant-colonel, Sept. 30, 1847. He was as- the place (Jan. 21, 1814). saw a well-
trrmomer to the commission to determine beaten trail and some prowling Indians,
the boundary between the United States and prepared his cam]) that night for an
and Mexico. He was serving as captain attack. At six o clock the next morning
of cavalry in Mexico when the Civil War a party of Creek warriors fell upon him
I voke out, and brought his command into with great fury. At dawn a vigorous
Kansas in good order. In May, 1861, he cavalry charge was made upon the foo
was made lieutenant - colonel of the 6th by General Coffee, and they were dis-
Cavalry; served in the campaign of 1862 persed. Coffee pursued the barbarians
in the Army of the Potomac, and was made for 2 miles with much slaughter. Then
brigadier-general of volunteers in March a party was despatched to destroy the
of that year. He did good service under Indian encampment at Emucfau, but it
Banks in Louisiana, and under Sheridan was found to be too strongly fortified to
in the Shenandoah Valley. He was made be taken without artillery. When Coffee
colonel of the 5th Cavalry in the fall of fell back to guard approaching cannon.
1863; in March, 1865, was brevetted brig- the Indians, thinking it was a retreat,
adier-general and major-general of the again fell upon Jackson, but, after a
United States army; and in 1876 was re- severe struggle, were repulsed. Jackson
tired with the full rank of brigadier- made no further attempt to destroy the
general. He died in Washington. D. C., encampment at Emucfau. He was acton-
Dec. 1, 1887. ished at the prowess of the Creek vvar-



riors. In their retrograde movement Winthrop. Tn 1636 he was sent with
(Jan. 24), the Tennesseeans were again Captain Underbill, with about ninety
threatened by the Indians, near Eno- men, on an expedition against Indians

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 36 of 76)