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and our posterity; and when, in the judg
ment of the sovereign States now com
posing this Confederacy, it has been per
verted from the purposes for which it was
ordained, and ceased to answer the ends
for which it was established, a peaceful
appeal to the ballot-box declared that, as
far as they were concerned, the govern
ment created by that compact should
cease to exist. In this they merely as

serted the right which the Declaration of
Independence of 1776 defined to be in
alienable. Of the time and occasion of
its exercise they as sovereigns were the
final judges, each for himself. The im
partial, enlightened verdict of mankind
will vindicate the rectitude of our con
duct; and He who knows the hearts of
men will judge of the sincerity with which
w r e labored to preserve the government of
our fathers in its spirit.

The right solemnly proclaimed at the
birth of the States, and which has been
affirmed and reaffirmed in the bills of
rights of the States subsequently ad
mitted into the Union of 1789, undeniably
recognizes in the people the power to re
sume the authority delegated for the pur
poses of government. Thus the sovereign
States here represented proceeded to
form this Confederacy, and it is by the
abuse of language that their act has been
denominated revolution. They formed a
new alliance, but within each State its
government has remained. The rights of
person and property have not been dis
turbed. The agent through w r hom they
communicated with foreign nations is
changed, but this does not necessarily in
terrupt their international relations.
Sustained by the consciousness that the
transition from the former Union to the
present Confederacy has not proceeded
from a disregard on our part of our just
obligations or any failure to perform
every constitutional duty, moved by no
interest or passion to invade the rights
of others, anxious to cultivate peace and
commerce with all nations, if we may not
hope to avoid war, we may at least ex
pect that posterity will acquit us of hav
ing needlessly engaged in it. Doubly
justified by the absence of wrong on our
part, and by wanton aggression on the
part of others, there can be no cause to
doubt the courage and patriotism of the
people of the Confederate States will be
found equal to any measures of defence
which soon their security may require.

An agricultural people, whose chief in
terest is the export of a commodity re
quired in every manufacturing country,
our true policy is peace, and the freest
Irade which our necessities will permit.
It is alike our interest, and that of all
those to whom we would sell and from



whom we would buy, that there should be required. These necessities have, doubt-
be the fewest practicable restrictions upon less, engaged the attention of Congress,
the interchange of commodities. There With a constitution differing only from
can be but little rivalry between ours that of our fathers in so far as it is ex-
and any manufacturing or navigating planatory of their well-known intent,
community, such as the Northeastern freed from sectional conflicts, which have
States of the American Union. It must interfered with the pursuit of the general
follow, therefore, that mutual interest welfare, it is not unreasonable to ex-
would invite good-will and kind offices, pect that the States from which we have
If, however, passion or lust of dominion recently parted may seek to unite their
should cloud the judgment or inflame the fortunes to ours, under the government
ambition of those States, we must pre- which we have instituted. For this your
pare to meet the emergency and maintain constitution makes adequate provision,
by the final arbitrament of the sword but beyond this, if I mistake not, the judg-
the position which we have assumed rnent and will of the people are, that
among the nations of the earth. union with the States from which they

We have entered upon a career of inde- have separated is neither practicable im
pendence, and it must be inflexibly pur- desirable. To increase the power, de-
sued through many years of controversy velop the resources, and promote the hap-
with our late associates of the Northern piness of the Confederacy, it is requisite
States. We have vainly endeavored to there should be so much homogeneity that
secure tranquillity and obtain respect for the welfare of every portion would be the
the rights to which we are entitled. As aim of the whole. Where this does not
a necessity, not a choice, we have re- exist, antagonisms are engendered which
sorted to the remedy of separation, and must and should result in separation,
henceforth our energies must be directed Actuated solely by a desire to preserve
to the conduct of our own affairs, and the our own rights, and to promote our own
perpetuity of the Confederacy which we welfare, the separation of the Confeder-
have formed. If a just perception of mu- ate States has been marked by no ag-
tual interest shall permit us peaceably to gression upon others, and followed by no
pursue our separate political career, my domestic convulsion. Our industrial pur-
most earnest desire will have been ful- suits have received no check, the cultiva-
filled. But if this be denied us, and the tion of our fields progresses as hereto-
integrity of our territory and jurisdiction fore, and even should we be involved in
be assailed, it will but remain for us war, there would be no considerable dimi-
with firm resolve to appeal to arms and nution in the production of the staples
invoke the blessing of Providence on a just which have constituted our exports, in
cause. which the commercial world has an in-

