Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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tochopco Creek. A severe engagement en Block Island and the Pequods. Mr.
soon ensued; but the Tennesseeans, hav- Endicott was deputy-governor of Massa-
ing planted a 6-pounder cannon on an cliusetts several years, and also govern-
eminence, poured a storm of grape-shot or, in which office he died, March 15,
on the Indians, which sent them yelling 1(565. Bold, energetic, sincere, and
in all directions. The slaughter among bigoted, he was the strongest of the Puri-
the Indians was heavy, while that among tans, and was severe in the execution of
the white troops was comparatively laws against those who differed from the
light. In the two engagements (Emucfau prevailing theology of the colony. He
and Enotochopco) , Jackson lost twenty was one of the most persistent persecut-
killed and seventy-five wounded. ors of the Quakers, and stood by unmoved.

Endicott, JOHN, colonial governor; as governor, when they were hanged in
born in Dorchester, England, in 1589; was Boston; and so violent were his feelings

against the Eoman Catholics, and any
thing that savored of " popery," that he
caused the red cross of St. George to be
cut out of the military standard. He
opposed long hair on men, and insisted
that the women should use veils in public
assemblies. During his several adminis
trations many were punished for the
slightest offences, and four Quakers were
hanged in Boston.

Endicott, WILLIAM CROWNINSIIIELD,
jurist; born in Salem, Mass., Nov. 19,
1827; graduated at Harvard in 1847; ad
mitted to the bar in 1850; appointed
judge of the Supreme Court of Massa-

JOHN EMHCOTT. ^^ 1873 ; became Secretary of

war in 1885. Judge Endicott was a
Democrat, and the unsuccessful candidate

sent by the Massachusetts Company to of his party for governor of Massachu-
superintend the plantation at Naumkeag; setts in 1884. His (laughter, Mary, mar-
arrived there Sept. (N. S.), and in ried Joseph Chamberlain, English colo-
April next year was appointed governor nial secretary. He died in Boston, May
of the colony, but was succeeded by John 6, 1900.



ENGINEERING

Engineering-. MR. THOMAS C. CLARKE divided into structural engineering, or
(q. v.) , Past President of the Society of that of railways, bridges, tunnels, build-
Civil Engineers, writes as follows on the ings, etc.; also, into hydraulic engineer-
subject of engineering, with special refer- ing, which governs the application of wa-
ence to American engineers and their ter to canals, river improvements, harbors,
works in the United States. the supply of water to towns and for ir-

rigation, disposal of sewage, etc.

Dynamical engineering can be divided

Engineering is sometimes divided into into mechanical engineering, which cov-

civil. military, and naval engineering, ers the construction of all prime motors,

The logical classification is: statical en- the transmission of power, and the use of

gineering and dynamical. machines and machine tools. Closely al-

Statical engineering can be again sub- lied is electrical engineering, the art of

236




ENGINEERING

the transformation and transmission of The swivelling-truck and equalizing-beam

energy for traction, lighting, telegraphy, enabled our engines to run safely on tracks

telephoning, operating machinery, and where the rigid European engines would

many other uses, such as its electrolytic soon have been in the ditch,
application to ores and metals. Our cars were made longer, and by the

Then we have the combined application use of longitudinal framing much stronger,
of statical, mechanical, and electrical en- A great economy came from the use of
gineering to what is now called indus- annealed cast-iron wheels. It was soon
trial engineering, or the production of seen that longer cars would carry a great-
articles useful to man. This may be di- er proportion of paying load, and the
vided into agricultural, mining, metal- more cars that one engine could draw in
lurgical, and chemical engineering. a train, the less would be the cost. It

Structural Engineering. This is the was not until the invention by Bessemer

oldest of all. We have not been able to in 18G4 of a steel of quality and cost

surpass the works of the past in grandeur that made it available for rails that much

or durability. The pyramids of Egypt heavier cars and locomotives could be

still stand, and will stand for thousands used. Then came a rapid increase. As

of years. Roman bridges, aqueducts, and soon as Bessemer rails were made in this

sewers still perform their duties. Joseph s country, the cost fell from $175 per ton to

canal still irrigates lower Egypt. The $50, and now to $26.

