Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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could disregard, and which could perish which, observing the Fntc.rprisr, bore
only by destroying allegiance itself." down upon her in menacing attitude.

Entail of Estate. A disposition of es- Burrows accepted the challenge, cleared




of the Boxer
was delivered to
him, when he
grasped it and
said, " Now I
am satisfied ; I
die contented."
The command of
the Enterprise
devolved upon
Lieut. E. R. Mc-
Call, of South
Carolina, who
conducted his
part of the en
gagement to its
close with skill.
He took both
vessels into
Portland Har-
bor on the
morning of the
7th. The two
young com-
mariders were

his ship for action, and, after getting a buried side by side in a cemetery at Port-
proper distance from land to have ample land. Congress presented a gold medal
sea-room for conflict, he edged towards to the nearest masculine representative
the stranger, which proved to be the Brit- of Lieutenant Burrows; and another was
ish brig Boxer, fourteen guns, Capt. presented to Lieutenant McCall.
Samuel Blyth. At twenty minutes past Envoy. A diplomatic or political rank
three o clock in the afternoon the brigs inferior to that of AMBASSADOR (q. v.}.
closed within half pistol-shot of each In the diplomatic service in the United
other and both vessels opened fire at the States the official designation is envoy
same time. The wind was light, with extraordinary and minister plenipoten-
very little sea, and the cannonading was tiary. The representatives of the United
destructive. Ten minutes later the Enter- States in the countries with which it has
prise ranged ahead of the Boxer, and, mutually raised its representative above
taking advantage of her position, she the rank of envoy extraordinary arid
steered across the bows of her antagonist, minister plenipotentiary are officially
and delivered her fire with such precision known as ambassadors extraordinary
and destructive energy that, at four and plenipotentiary.

o clock, the British officer in command Envoys to France. Monroe was re-
shouted through his trumpet that he had called from France in 1796, and CHARLES
surrendered; but his flag being nailed to COTESWORTII PINCKNEY (q. v.) , of South
the mast, it could not be lowered until Carolina, was appointed to fill his place,
the Americans should cease firing. It On his arrival in France, late in the year,
was found that Capt. Blyth had been cut with the letter of recall and his own cre-
nearly in two by an 18-pound cannon-ball, dentials, the Directory refused to receive
Almost at the same moment when Blyth him. Xot only so, but, after treating
fell on the Boxer, Burrows, of the Enter- him with great discourtesy, the Directory
prise, was mortally wounded. So also peremptorily ordered him to leave France,
was Midshipman Kervin Waters. Blyth He withdrew to Holland (February, 1797) ,
was killed instantly; Burrows lived eight and there awaited further orders from
hours. The latter refused to be carried home. When Mr. Adams took the chair
below until the sword of the commander of state, the United States had no diplo-



matic agent in France. The " French spirit of the people kept episcopacy at bay,

party," or Republicans, having failed ta for they remembered how much they had

elect Jefferson President, the DIRECTORY suffered at the hands of the Church of

(q. v.) determined to punish a people England. On the accession of George III.

who dared to thwart their plans. In and the administration of the Earl of

May, 1797, they issued a decree which Bute, among the reforms in the colonies

was tantamount to a declaration of war contemplated and proposed by the minis-

against the United States. At about the try was the curtailment or destruction of

same time President Adams, observing the Puritan and Dissenting influence in

the perilous relations between the United the provinces, which seemed inimical to

States and France, called an extraordi- monarchy, and to make the ritual of the

nary session of Congress to consider the Anglican Church the state mode of wor-

matter. There had been a reaction among ship. As early as 1748 Dr. Seeker, Arch-

the people, and many leading Democrats bishop of Canterbury, had proposed the

favored war with France. A majority of establishment of episcopacy in America,

the cabinet advised further negotiations, and overtures were made to several emi-

and John Marshall, a Federalist, and nent Puritan divines to accept the leader-

Elbridge Gerry, a Democrat, were ap- ship, but they all declined it. A royalist

pointed envoys extraordinary to join churchman in Connecticut, in 1760, in a

Pinckney and attempt to settle all mat- letter to Dr. Seeker, and to the Earl of

ters in dispute. They reached France in Halifax, then at the head of the board of