As a consequence of our new condition, terest scarcely less than our own. This
and with a view to meet anticipated common interest of producer and con-
wants, it will be necessary to provide a sumer can only be intercepted by an ex-
speedy and efficient organization of the terior force which should obstruct its
branches of the executive department hav- transmission to foreign markets, a course
ing special charge of foreign intercourse, of conduct which would be detrimental to
finance, military affairs, and postal ser- manufacturing and commercial interests
vice. For purposes of defence the Con- abroad.

federate States may, under the ordinary Should reason guide the action of the
circumstances, rely mainly upon their government from which we have sepa-
militia; but it is deemed advisable in the rated, a policy so detrimental to the civ-
present condition of affairs that there ilized world, the Northern States included,
should be a well-instructed, disciplined could not be dictated by even a stronger
army, more numerous than would usually desire to inflict injury upon us; but if it
be required on a peace establishment. I be otherwise, a terrible responsibility will
also suggest that, for the protection of rest upon it, and the suffering of millions
our harbors and commerce on the high will bear testimony to the folly and wick-
seas, a navy adapted to those objects will edness of our aggressors. In the mean



time there will remain to us, besides the edged, we may hopefully look forward to
ordinary remedies before suggested, the success, to peace, to prosperity,
well-known resources for retaliation upon Davis, JEFFERSON C., military officer;
the commerce of an enemy. born in Clarke county, Ind., March 2,

Experience in public stations of a 1828; served in the war with Mexico;
subordinate grade to this which your kind- was made lieutenant in 1852; and was
ness had conferred has taught me that cne of the garrison of Fort Sumter dur-
care and toil and disappointments are the ing the bombardment in April, 1861. The
price of official elevation. You will see same year he was made captain, and lie-
many errors to forgive, many deficiencies came colonel of an Indiana regiment of
to tolerate, but you shall not find in me volunteers. In December he was pro-
either want of zeal or fidelity to the moted to brigadier-general of volunteers,
cause that is to me the highest in hope and commanded a division in the battle
and of most enduring affection. Your of Pea Ridge early in 1802. He partici-
generosity has bestowed upon me an un
deserved distinction, one which I neither
sought nor desired. Upon the continu
ance of that sentiment, and upon your
wisdom and patriotism, I rely to direct
and support me in the performance of the
duties required at my hands.

We have changed the constituent parts
but not the system of our government.
The Constitution formed by our fathers
is that of these Confederate States. In
their exposition of it, and in the judicial
construction it has received, we have a
light which reveals its true meaning. Thus
instructed as to the just interpretation
of that instrument, and ever remembering
that all offices are but trusts held for the
people, and that delegated powers are
to be strictly construed, I will hope by
due diligence in the performance of my
duties, though I may disappoint your ex
pectation, yet to retain, when retiring, pated in the battle of Corinth in 1802;
something of the good-will and confidence commanded a division in the battles of
which will welcome my entrance into Stone River, Murfreesboro, and Chieka-
office. manga in 1802-03; and in 1804 coin-

It is joyous in the midst of perilous nianded the 14th Army Corps in the At-
times to look around upon a people united lanta campaign and in the March through
in heart, when one purpose of high resolve Georgia and the Carolinas. He was
animates and actuates the whole, where brevetted major-general, in 1805, and the
the sacrifices to be made are not weighed next year was commissioned colonel ot
in the balance, against honor, right, lib- the 23d Infantry. He was afterwards on
erty, and equality. Obstacles may re- the Pacific coast; commanded troops in
tard, but they cannot long prevent the Alaska; and also commanded the forces
progress of a movement sanctioned by that subdued the Modocs. after the murder
its justice and sustained by a virtuous of GEN. EDWARD R. S. CANBY (q. v.) , in
people. Reverently let us invoke the God 1873. He died in Chicago, 111., Xov. 30,
of our fathers to guide and protect us 1879.

in our efforts to perpetuate the princi- Davis, JOHN, jurist; born in Plymouth,
pies which by His blessing they were able Mass., Jan. 25, 1701 ; graduated at Har-
to vindicate, establish, and transmit to vard College in 1781 ; admitted to the
tlieir posterity; and with a continuance bar and began practice at Plymouth in
of His favor, ever gratefully acknowl- 1780. He was the last surviving member




of the convention that adopted the federal
Constitution; comptroller of the United
States Treasury in 1795-96; and eminent
for his knowledge of the history of New
England. In 1813 he made an address
on the Landing of the Pilgrims before the
Massachusetts Historical Society, over
which he presided in 1818-43. His pub
lications include an edition of Morton s
New England Memorial, with many im
portant notes; Eulogy on George Wash
ington; and An Attempt to Explain the
Inscription on Dighton Rock. He died in
Boston, Mass., Jan. 14, 1847.