great wall of China, running for 1,500 Before that time a wooden car weighed

miles over mountains and plains, con- 16 tons, and could carry a paying load of

tains 150,000,000 cubic yards of mate- 15 tons. The 30-ton engines of those days

rials and is the greatest of artificial could not draw on a level over thirty cars

works. No modern building compares in weighing 900 tons.

grandeur with St. Peter s, and the me- The pressed steel car of to-day weighs

diiieval cathedrals shame our puny imita- no more than the wooden car, but carries

tions. a paying load of 50 tons. The heaviest

Railways. The greatest engineering engines have now drawn on a level fifty
work of the nineteenth century was the steel cars, weighing 3,750 tons. In the
development of the railway system which one case the paying load of an engine was
has changed the face of the world. Be- 450 tons; now it is 2,500 tons,
ginning in 1829 with the locomotive of Steep grades soon developed a better
George Stophenson, it has extended with brake system, and these heavier trains
such strides that, after seventy years, have led to the invention of the auto-
there are 466.000 miles of railways in the matic brake worked from the engine, and
world, of which 190.000 miles are in the also automatic couplers, saving time and
United States. Their cost is estimated at many lives. The capacity of our rail-
$40,000.000.000, of which $10,000,000,000 ways has been greatly increased by the
belong to the United States. use of electric block-signals.

The rapidity with which railways are The perfecting of both the railway and

built in the United States and Canada eon- its rolling-stock has led to remarkable

trasts strongly with what has been done results.

in other countries. Much has been writ- In 1899 Poor gives the total freight ton-
ten of the energy of Russia in building nage at 975,789,941 tons, and the freight
3,000 miles of Siberian railway in five receipts at $922,436,314, or an average
or six years. In the United States an rate per ton of 95 cents. Had the rates
average of 6,147 miles was completed ev- of 1867 prevailed, the additional yearly
cry year during ten successive years, and cost to the public would have been $4,275,-
in" 1887 there were built 12,982 miles. 000,000, or sufficient to replace the
They were built economically, and at first whole railway system in two and a half
in not as solid a manner as those of Eu- years. This much can surely be said:
rope. Steeper gradients, sharper curves, the reduction in cost of operating our
and lighter rails were used. This ren- railways, and the consequent fall in freight
dered necessary a different kind of roll- rates, have been potent factors in enabling
ing-stock suitable to such construction, the United States to semi abroad last

237



ENGINEERING

year $1,450,000,000 worth of exports and such it is, is 50 per cent, stronger than

flood the world with our food and manu- iron, and can be tied in a knot when

factured products. cold.

Bridge Building. In early days the The effect of improved devices and the

building of a bridge was a matter use of steel is shown by the weights of the

of great ceremony, and it was conse- 400-foot Ohio River iron bridge, built

crated to protect it from evil spirits. Its in 1870, and a bridge at the same place,

construction was controlled by priests, as built in 1880. The bridge of 1870 was of

the title of the Pope of Rome, " Pontifex iron, with a span of 400 feet. The bridge

Alaximus," indicates. of 1880 was of steel. Its span was 550

Railways changed all this. Instead of feet. The weights of the two were nearly

the picturesque stone bridge, whose long alike.

line of low arches harmonized with the The cantilever design, which is a revi-
landscape, there came the straight girder val of a very ancient type, came into
or high truss, ugly indeed, but quickly use. The great Forth Bridge, in Scot-
built, and costing much less. land, 1, 000-foot span, is of this style, as

Bridge construction has made greater are the 500-foot spans at Poughkeepsie,
progress in the United States than abroad, and now a new one is being designed to
The heavy trains that we have described cross the St. Lawrence near Quebec, of
called for stronger bridges. The large 1,800-foot span. This is probably near
American rolling-stock is not used in Eng- the economic limit of cantilever con-
land, and but little on the continent of struction.

