Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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m. Q 241



ENGINEERING

The cost would be small compared with ing engines; also steam and water tur-

the resulting benefits, and some day this bines, wind-mills, and wave-motors,
navigation will be built by the government It comprises all means of transmitting

of the United States. power, as by shafting, ropes, pneumatic

The deepening of the Southwest Pass of pressure, and compressed air, all of which
the Mississippi River from 6 to 30 feet seem likely to be superseded by electricity,
by James B. Eads was a great engineer- It covers the construction of machine
ing achievement. It was the first ap- tools and machinery of all kinds. It en-
plication of the jetty system on a large ters into all the processes of structural,
scale. This is merely confining the flow hydraulic, electrical, and industrial engi-
of a river, and thus increasing its velocity neering. The special improvements are:
so that it secures a deeper channel for The almost universal use of rotary motion,
itself. and of the reduplication of parts.

The improvement of harbors follows The steam-engine is a machine of re-

closely the increased size of ocean and lake ciprocating, converted into rotary, motion

vessels. The approach to New York Har- by the crank. The progress of mechanical

bor is now being deepened to 40 feet, engineering during the nineteenth century

a thing impossible to be done without the is measured by the improvements of the

largest application of steam machinery steam-engine, principally in the direction

in a suction dredge boat. of saving fuel, by the invention of internal

The Croton Aqueduct of New York was combustion or gas-engines, the application
thought by its designers to be on a scale of electrical transmission, and, latest, the
large enough to last for all time. It is practical development of steam turbines
now less than sixty years old, and the by Parsons, Westinghouse, Delaval, Cur-
population of New York will soon be too tis, and others. In these a jet of steam
large to be supplied by it. It is able impinges upon buckets set upon the cir-
to supply 250,000.000 to 300,000,000 gal- cumference of a wheel. Their advantages
Ions daily, and its cost, when the Cornell are that their motion is rotary and not
dam and Jerome Park reservoir are fin- reciprocal. They can develop speed of
ished, will be a little over $92,000,000. from 5,000 to 30,000 revolutions per min-

It is now suggested to store water in ute, while the highest ever attained by a
the Adirondack Mountains, 203 miles reciprocating engine is not over 1,000.
away, by dams built at the outlet of ten Their thermodynamic losses are less, hence
or twelve lakes. This will equalize the they consume less steam and less fuel,
flow of the Hudson River so as to give Duplication of parts has lowered the
3,000,000,000 to 4,000,000,000 gallons cost of all products. Clothing is one of
daily. It is then proposed to pump these. The parts of ready-made garments
1,000,000,000 gallons daily from the and shoes are now cut into shape in num-
Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, 60 miles bers at a time, by sharp-edged templates,
away, to a height sufficient to supply and then fastened together by sewing-
New York City by gravity through an machines,
aqueduct. Mechanical engineering is a good exam-

If this scheme is carried out, the total pie of the survival of the fittest. Millions

supply will be about 1,300,000,000 gallons of dollars are expended on machinery,

daily, or enough for a population of from when suddenly a new discovery or in-

12,000,000 to 13,000,000 persons. By put- vention casts them all into the scrap heap,

ting in more pumps, filter-beds, and con- to be replaced by those of greater earning

duits, this supply can be increased 40 capacity.

per cent., or to 1,800,000,000 gallons daily. Prime motors derive their energy either
This is a fair example of the scale of the from coal or other combinations of car-
engineering works of the nineteenth and bon, such a.s petroleum, or from gravity,
twentieth centuries. This may come from falling water, and

Mechanical Engineering, This is em- the old-fashioned water-wheels of the

ployed in all dynamical engineering. It eighteenth century were superseded in the

covers the designs of prime motors of all nineteenth by turbines, first invented in

sorts, steam, gas, and gasoline reciprocat- France and since greatly perfected. These