Davis, JOHN, statesman ; born in North-
boro, Mass., Jan. 13, 1787; graduated at
Yale in 1812; admitted to the bar in 1815;
member of Congress in 1824-34, dur
ing which time he opposed Henry Clay;
nnd was elected to the United States Sen
ate in 1835, and resigned in 1841 to be
come governor of Massachusetts. He was
a strong antagonist of Jackson and Van
Buren, and was re-elected to the United
States Senate in 1845, but declined to
serve. He protested strongly against the
war with Mexico, and was in favor of the
exclusion of slavery in the United States
Territories. He died in Worcester, Mass.
April 19, 1854.

statesman; born in Worcester, Mass., Dec.
29, 1822; graduated at Harvard in 1840;
appointed secretary of the United States
legation in London in 1849; and assistant
Secretary of State in 1809, which post
he resigned in 1871 to represent the
United States at the Geneva court of
arbitration on the Alabama claims. He
was appointed United States minister to
Germany in 1874, judge of the United
States court of claims in 1878, and re
porter of the United States Supreme Court
in 1883. He is the author of The Case
of the United S fates laid before the Tri
bunal of Arbitration at Geneva; Treaties
of the United States, with Notes, etc.

Davis, JOHN LEE, naval officer; born in
Carlisle, Ind., Sept. 3, 1825; joined the
navy in 1841 ; served with the Gulf block
ading squadron in 1861 as executive offi
cer of the Water Witch; and on Oct. 12
of that year took part in the action with
ihe Confederate ram Manassas, and in
that with the fleet near Pilot Town. Dur
ing the remainder of the war he was

active in other engagements. He was pro
moted rear-admiral, and retired in No
vember, 1886. He died in Washington,
March 12, 1889.

Davis, JOHN W., statesman; born in
Cumberland county, Pa., July 17, 1799;
graduated at the Baltimore Medical Col
lege in 1821 ; settled in Carlisle, Ind.,
in 1823; member of Congress in 1835-37,
1839-41, and 1843-47; speaker of the
House of Representatives during his last
term; United States commissioner to
China in 1848-50; and governor of Ore
gon in 1853-54. He was president of the
convention in 1852 which nominated
Franklin Pierce for President. He died
in Carlisle, Ind., Aug. 22, 1859.

Davis, NOAH, jurist; born in Haver-
hill, N. H., Sept. 10, 1818; justice of the
New York Supreme Court, 1857; member
of Congress, 1869-70; United States dis
trict attorney, 1870; again elected to the
New York Supreme Court, 1872. He pre
sided at the trial of Stokes for the murder
of -Jim Fiske and at the trial of William
M. Tweed. He retired in 1887, and died
in New York City, March 20, 1902.

Davis, RICHARD HARDING, author; born
in Philadelphia, Pa., April 18, 1864; son
of Rebecca Harding Davis; educated at"
Lehigh University and Johns Hopkins
University. In 1888 he joined the staff
of the New York Evening Sun. In 1890
he became the managing editor of Har
per s Weekly. His publications include
Our English Cousins; About Paris; The
Rulers of the Mediterranean; Three
Gringos in Venezuela and Central Amer
ica; Cuba in War Time; Cuban and
Porto Rican Campaigns, etc.

author; second daughter of Jefferson
Davis; born in Richmond, Va., June 27,
1864; known popularly in the South as
" the Daughter of the Confederacy." Her
childhood was mostly spent abroad, and
for several years she devoted herself to
literature. Her works include An Irish
Knight of the Nineteenth Century;
Sketch of the Life of Robert Emmet; The
Veiled Doctor; Foreign Education for
American Girls; and A Romance of Sum
mer Seas. She died at Narraganset Pier,
R. I., Sept. 18, 1898.