Europe, as the width of tunnels and other The suspension bridge can be extended

obstacles will not allow of it. It is said much farther, as it carries no dead weight

that there is an average of one bridge for of compression members,

every 3 miles of railway in the United The Niagara Suspension Bridge, of 810-

States, making 03,000 bridges, most of foot span, built by Roebling, in 1852, and

which have been replaced by new and the Brooklyn Bridge, of 1,000 feet, built

stronger ones during the last twenty by Roebling and his son, twenty years af-

years. This demand has brought into ex- ter, marked a wonderful advance in bridge

istence many bridge - building companies, design. The same lines of construction

some of whom make the whole bridge, will be followed in the 2,700-foot span,

from the ore to the finished product. designed to cross the North River some

Before the advent of railways, highway time in the present century. The only
bridges in America were made of wood, radical advance is the use of a better steel
and called trusses. The coming of rail- than could be had in earlier days,
ways required a stronger type of bridge Steel-arched bridges are now scientifical-
tc carry concentrated loads, and the Howe ly designed. Such are the new Niagara
truss, with vertical iron rods, was in- Bridge, of 840-foot span, and the Alex-
vented, capable of 150-foot spans. andra Bridge at Paris.

About 1808 iron bridges began to take That which marks more clearly than
the place of wooden bridges. One of anything else the great advance in Amer-
the first long-span bridges was a single- ican bridge building, during the last
track railway bridge of 400 - foot span forty years, is the reconstruction of the
over the Ohio at Cincinnati, which was famous Victoria Bridge, over the St. Law-
considered to be a great achievement in rence, above Montreal. This bridge was
1870. designed by Robert Stephenson, and the

The Kinzua viaduct, 310 feet high and stone piers are a monument to his engi-

over half a mile long, belongs to this neering skill. For forty winters they

era. It is the type of the numerous high have resisted the great fields of ice borne

viaducts now so common. by a rapid current. Their dimensions

About 1885 a new material was given were so liberal that the new bridge was

to engineers, having greater strength and put upon them, although four times as

tenacity than iron, and commercially wide as the old one.

available from its low cost. This is ba- The superstructure was originally made

sic steel. This new chemical metal, for of plate-iron tubes, reinforced by tees and

23 R



ENGINEERING

angles, similar to Stephenson s Menai petition. Mistakes mean ruin, and the

Straits Bridge. There are twenty - two fittest only survives.

spans of 240 feet each, and a central one The American system gives the great-

of 330 feet. est possible rapidity of erection of the

It was decided to build a new bridge of bridge on its piers. A span of 518 feet,

open-work construction and of open-hearth weighing 1,000 tons, was erected at Cairo

steel. This was done, and the comparison on the Mississippi in six days. The parts

is as follows: Old bridge, 16 feet wide, were not assembled until they were put

single track, live load of one ton per foot; upon the false works. European engi-

new bridge, 67 feet wide, t\vo railway neers have sometimes ordered a bridge to

tracks and two carriage-ways, live load be riveted together complete in the maker s

of 5 tons per foot. yard, and then taken apart.

The old iron tubes weighed 10,000 tons, The adoption of American work in such

cost $2,713,000, and took two seasons to bridges as the Atbara in South Africa,

erect. The new truss bridge weighs 22,000 the Gokteik viaduct in Burmah, 320 feet

tons, has cost $1,400,000, and the time of high, and others, was due to low cost,

construction was one year. quick delivery and erection, as well as ex-

The modern high office building is an cellence of material and construction,
interesting example of the evolution of a Foundations, etc. Bridges must have

high-viaduct pier. Such a pier of the re- foundations for their piers. Up to the

quired dimensions, strengthened by more middle of the nineteenth century engi-

columns strong enough to carry many neers knew no better way of making them

floors, is the skeleton frame. Enclose the than by laying bare the bed of the river

sides with brick, stone, or terra-cotta, add by a pumped-out cofferdam, or by driving

windows, and doors, and elevators, and it piles into the sand, as Julius Caesar did.

is complete. About the middle of the century, M.

Fortunately for the stability of these Triger, a French engineer, conceived the
high buildings, the effect of wind pressures first plan of a pneumatic foundation,
had been studied in this country in the which led to the present system of coin-
designs of the Kinzua, Pecos, and other pressing air by pumping it into an in-
high viaducts. verted box, called a caisson, with air locks

The modern elevated railway of cities on top to enable men and materials to go

is simply a very long railway viaduct, in and out. After the soft materials were

Some idea may be gained of the life of removed, and the caisson sunk by its own

a modern riveted-iron structure from the weight to the proper depth, it was filled

experience of the Manhattan Elevated with concrete. The limit of depth is that

Railway of New York. These roads were in which men can work in compressed air

built in 1878-71) to carry uniform loads without injury, and this is not much

of 1,600 Ibs. per lineal foot, except Second over 100 feet.