242



ENGINEERING

are used in tlie electrical transmission of will conn; from pulverixing coal and using

water-power at Niagara of 5,000 horse- it in the shape of a line powder. Inven-

power, and form a very important part of tions have been made trying to deliver

the plant. this powder into the iire-hox as fast as

The other gravit} motors are wind- made, for it is as explosive as gunpowder,

mills and wave-motors. Wind-mills are ynd as dangerous to store or handle. If

an old invention, but have been greatly this can be done, there will be a saving of

improved in the United States by the use coal due to perfect and smokeless combus-

of the self-reefing wheel. The great plains tion, as the admission of air can be en-

of the West are subject to sudden, violent tirely regulated, the same blast which

gales of wind, and unless the wheel was throws in the powder furnishing oxygen,

automatically self-reefing it would often Some investigators have estimated that

be destroyed. the saving of coal will be as great as

There have been vast numbers of patents 20 per cent. This means 100.000,000 tons

taken out for wave-motors. One was in- of coal annually.

vented in Chile, South America, which Another problem of mechanical engi-
furnished a constant power for four neering is to determine whether it will
months, and was utilized in sawing planks, be found more economical to transform
The action of waves is more constant on the energy of coal, at the mines, into
the Pacific coast of America than else- electric current and send it by wire to
where, and some auxiliary power, such as cities and other places where it is wanted,
a gasoline engine, which can be quickly or to carry the coal by rail and water, as
started and stopped, must be provided for we now do. to such places, and convert it
use during calm days. The prime cost there by the steam or gas engine,
of such a machine need not exceed that Metallurgy and Mining. All the proc-
of a steam plant, and the cost of operat- esses of metallurgy and mining employ
ing is much less than that of any fuel- statical, hydraulic, mechanical, and elec-
burning engine. The saving of coal is a trical engineering. Coal, without rail-
very important problem. In a wider sense, ways and canals, would be of little use,
we may say that the saving of all the great unless electrical engineering came to its
stores which nature lias laid up for us aid.

during the past, and which have remained It was estimated by the late Lord Arm-
almost untouched until the nineteenth con- strong that of the 450,000,000 to 500.000,-
tury, is the great problem of to-day. 000 tons of coal annually produced in the

Petroleum and natural gas may disap- world, one-third is used for steam produc-
pear. The ores of gold, silver, and plat- tion, one-third in metallurgical processes,
inurn will not last forever. Trees will and one-third for domestic consumption,
grow, and iron ores seen; to be practically Next in importance comes the produc-
inexhaustible. Chemistry lias added a tion of iron and steel. Steel, on account
new metal in aluminum, which replaces of its great cost and brittleness, was only
copper for many purposes. One of the used for too s and special purposes until
greatest problems of the twentieth cen- past the middle of the nineteenth cen
tury is to discover some chemical process tury. This has been all changed by the
for treating iron, by which oxidation will invention of his steel by Bessemer in 1864.
not take place. and open-hearth steel in the furnace of

Coal, next to grain, is the most impor- Siemens, perfected some twenty years

rant of nature s gifts: it can be exhaust- since by Gilchrist & Thomas,

ed, or the cost of mining it become so The United States have taken the lead

great that it cannot be obtained in the in steel manufacture. In 1873 Great

countries where it is most needed: water, Britain made three times as much steel

wind, and wave power may take its place as the United States. Now the United

to a limited extent, and greater use may States makes twice as much as Great

be made of the waste gases coming from Britain, or 40 per cent, of all the steel

blast or smelter furnaces, but as nearly made in the world.

all energy comes from coal, its use must Mr. Carnegie has explained the reason

be economized, and the greatest economy why, in epigrammatic phrase: "Three

243



ENGINEERING



Ibs. of steel billets can be sold for 2
cents."

This stimulates rail and water traffic
and other industries, as he tells us 1 Ib.
of steel requires 2 Ibs. of ore, I 1 /, Ibs. of
coal, and V.-s Ib. of limestone.

It is not surprising, therefore, that the
States bordering on the lakes have created
a traffic of 25,000,000 tons yearly through
the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, while the Suez,
which supplies the wants of half the pop
ulation of the world, has o^y 7,000,000,
or less than the tonnage of the little Har
lem River at New York.

Industrial Engineering. This leads us
to our last topic, for which too little
room has been left. Industrial engineering
covers statical, hydraulic, mechanical, and
electrical engineering, and adds a new
branch which we may call chemical engi
neering. This is pre-eminently a child of
the nineteenth century, and is the conver
sion of one thing into another by a knowl
edge of their chemical constituents.