October (1797), and sought an audience trade and plantations, urged the necessity

with the Directory. Their request was met of providing two or three bishops for the

by a haughty refusal, unless the envoys colonies, the support of the Church, and a

would first agree to pay into the ex- method for repressing the rampant repub-

hausted French treasury a large sum of licanism of the people. " The rights of

money, in the form of a loan, by the pur- the clergy and the authority of the King,"

chase of Dutch bonds wrung from that said the Bishop of London, " must stand

nation by the French, and a bribe to the or fall together."

amount of $240,000 for the private use of The Anglican Church then had many ad-

the five members of the Directory. The herents in all the colonies, who naturally

proposition came semi-officially from Tal- desired its ascendency; but the great mass

leyrand, one of the most unscrupulous oi the people looked upon that Church

politicians of the age. It was accompanied as an ally of the state in acts of oppres-

by a covert threat that if the proposition sion, and earnestly opposed it. They well

was not complied with the envoys might knew that if Parliament could create dio-

be ordered to leave France in twenty-four ceses and appoint bishops, they would es-

hours, and the coasts of the United States tablish tithes and crush out dissent as

be ravaged by French cruisers from San heresy. For years controversy in the

Domino. They peremptorily refused, colonies on this topic was warm, and some-

and Pinckney uttered, in substance, the times acrimonious. Essays for and against

noble words, " Millions for defence, but episcopacy appeared in abundance. The

not one cent for tribute!" The envoys Bishop of Llandaff, in a sermon preached

asked for their passports. They were given before the Society for the Propagation of

to the two Federalists under circumstances the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in which ho

that amounted to their virtual expulsion, advocated the necessity of establishing

but Gerry, the Democrat, was induced to episcopacy in America, heaped abuse vvith-

remain. He, too, was soon treated with out stint upon the colonists. " Upon the

contempt by Talleyrand and his associates, adventurers themselves," he said, "what

and he returned home in disgust. reproach could he cast heavier than they

Episcopacy in America. The Church deserve? who, with their native soil, aban-

and state in England worked in concert doned their native manners and religion,

in forging fetters for the English-Ameri- and ere long were found, in many parts,

can colonists. The Church of England was living without remembrance or knowledge

orly made a state establishment in the of God, without any divine worship, in

colony of Virginia, but elsewhere the free dissolute wickedness and the most brutal



piofligacy of manners." He charged them of New York and New Jersey, in 1702,
with having become " infidels and barba- even violent efforts were used to make the
rians"; and the prelate concluded that the liturgy and ritual of the Church of Eng-
only remedy for the great evil was to be land the state system of worship. He
found in a. Church establishment. His denied the right of preachers or school-
i ecommendations were urged with zeal by masters to exercise their functions in the
churchmen in the colonies. The Dis- province without a bishop s license; and
senters were aroused. They observed in when the corporation of New York re-
the bishop s sermon the old persecuting solved to establish a grammar-school, the
spirit of the Church, and visions of Laud Bishop of London was requested to send
and the Star Chamber disturbed them, over a teacher. In violation of his posi-
Eminent writers in America entered tive instructions, the governor began a
the lists in opposition to him. Among 1 systematic persecution of all religious de-
others, William Livingston, whose fa- nominations dissenting from the practices
mous letter to the bishop, issued in of the Church of England. This conduct
pamphlet form, refuted the charges reacted disastrously to Trinity Church,
of that dignitary so completely that which, until the province was rid of Corn-
they were not repeated. The theo- bury, had a very feeble growth.
Jogical controversy ceased when the vital Puritan austerity had extended to a
question of resistance to the oppressive large class of intelligent free-thinkers
power of both Church and state was and doubters in New England, and they
brought to a final issue. The first Eng- felt inclined to turn towards the freer,
lish bishop within the domains of the more orderly, and dignified Church of
American republic was SAMUEL SEABURY England. The rich and polite preferred
(q. v.), of Connecticut, who was conse- a mode of worship which seemed to bring
crated by three bishops of the Scottish them into sympathy with the English
Episcopal Church, Nov. 14, 1784. aristocracy, and there were many who de-
Efforts were early made by the English lighted in the modest ceremonies of the
to supplant the Dutch Church as the pre- church. Nor were these influences con-
vailing religious organization in New York, fined to laymen. There were studious and
The act of the Assembly procured by Gov- aspiring men among the ministers to
emor Fletcher, though broad in its scope, whom the idea of apostolic succession
was destined for that purpose. Under had charms; and they yearned for
that act Trinity Church was organized, freedom from the obstinate turbulence
and Fletcher tried to obtain authority to of stiff - necked church - members, who,
appoint all the ministers, but the Assem- in theory, were the spiritual equals of
bly successfully resisted his designs. In the pastors, whom, to manage, it was nec-
1095 Rev. John Miller, in a long letter to essary to humor and to suit. These ideas
the Bishop of London on the condition of found expression in an unexpected quav-
religion and morals, drew a gloomy pict- ter. Timothy Cutler, a minister of learn-
ure of the state of society in the city of ing and great ability, was rector of Yale
New York, and earnestly recommended as College in 1719. To the surprise and
a remedy for all these social evils " to alarm of the people of New England, Mr.
send over a bishop to the province of New Cutler, with the tutor of the college and
York duly qualified as suffragan" to the two ministers in the neighborhood, took
Bishop of London, and five or six young occasion, on Commencement Day, 1722, to
ministers, with Bibles and prayer-books; avow their conversion to Episcopacy,
to unite New York, New Jersey, Con- Cutler was at once " excused " from all
necticut, and Rhode Island into one prov- further service in the colege, and provi-
ince; and the bishop to be appointed gov- sion was made for all future rectors to give
ernor, at a salary of $7,200, his Majesty satisfactory evidence of " soundness of
to give him the King s Farm of 30 their faith in opposition to Arminian and
acres, in New York, as a seat for himself prelatical corruptions." Weaker ones en-
and his successors. When Sir Edward gaged in the revolt halted, but others per-
Hyde (afterwards Lord Cornbury) be- sisted. Cutler became rector of a new
came governor of the combined provinces Episcopal church in Boston, and the dis-