Avenue, which was made to carry 2,000. The foundations of the Brooklyn and

The stresses were below 10,000 Ibs. per St. Louis bridges were put down in this

square inch. manner.

These viaducts have carried in twenty- In the construction of the Poughkeep-

Iwo years over 25,000,000 trains, weighing sie bridge over the Hudson in 1887-88.

over 3,000,000,000 tons, at a maximum it became necessary to go down 135 feel

speed of 25 miles an hour, and are still below tide-level before hard bottom was

in good order. reached. Another process was invented

We have now great bridge companies, to take the place of compressed air. Tim-

which are so completely equipped with ap- ber caissons were built, having double

pliances for both shop drawings and con- sides, and the spaces between them filled

struction that the old joke becomes almost with stone to give weight. Their tops

true that they can make bridges and sell were left open and the American single-

them by the mile. bucket dredge was used. This bucket was

All improvements of design are now pub- lowered and lifted by a very long wire

lie property. All that the bridge compa- rope worked by the engine, and with it

nies do is done in the fierce light of com- the soft material was removed. The in-

239



ENGINEERING

ternal space was then tilled with concrete but the favorite type now is that of sub-
laid under water by the same bucket, and ways. There are two kinds, those near
levelled by divers when necessary. the surface, like the District railways of

While this work was going on, the gov- London, the subways in Paris, Berlin, and

ernment of New South Wales, in Austra- Boston, and that now building in New

lia, called for both designs and tenders for York. The South London and Central

a bridge over an estuary of the sea called London, and other London projects, are

Hawkesbury. The conditions were the tubes sunk 50 to 80 feet below the sur-

same as that at Poughkeepsie, except that face and requiring elevators for access,

the soft mud reached to a depth of 1GO The construction of the Boston subway

feet below tide-level. was difficult on account of the small

The designs of the engineers of the width oi the streets, their great traffic,

Poughkeepsie bridge were accepted, and and the necessity of underpinning the

the same method of sinking open caissons foundations of buildings. All of this was

(in this case made of iron) was carried successfully done without disturbing the

out with perfect success. traffic for a single day, and reflects great

The erection of this bridge involved an- credit on the engineer. Owing to the

other difficult problem. The mud was too great width of New York streets, the

soft and deep for piles and staging, and problem is simpler in that respect. Al-

the cantilever system in this site would though many times as long as the Boston

have increased the cost. subway, it will be built in nearly the

The solution of the problems presented same time. The design, where in earth,

at Hawkesbury gave the second introduc- may be compared to that of a steel office

tion of American engineers to bridge building 20 miles long, laid flat on one of

building outside of America. The first its sides.

was in 1786, when an American carpenter The construction of power-houses for
or shipwright built a bridge over Charles developing energy from coal and from
River at Boston, 1,470 feet long by 46 falling water requires much engineering
feet wide. This bridge was of wood sup- ability. The Niagara power-house is in-
ported on piles. His work gained for tended to develop 100,000 horse -power;
him such renown that he was called to that at the Sault Ste. Marie as much ; that
Ireland and built a similar bridge at on the St. Lawrence, at Massena, 70,000
Belfast. horse-power. These are huge works, re-
Tunnelling by compressed air is a hori- quiring tunnels, rock-cut chambers, and
zontal application of compressed-air foun- masonry and concrete in walls and dams,
dations. The earth is supported by an They cover large extents of territory,
iron tube, which is added to in rings, The contrast in size of the coal-using
which are pushed forward by hydraulic power-houses is interesting. The new
jacks. power-house now building by the Manhat-

A tunnel is now being made under an tan Elevated Railway, in New York, de-
arm of the sea between Boston and East velops in the small space of 200 by 400
Boston, some 1,400 feet long and 65 feet feet 100,000 horse-power, or as much pow-
below tide. The interior lining of iron er as that utilized at Niagara Falls,
tubing is not used. The tunnel is built of One of the most useful materials which
concrete, reinforced by steel rods. Success modern engineers now make use of is con-
in modern engineering means doing a crete, which can be put into confined
thing in the most economical way consist- spaces and laid under water. It costs less
ent with safety. Had the North River than masonry, while as strong. This is
tunnel, at New York, been designed on the revival of the use of a material used
equally scientific principles it would prob- by the Romans. The writer was once al-
ably have been finished, which now seems lowed to climb a ladder and look at the
problematical. construction of the dome of the Pantheon,