Dawes, HENRY LATJRENS, statesman;
born in Cummington, Mass., Oct. 30, 1816;



graduated at Yale in 1839 ; admitted to
the bar in 1842: served in the State leg
islature in 1848-50, and in the State
Senate in 1850-52; member of Congress
in 1857-73, and of the United States Sen
ate in 1875-1)3; and then became chairman
of the commission of the five civilized
tribes, ne, author of m.iny tariff
measures, and to him was due the intro
duction of the Weather Bulletin in 1869.
He died in Pittsfield, Mass., Feb. 5, 1903.

Dawes, WILLIAM, patriot. On April 18,
1775, he accompanied Paul Revere, riding
through Roxbury, while Revere went by
way of Charlestown. On the following
day, when Adams and Hancock received
the message from Warren, Revere, Dawes,
and Samuel Prescott rode forward, arous
ing the inhabitants. They were surprised
by a number of British at Lincoln, and
both Dawes and Revere were captured,
Prescott making good his escape to Con

Dawson, HENRY BARTOX, author ; born
in Lincolnshire, England, June 8, 1821 ;
came to New York with his parents in
1834. He was the author of Battles of the
United States ft;/ tica and Land; Recol
lections of the Jersey Prison-ship; West-
Chester County in the Revolution; etc. For
many years he was editor of the Histori-
eal Magazine. He died in 1889.

Day. The Washington Prime Meridian
Conference adopted a resolution declaring
the universal day to be the mean solar
day, beginning, for all the world, at the
moment of mean midnight of the initial
meridian, coinciding with the civil day,
and that meridian be counted from zero
up to 24 hours, Oct. 21, 1884. See STAND

Day, or Daye, STEPHEN, the first
printer in the English-American colonies;
born in London in 1011; went to Massa
chusetts in 1038, and was employed to
manage the printing-press sent out by
I ov. Mr. lover. He began printing at
Cambridge in March, 1039. He was not
a skilful workman, and was succeeded in
the management, about 1048, by Samuel
Green, who employed Day as a journey
man. He died at Cambridge, Mass., Dec.
22, 1008.

Day, WILLIAM RUFUS, statesman ; born
in Ravenna, O.. April 17, 1849: grad
uated at the University of Michigan in

1870: studied law and was admitted to
the bar in 1872; began practice at Can
ton, O. ; served as judge in the court of
common pleas in 1880-90; appointed
judge of the United States district court
for the northern district of Ohio in 1889,
but resigned before taking office on ac-


count of ill health. In March, 1897, he
was made assistant Secretary of State,
and on April 20, 1898, succeeded John
Sherman as head of the department.
While in the State Department he had
charge, under the President, of the deli
cate diplomatic correspondence preced
ing and during the war with Spain, and
of the negotiation of the protocol of
peace. After the latter had been ac
cepted Judge Day was appointed chief
of the United States peace commission, his
place as Secretary of State being filled
by John Hay, American ambassador to
Great Britain. Judge Day was appointed
judge of tho United States Circuit Court
for the sixth judicial circuit. Feb. 25, 1899.
and an associate justice of the United
States Supreme Court in February, 1903.
Dayton, ELIAS. military officer; born
in Elizabeth town, X. J., in July, 1737;
fought with the Jersey Blues under Wolfe
at Quebec; was member of the com
mittee of safety at the beginning of the
Revolution, and became colonel of the 3d
New Jersey Regiment. He served in New



York and New Jersey; fought in several asylums have since been established, num-
battles, the last at Yorktown, and in bering thirty-six in 1870, and a national
January, 1783, was made a brigadier-gen- deaf mute college was established at
cral. He was a member of Congress in Washington in 1864. In 1876 there were
1787-88, and was afterwards in the New about 4,400 pupils in these institutions.
Jersey legislature. He died in Elizabeth- At the close of the school year 1898
town, July 17, 1807. the total number of schools for deaf

Dayton, JONATHAN, statesman ; born in mutes reporting to the United States
Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 16, 1760; son of bureau of education was 105, with 1,100
Elias; graduated at the College of New instructors and 10,878 pupils. There were
Jersey in 1776; entered the army as pay- fifty-one State public schools, which had
master of his father s regiment in August; 045 instructors in the departments of ar-
aided in storming a redoubt at Yorktown, ticulation, aural development, and in-
which was taken by Lafayette ; and served dustrial branches, and 9,832 pupils, about
faithfully until the close of the war. He one-third of whom were taught by the corn-
was a member of the convention that bined system and the others by the manual
framed the national Constitution in 1787, method. The above institutions had
and was a representative in Congress from grounds and buildings valued at $11,175,-
1791 to 1799. He was speaker in 1795, 933 and libraries containing 94,269 vol-
and was made United States Senator in nines. The total expenditure for support
1799. He held the seat until 1805. He was $2,208,704. There were also 483
served in both branches of his State legis- pupils with eighty-one instructors en-
lature. Suspected of complicity in Burr s rolled in private schools for the deaf, and
conspiracy, he was arrested, but was never 563 pupils with seventy-four instructors
prosecuted. He died in Elizabethtown, in various public day schools for the deaf.
Oct. 9, 1824. Dean, JOHN WARD, historian; born in