missed ministers were maintained as Ala.; second vice-president, Rev. W. T.
missionaries by the Society for the Propa- McClure, Marshall, Mo.; third vice-presi-
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, dent, Rev. J. M. Barcus, Cleburne, Tex.;
This secession from the Church resting treasurer, Mr. 0. W. Patton, Nashville,
on the SAYBROOK PLATFORM (q. .), made Tcnn. ; secretary, Mr. G. W. Thomasson,
the ministers of Massachusetts keen-eyed Nashville, Tenn.

in the detection of signs of defection. Equal Rights Party. In the city of
John Checkly (afterwards ordained an New York, in 1835, there arose in the
Episcopal missionary) published Leslie s ranks of the Democratic party a combina-
tfhort and Easy Method with Deists, with tion of men opposed to all banking in-
an appendix by himself, in which Episco- stitutions and monopolies of every sort,
pal ordination was insisted upon as neces- A " Workingman s party " had been
sary to constitute a Christian minister, formed in 1820, but had become defunct,
The authorities in Boston were offended, and the " Equal Rights party " was its
Checkly was tried on a charge that the successor. They acted with much caution
publication tended to bring into con- and secrecy in their opposition to the
tempt and infamy the ministers of the powerful Democratic party, but never
holy Gospel established by law within rose above the dignity of a faction. They
his Majesty s province of Massachusetts." made their first decided demonstration at
For this offence Checkly was found guilty Tammany Hall at the close of October,
and fined 50. See PROTESTANT EPISCO- 1835, when an event occurred which
PAL CHURCH. caused them afterwards to be known as

Episcopal Church. REFORMED. See LOCO-FOCOS (q. v.) , a name applied by the
REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Whigs to the whole Democratic party.

Epworth League, a religious society The faction soon became formidable, and
composed of the young members and the regulars endeavored to reconcile the
friends of the Methodist Episcopal irregulars by nominating their favorite
Church, founded in May, 1880. Its aim for the Presidency, Richard M. Johnson.
is to promote intelligent and loyal piety for Vice-President with Martin Van
among its members. Its constitution Buren.