The construction of rapid - transit rail- at Rome. He found it a monolithic mass

ways in cities is another branch of engi- of concrete, and hence without thrust. It

neering. Some of these railways are ele- is a better piece of engineering construc-

vated, and are merely railway viaducts, tion than the dome of St. Peter s, built

210



ENGINEERING

1,500 years later. The dome of Columbia to dig the sand with rude hoes, and carry

College Library, in New York, is built of it away in baskets on their heads. They

concrete. died by thousands for want of water and

Hydraulic Engineering. This is one of proper food. At last the French engineers
the oldest branches of engineering, and persuaded the Khedive to let them in-
\vas developed before the last century, troduce steam dredging machinery. A
The irrigation works of Asia, Africa, light railway was laid to supply pro-
Spain, Italy, the Roman aqueducts, and visions, and a small ditch dug to bring
the canals of Europe, are examples. Hy- pure water. The number of men em-
draulic works cannot be constructed in ployed fell to one-fourth. Machinery did
ignorance of the laws which govern the the rest. But for this the canal would
flow of water. The action of water is re- never have been finished,
lentless, as ruined canals, obstructed The Panama Canal now uses the best
rivers, and washed-out dams testify. modern machinery, and the Nicaragua

The removal of sewage, after having Canal, if built, will apply still better
been done by the Etruscans before the methods, developed on the Chicago drain-
foundation of Rome, became a lost art age canal, where material was handled at
during the dirty Dark Ages, when filth a less cost than has ever been done be-
and piety were deemed to be connected in tore.

some mysterious way. It was reserved for The Erie Canal was one of very small
good John \Yesley to point out that cost, but its influence has been surpassed
" Cleanliness is next to godliness." Now by none. The " winning of the West " was
sewage works are as common as those hastened many years by the construction
for water supply. Some of them have of this work in the first quarter of the
been of great size and cost. Such are the century. Two horses were just able to
drainage works of London, Paris, Berlin, draw a ton of goods at the speed of 2
Boston, Chicago, and New Orleans. A. miles an hour over the wretched roads
very difficult work was the drainage of of those days. When the canal was made
the City of Mexico, which is in a valley these two horses could draw a boat carry-
surrounded by mountains, and elevated ing 150 tons 4 miles an hour,
only 4 or 5 feet above a lake having no The Erie Canal was made by engineers,
outlet. Attempts to drain the lake had but it had to make its own engineers first,
been made in vain for GOO years. It has as there were none available in this coun-
lately been accomplished by a tunnel f> try at that time. These self-taught men,
miles long through the mountains, and a some of them land surveyors and others
canal of over 30 miles, the whole work lawyers, showed themselves the equals of
costing some $20,000,000. the Englishmen Brindley and Smeaton,

The drainage of Chicago by locks and when they located a water route through

canal into the Illinois River has cost some the wilderness, having a uniform descent

$35,000,000, and is well worth its cost. from Lake Erie to the Hudson, and which

Scientific research has been applied to would have been so built if there had been

the designing of high masonry and con- enough money.

crete dams, and we know now that no There should be a waterway from the

well-designed dam on a good foundation Hudson to Lake Erie large enough for ves-

should fail. The dams now building sels able to navigate the lakes and the

across the Nile by order of the British ocean. A draft of 21 feet can be had at

government will create the largest arti- a cost estimated at $200.000,000.

ficial lakes in the world. The deepening of the Chicago drainage

The Suez Canal is one of the largest hy- canal to the Mississippi River, and the

draulic works of the last century, and is deepening of the Mississippi itself to the

a notable instance of the displacement of Gulf of Mexico, is a logical sequence of

hand labor by the use of machinery. Is- the first project. The Nicaragua Canal

mail began by impressing a large part of would then form one part of a great line

the peasant population of Egypt, just as of navigation, by which the products of

Rameses had done over 3.000 years be- the interior of the continent could reach

fore. These unfortunate people were set either the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean,



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 37 of 76)