When Dal ton first applied mathematics
to chemistry and made it quantitative, he
gave the key which led to the discoveries
of Cavendish. Gay-Lussac, Berzelius, Lie-
big, and others. This new knowledge was
not locked up, but at once fiven to the
world, and made use of. Its first appli
cation on a large scale was made by Na
poleon in encouraging the manufacture of
sugar from beets.

The new products were generally made
from what were called " waste material."
We now have the manufacture of soda,
bleaching powders, aniline dyes, and other
products of the distillation of coal, also
coal-oil from petroleum, acetylene gas, cel
luloid, rubber goods in all their numer
ous varieties, high explosives, cement, arti
ficial manures, artificial ice, beet-sugar,
and even beer may now be included.

The value of our mechanical and chem
ical products is great, but it is surpassed
by that of food products. If these did
not keep pace with the increase of pop
ulation, the theories of Malthus would be
true but he never saw a modern reaper.

The steam-plough was invented in Eng
land some fifty years since, but the irrcat
use of agricultural machinery dates from
our Civil War, when so many men were
taken from agriculture. It became neces
sary to fill their places with machinery.



Without tracing the steps which have led
to it, we may say that the common type
is what is called " the binder," and is a
machine drawn chiefly by animals, and in
some cases by a field locomotive.

It cuts, rakes, and binds sheaves of
grain at one operation. Sometimes
threshing and winnowing machines are
combined with it, and the grain is deliv
ered into bags ready for the market.

Different machines are used for cutting
and binding corn, and for mowing and
raking hay, but the most important of ail
is the grain-binder. The extent of their
use may be known from the fact that
75,000 tons of twine are used by these
machines annually.

It is estimated that there are in the
United States 1,500,000 of those machines,
but as the harvest is earlier in the South,
there are probably not over 1,000,000 in
use at one time. As each machine takes
the place of sixteen men, this means that
10,000.000 men are released from farming
for other pursuits.

It is fair to assume that a large part
of these 10.000.000 men have gone into
manufacturing, the operating of railways,
and other pursuits. The use of agricult
ural machinery, therefore, is one explana
tion of why the United States produces
eight - tenths of the worM s cotton and
corn, one-quarter of its wheat, one-third
of its meat and iron, two-fifths of its
steel, and one-third of its coal, and a large
part of the world s manufactured goods.

Conclusion. It is a very interesting
question, why was this creat development
of material prosperity de ] nyed so late?
Why did it wait until the nineteenth
century, and then all at once increase with
such rapid strides?

It was not until modern times that the
reign of law was greatly extended, and
men were insured the product of their
labors. Then came the union of scientists,
inventors, and engineers.

So loncf as these three classos worked
separately but little was done. There was
an antagonism between them. Ancient
writers went so far as to say that the in
vention of the arch and of the potter s
wheel were beneath the dignity of a phi
losopher.

One of the first great men to take a dif
ferent view was Francis Bacon. Macau-



244



ENGINEERING

lay, in his famous essay, quotes him as dexes of all scientific and engineering

saying: " Philosophy is the relief of man s articles as fast as they appear is another

estate, and the endowment of the human modern contrivance.

race with new powers; increasing their Formerly scientific discoveries were con-
pleasures and mitigating their sufferings." cealed by cryptograms, printed in a dead
These noble words seem to anticipate the language, and hidden in the archives of
famous definition of civil engineering, em- learned societies. Even so late as 1821
bodied by Telford in the charter of the Oersted published his discovery of the uni-
British Institution of Civil Engineers: formity of electricity and magnetism in
Engineering is the art of controlling Latin.

the great powers of nature for the use and Engineering works could have been de-
convenience of man." signed and useful inventions made, but

The seed sown by Bacon was long in they could not have been carried out with-
producing fruit. Until the laws of nature out combination. Corporate organization
were better known, there could be no prac- collects the small savings of many into
tical application of them. Towards the great sums through savings-banks, life
end of the eighteenth century a great in- insurance companies, etc., and uses this
tellectual revival took place. In litera- concentrated capital to construct the vast
ture appeared Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, works of our days. This could not con-
Hume, and Goethe. In pure science there tinue unless fair dividends were paid,
came Laplace, Cavendish, Lavoisier, Lin- Everything now has to be designed so as
lueus, Berzelius, Priestley, Count Rum- to pay. Time, labor, and material must
ford, James Watt, and Dr. Franklin. The be saved, and he ranks highest who can
last three were j.mong the earliest to bring best do this. Invention has been encour-
about a union of pure and applied science, aged by liberal patent laws, which secure
Franklin immediately applied his discov- to the inventor property in his ideas at
cry that frictional electricity and light- a moderate cost.