Dayton, WILLIAM LEWIS, statesman; Wiscasset, Me., March 13, 1815; became
born in Baskingridge, N. J., Feb. 17, 1807; librarian of the New England Historic;! 1
graduated at Princeton College in 1825; Genealogical Society, and edited 9 vol-
studied at the famous law school in umes of its Register. He has also wril-
Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted to ten Memoir of Nathaniel Ward; Michael
the bar in 1830; became associate judge Wigglesworth; Story of the Embarkation
of the Supreme Court of New Jersey in of Cromwell and his Friends for New
1838, and entered the United States Senate England, etc. He died Jan. 22, 1902.
in 1842. In 1856 he was the candidate of Deane, CHARLES, historian; born in
the newly formed Republican party for Biddeford, Me., Nov. 10, 1813; became a
Vice-President. From 1857 to 1861 he member of the chief historical societies
was attorney-general of New Jersey, and of the country; author of Some Notices
in the latter year was appointed minister of Samuel Gorton; First Plymouth Pat
io France, where he remained till his ent ; Bibliography of Governor Hutchin-
death, Dec. 1, 1864. son s Publications; Wingficld s Discourse

Deaf Mutes, EDUCATION OF. As early of Virginia; Smith s True Relation; and
as 1793 Dr. W. Thornton published an editor of Bradford s History of Plymouth
essay in Philadelphia on Teaching the Plantation, etc. He died in Cambridge,
Dumb to Speak, but no attempt was made Mass., Nov. 13, 1889.

to establish a school for the purpose here Deane, JAMES, missionary to the Six
until 1811, when the effort was unsuccess- Nations; born in Groton, Conn., Aug.
ful. A school for the instruction of the 20, 1748; graduated at Dartmouth Col-
silent that proved successful was opened in lege in 1773. From the age of twelve
Hartford, Conn., by REV. THOMAS H. GAL- years he was with a missionary in the
LAUDET (q. v.) in 1817, and was chartered Oneida tribe of Indians, and mastered
under the name of the " New England their language. After his graduation he
Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb." Con- went as a missionary to the Caughnawa-
gress granted for its support a township gas and Si. Francis tribes for two years :
of land in Alabama, the proceeds of which and when the Revolution broke out, Con
formed a fund of about $340,000. Other gress employed him to conciliate the



tribes along the northern frontier. He and was in great distress. His landlady
was made Indian agent and interpreter became importunate, and he was threat-
at Fort Stanwix with the rank of major, ened with ejectment into the street. He
He was many years a judge in Oneida again repeated his application for an in-
county, and twice a member of the New terview with Vergennes, but was denied.
York Assembly. Mr. Deane wrote an Ind- Which way to turn he knew not. He
ian mythology. He died in Westmore- walked in the fields in the suburbs in de-
land, N. Y., Sept. 10, 1823. spair. There he met a citizen to whom
Deane, SILAS, diplomatist; born in he revealed his distressed condition. The
Groton, Conn., Dec. 24, 1737; graduated citizen invited him to make his house his
at Yale College in 1758; became a home until remittances should arrive,
merchant in Wethersfield, Conn.; and Losing hope of either funds or an inter-
was a delegate to the first Continental view with the minister, he resolved to

return to America, and was actually pack
ing his wardrobe when two letters reached
him, announcing the Declaration of Inde
pendence by Congress and the action of
Arnold with the British fleet on Lake
C hamplain. Two hours later he received
a card from Vergennes, requesting his
company immediately. Deane, indignant
at the treatment he had received, refused
to go. The next morning, as he was ris
ing from his bed, an under-secretary
called, inviting him to breakfast with the
count. He again refused; but, on the
secretary s pressing him to go, he con
sented, and was received very cordially
by Vergennes. A long conversation on
American affairs took place, when Deane
acquainted the minister with the nature

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 4 of 76)