provides for religious, intellectual, and Era of Good Feeling, in United States
social development. In 1000 it numbered history, the period of 1817-23. During
27,700 chapters, with a membership of these years there was scarcely any antag-
1.000.000. President, Bishop Isaac W. onism manifested between the political
Joyce. Minneapolis, Minn.; vice-presi- parties, owing largely to the decline of
dents: Department of Spiritual Work, the Federal party and to the abandonment
W. W. Cooper, Chicago, 111.; Department of past issues. The War of 1812 had
of Mercy and Help, Rev. W. H. Jordan, practically settled every question which
D.D., Sioux Falls, S. D. ; Department of had disturbed the parties since 1800. The
Literary Work, Rev. R. J. Cook, D.D., inaugural speech of PRESIDENT JAMES
Chattanooga, Tenn.; Department of Social MONROE (q. r.) in 1817 was of such a
Work, F. W. Tunnell, Philadelphia, Pa.; nature as to quiet the Federal minority,
general secretary, Rev. Joseph F. Berry, It treated the peculiar interests of that
D.D., 57 Washington Street, Chicago, 111., party with magnanimity; congratulated
general treasurer, R. S. Copeland, M.D., the country upon its universal " bar-
Ann Arbor, Mich. The central onVe is mony," and predicted an increase of this
located at 57 Washington Street, Chicago, harmony for the future. This good will
Hi. There is also an Epworth League was further augmented by a visit of
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, President Monroe to the New England
South; founded in Memphis, Tenn., in States, which had not seen a President
1801. It has 5,838 chapters, with a total since the days of Washington. Party feel-
membership of 306,580. The central ing was forgotten, and all joined in pro-
office is located at Nashville, Tenn. The claiming that an " era of good feeling "
officers are: President, Bishop W. A. had come. In 1824 this era was unhappi-
Condler, Atlanta, Ga. : first vice-president, ly terminated by the election of JOHN
Rev. J. W. Newman, D.D., Birmingham, QUTNCY ADAMS (q. v.) , during whose ad-



ministration questions arose which resur- in mechanical science after he settled in
rected party antagonisms. New York. He constructed the Monitor,

Ericsson, JOHN, engineer; born in which fought the Merrimac, using T. R.
Wermeland, Sweden, July 31, 1803. He TIMBY S (q. v.) revolving turret, thus
became an eminent engineer in his own revolutionizing the entire science of naval
country, and attained the rank of cap- warfare. At the time of his death he was
tain in the Swedish army. In 1826 he perfecting an engine to be run by solar
visited England with a view to the in- rays. He died in New York City, March
Ivoduction of his invention of a flame 8, 1889, and his remains were sent to his
engine. He engaged actively in mechani- native land in the United States cruiser
cal pursuits, and made numerous inven- Baltimore.

tions, notably that of artificial draft, Eric the Red, a Scandinavian navi-
\vhich is still used in locomotive engines, gator, who emigrated to Ireland about
lie won the prize offered by the Man- 982, after which he discovered Greenland,
Chester and Liverpool Railway for the where he planted a colony. He sent out
best locomotive, making one that attained an exploring party under his son Lief,
the then astonishing speed of 50 miles about 1000, who seems to have discovered
an hour. He invented the screw propeller the continent of America, and landed
for navigation, but the British admiralty somewhere on the shores of Massachu-
being unwilling to believe in its capacity setts or the southern portion of New Eng-
and success, Ericsson came to the United land. See VINLAND.

States in 1839, and resided in the city Erie Canal, THE, the greatest work of
of New York or its immediate vicinity till internal improvement constructed in the
his death. In 1841 he was engaged in the United States previous to the Pacific
construction of the United States ship-of- Railway. It connects the waters of the
war Princeton, to which he applied his Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean
propeller. She was the first steamship by way of the Hudson River. It was

contemplated by General Schuyler and
Elkanah Watson, but was first definitely
proposed by Gouverneur Morris, at about
the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Various writers put forth essays upon the
subject, among them De Witt Clinton,
who became its most notable champion.
The project took such shape that, in
1810, canal commissioners were appointed,
with Gouverneur Morris at their head.
In 1812 Clinton, with others, was appoint
ed to lay the project before the national
Congress, and solicit the aid of the
national government. Fortunately the
latter declined to extend its patronage
to the great undertaking. The War of
1812-15 put the matter at rest for a
while. That war made the transporta-
JOHX Kiucssox. tion of merchandise along our sea-coasts

perilous, and the commercial intercourse

ever built with the propelling machinery between seaboard cities was carried on in
under the water-line and out of reach of a larger degree by wheeled vehicles. For
shot. In 1840 he received the gold medal this purpose Conestoga wagons were used
of the Mechanics Institute of New York between New York and Philadelphia, and
for the best model of a steam fire-engine, when one of these made the journey of
and constructed the first one seen in the 90 miles in three days, with passengers,
United States. King Oscar of Sweden it was called " the flying-machine." It
made him Knight of the Order of Vasa has been estimated that the amount of
in 1852. He accomplished many things increased expense by this method of trans-



portation of merchandise for the coast government would do nothing in the mat-
region alone would have paid the cost of ter, and the State of New York resolved
a system of internal navigation from to construct the canal alone. Clinton was
Maine to Georgia. made governor in 1810, and used all his
The want of such a system was made official and private influence in favor of
clear to the public mind, especially to the the enterprise. He saw it begun during


population then gathering in the Western his first administration. The first exca-