ning were the same to the protection of Combination, organization, and scien-
buildings by lightning-rods. Count Rum- tific discovery, inventive ability, and engi-
ford (whose experiments on the conver- neering skill are now united,
sion of power into heat led to the dis- It may be said that we have gathered
covery of the conservatism of energy) together all the inventions of the nine-
spent a long life in contriving useful in- teenth century and called them works of
ventions. engineering. This is not so. Engineering

James Watt, one of the few men who covers much more than invention. It in-
have united in themselves knowledge of eludes all works of sufficient size and in-
abstract science, great inventive faculties, tricacy to require men trained in the
and rare mechanical skill, changed the knowledge of the physical conditions which
steam-engine from a worthless rattletrap govern the mechanical application of the
into the most useful machine ever invent- laws of nature. First comes scientific dis-
ed by man. To do this he first discovered covery, then invention, and lastly engi-
Ihe science of thermodynamics, then in- neering. Faraday and Henry discovered
vented the necessary appliances, and final- the electrical laws which led to the in
ly constructed them with his own hands, vention of the dynamo, which was per-
lle was a very exceptional man. At the fected by many minds. Engineering built
beginning of the ninetpenth century there such works as those at Niagara Falls to
were few engineers who had received any make it useful.

scientific education. Now there is in the An ignorant man may invent a safety-
profession a great army of young men, pin, but he cannot build the Brooklyn
most of them graduates of technical Bridge.

schools, good mathematicians, and well The engineer - in - chief commands an

versed in the art of experimenting. army of experts, as without specialization

One of the present causes of progress is little can be done. His is the comprehen-

ihat all discoveries are published at once sive design, for which he alone is respon-

in technical journals and in the daily sible.

press. The publication of descriptive in- Such is the evolution of engineering,

245



ENGINEERS ENGLISH REVOLUTION



which began as a craft and has ended as a
profession.

Thoughtful persons have asked, will this
new civilization last, or will it go the way
of its predecessors? Surely the answer
is: all depends on good government, on the
stability of law, order, and justice, pro-
tecting the rights of all classes. It will
continue to grow with the growth of good
government, prosper with its prosperity,
and perish with its decay.

Engineers, SOCIETIES OF. American So-
ciety of Civil Engineers, organized 1852;
American Institute of Mining Engineers,
organized 1871; American Society of Me-
chanical Engineers, organized 1880;
American Institute of Electrical Engi-
neers, organized 1884.

English, EARL, naval officer; born in
Crosswicks, N. J., Feb. 18, 1824; entered
the navy Feb. 25, 1840; was actively en-
gaged during the Mexican War on the
Pacific coast in Mexico and California;
also served throughout the Civil War.
In 1868, when the Tycoon of Japan was
defeated by the Mikado s party, he found
refuge on Commander English s ship Iro-
quois. He was promoted rear-admiral in
1884; retired in 1886. He died in Wash-
ington, D. C., July 16, 1893.

English, THOMAS DUNN, author ; born
in Philadelphia, Pa., June 29, 1819;
graduated at the University of Pennsyl-
vania in 1839; member of the New Jersey
legislature in 1863-64; and of Congress in
1891-95; is the author of American Bal-
lads ; Book of Battle Lyrics ; Ben Bolt, etc.
He died in Newark, N. J., April 1, 1902.

English, WILLIAM HAYDEN, capitalist;
born in Lexington, Ind., Aug. 27, 1822;
received a collegiate education and studied
law; was a Democratic Representative
in Congress in 1852-61 ; and was con-
spicuous there because of his opposition
to the policy of his own party in the con-
troversy over the admission of Kansas
into the Union. He reported what was
known as the " English bill," which
provided that the question of admission
under the Lecompton constitution be re-
ferred back to the people of Kansas. His
report was adopted, and Kansas voted
against admission under that constitii-
tion. After his retirement from Congress
he engaged In various financial concerns;
wag candidate for Vice-President on the



ticket with Gen. Winfield S. Hancock in
1880; published an historical and bio-
graphical work on the constitution of
the law-makers of Indiana; and bequeath-
ed to the Indiana Historical Society, of
which he was president for many years,
the funds to complete and publish his
History of Indiana, He died in Indian-
apolis. Ind., Feb. 7, 1896.

English Language, a branch from the
Low-German of the Teutonic or Germanic
branch of the Indo-European family. It
is closely related to the dialects spoken
on the north shores of the German Ocean,
especially with the Frisian dialect.

English Revolution, THE. When
James II. attempted to establish despot-
ism in England by destroying the consti-
tution in Church and State, he arrayed
against himself the united Church, the
aristocracy, and the intelligent people of
the realm. He also resolved to make the
Roman Catholic the religious system of
the kingdom, and sought to destroy all
forms of Protestantism. He prorogued
Parliament, and ruled despotically as an
autocrat without it. So universal were
the alarm and indignation caused by his
conduct that there was a general longing
for relief; and the fires of revolution
burned intensely in the hearts of the
people before they burst into a flame. The
King s daughter Mary, who had married
her cousin William, Prince of Orange, was
heir to the throne of England in the ab-
sence of a male heir. W 7 hen the people
were ripe for revolution it was announced
that James s second wife had given birth
to a son (June 10, 1688). The hopes of
the nation, which were centred on Mary,
were grievously disappointed. The opin-
ion was general that the alleged heir
just born was a supposititious one, and
not the child of the Queen. The volcano
was instantly uncapped, and on June 30
(1688) leading men of the kingdom sent
an invitation to William of Orange to
invade England and place his wife on
its throne. He went, landed at Torbay
(Nov. 5) with 15,000 men, and penetrated
the country. The people flocked to his
standard, King James fled to France, and
all England was speedily in the hands of
the welcome invader.

On Feb. 13, the Convention Parliament
conferred the crown of England on Will-



246



ENTAIL OF ESTATE ENTERPRISE



iam and Mary as joint sovereigns. Ban
croft says of the political theory of the
revolution: "The old idea of a Christian
monarchy resting on the law of God was
exploded, and political power sought its
origin in compact. Absolute monarchy
was denied to be a form of civil govern
ment. Nothing, it was held, can bind
freemen to obey any government save their
own agreement. Political power is a
trust, and a breach of the trust dissolves
the obligation to allegiance. The supreme
power is the legislature, to whose guar
dianship it has been sacredly and unalter
ably delegated. By the fundamental law
cf property no taxes may be levied on the
people but by its own consent or that of
its authorized agents. These were the doc
trines of the revolution, dangerous to
European institutions and dear to the
colonies; menacing the Old World with
convulsive struggles and reforms, and es
tablishing for America the sanctity of its
own legislative bodies. Throughout the
English world the right to representation
could never again be separated from the
power of taxation. The theory gave to
vested rights in England a bulwark
against the monarch ; it encouraged the



tates to certain classes of descendants in
which the legal course of succession of
some descendants is cut oft". The earliest
English law of entail is found in the
statute of Westminster in 1285. In the
United States this law came over with
the general body of enactments known ;is
the " common law of England. South
Carolina abolished entail in 177:}. Vir
ginia in 1770, Georgia in 1777. Maryland
in 1782, North Carolina in 1784. In re
cent years the purposes of entail are ac
complished by other legal procedure. It
is believed that Gardiner s Island, N. Y.,
is the only property in the United States
now held entail by direct descendants of
the grantee. See GARDINER, Liox.

Enterprise, THE. The Enterprise, four
teen guns, was an American brig that ac
quired the reputation of being " lucky."
She cruised for a long time off the New
England coast, the terror of British
provincial privateers, under Capt. John
ston Blakeley, until he was promoted to
the command of the new sloop-of-war
Wasp, when Lieut. William Burrows be
came her commander. On the morning of
Sept. 1, 1813, she sailed from Portsmouth,
N. H., in quest of British cruisers. On



INTER ENTERPHIZE NAV.
AMERI. ET BOXER NAV.
BRIT. DIE IV SEPT.
MDCCCXIII.




THE M OALL MEDAL.



colonists to assert their privileges, as pos- the morning of the 5th she discovered a
sessing a sanctity which tyranny only British brig in a bay near Pemaquid Point,



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 38 of 76)