States. Then Mr. Clinton, more vigor- vation was made July 4, 1817, and it was

ously than ever, pressed upon the public completed and formally opened by him,

attention the importance of constructing as chief magistrate of the State, in 1825,

the projected canal. He devoted his won- when a grand aquatic procession from Al-

derful energies to the subject, and in a bany proceeded to the sea, and the gov-

memorial of the citizens of New York, ernor poured a keg of the water of Lake

prepared by him, he produced such a pow- Erie into the Atlantic Ocean. The canal

erful argument in its favor that not only was constructed at a cost of $7,602,000.

the people of his native State, but of Untold wealth has been won for the State

other States, approved it. The national and the city of New York by its opera-



tions, directly and indirectly. Up to 1904 their possession ensued. The Detroit was
the canal had cost for construction, en- finally burned, but the Caledonia was
largement, and maintenance $52,540,800. saved, and afterwards did good service in
At the State election in 1903 the people Perry s fleet on Lake Erie. In this brill-
sanctioned a legislative bill to expend iant affair the Americans lost one killed
$101,000,000 for the improvement of the and five wounded. The loss of the Brit-
Erie, Oswego, and Champlain canals. ish is not known. A shot from Fort Erie
Erie, FORT, a small and weak forti- crossed the river and instantly killed Maj.
fication erected on a plain 12 or 15 feet William Howe Cuyler, aide to General
above the waters of Lake Erie, at its foot. Hull, of Watertown, N. Y. The Caledonia
In the summer of 1812, Black Rock, 2 miles was a rich prize; her cargo was valued at
below Buffalo, was selected as a place for $200,000.

a dock-yard for fitting out naval vessels On Aug. 4, 1814, the British, under
for Lake Erie. Lieut. Jesse D. Elliott, Lieutenant-Colonel Drummond, began a
then only twenty - seven years of age. siege of Fort Erie, with about 5,000
while on duty there, was informed of the men. Drummond perceived the impor-
arrival at Fort Erie, opposite, of two ves- tance of capturing the American batteries
sels from Detroit, both well manned and at Black Rock and seizing or destroying
well armed and laden with valuable car- the armed schooners in the lake. A force
goes of peltry. They were the Caledonia, a 1,200 strong, that went over to Black
vessel belonging to the Northwestern Fur Rock, were repulsed by riflemen, militia,
Company, and the John Adams, taken at and volunteers, under Major Morgan,
the surrender of Hull, with the name Meanwhile Drummond had opened fire on
changed to Detroit. They arrived on the Fort Erie with some 24-pounders. From
morning of Oct. 8 (1812), and Elliott Aug. 7 to Aug. 14 (1814) the cannonade
at once conceived a plan for their capture, and bombardment was almost incessant.
Timely aid offered. The same day a de- General Gaines had arrived on the 5th,
tachment of unarmed seamen arrived from and taken the chief command as Brown s
New York. Elliott turned to the military lieutenant. On the morning of the 7th
for assistance. Lieutenant-Colonel Scott the British hurled a fearful storm of
was then at Black Rock, and entered round-shot upon the American works
warmly into Elliott s plans. General from five of their heavy cannon. Day by
Smyth, the commanding officer, favored day the siege went steadily on. On the
them. Captain Towson, of the artillery, 13th Drummond, having completed the
was detailed, with fifty men, for the ser- mounting of all his heavy ordnance, bo-
vice; and sailors under General Winder, gan a bombardment, which continued
at Buffalo, were ordered out, well through the day, and was renewed on the
armed. Several citizens joined the expe- morning of the 14th. When the attack
dition, and the whole number, rank ceased that night, very little impression
mid file, was about 124 men. Two large had been made on the American works,

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 39 of 76)