Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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" lined the beach from morning until
night, and every moment importuned me
to take the taboos off the men, and laugh
ingly expressed their grief by dipping
their fingers into the sea and touching
their eyes, so as to let the salt-water
trickle down their cheeks."

When the Essex was thoroughly fitted
for her long voyage and for encountering
enemies, she sailed (Dec. 12) with her
prizes from Nooaheevah Island (which he
had named Madison), and on Feb. 3, 1814,
entered the harbor of Valparaiso. One of
the captured vessels, which he had armed
and named Essex Junior, cruised off the
harbor as a scout, to give warning of the
approach of any man-of-war. Very soon
two English men-of-war were reported in
the offing. They sailed into the harbor,
and proved to be the Phoebe, thirty-six
guns, Captain Hillyar, and her consort,
the Cherub, twenty-two guns, Captain
Tucker. The former mounted thirty long 18-
pounders. sixteen 32-pounder carronades,
and one howitzer; also six 3-pounders in
her tops. Her crew consisted of 320 men



and boys. The Cherub mounted eighteen
32-pounder carronades below, with eight
24-pounder carronades and two long nines
above, making a total of twenty - eight
guns. Her crew numbered 180. The Es
sex at that time could muster only 225,
and the Essex Junior only sixty. The Es
sex had forty 32-pounder carronades and

were lavished upon him, and several State
legislatures and the national Congress
gave him thanks.

Essex Junta, THE. The course of Pres
ident John Adams, who was anxious for
a renomination and election, caused a
fatal schism in the Federal party. He
looked to the Southern States as his chief


six long 12-pounders; and the Essex Junior hope in the coming election; and believing
had only ten 18-pounder carronades and ten McHenry and Pickering, of his cabinet, to

short sixes. The British vessels blockaded
Porter s ships. At length he determined
to escape. The sails of his vessels were
spread for the purpose (March 28, 1814),
and both vessels started for the open sea,
when a squall partially disabled the flag
ship, and both took shelter in a bay. There
they were attacked by the Phoebe and
Lherub, and one of the most desperate and
sanguinary battles of the war ensued.

be unpopular there, he abruptly called
upon them to resign. McHenry instantly
complied, but Pickering refused, when
Adams dismissed him with little ceremony.
This event produced much excitement.
Bitter animosities were engendered, and
criminations and recriminations ensued.
The open war in the Federal party was
waged by a few leaders, several of whom
lived in the maritime county of Essex,

When at last the Essex was a helpless Mass., the early home of Pickering, and

wreck and on fire, and his magazine was on that account the irritated President

threatened when every officer but one was called his assailants and opposers the " Es-

slain or disabled ; when, of the 225 brave sex Junta." He denounced them as slaves

men who went into the fight on board of to British

He denounced them as slaves
influence some lured by mo-
her, only seventy-five effective ones re- narchical proclivities and others by British
mained Porter hauled down his flag. So gold. A pamphlet from the pen of Hamil-
ended the long and brilliant cruise of the ton, whom Adams, in conversation, had

Essex. Her gallant commander wrote to denounced as
the Secretary of War from Valparaiso, damaged the

a " British sympathizer,"
President s political pros-

We have been ufortunate, but not dis- pects materially. The Republicans rejoiced
graced." He and his companions were sent at the charge of British influence. Adams s
home in the Essex Junior, which was made course caused a great diminution of the
a cartel-ship, and Porter was honored as Federal vote, and Jefferson was elected,
the hero of the Pacific. Municipal honors The opposition chanted:



" The Federalists are down at last,
The Monarchists completely cast !
The Aristocrats are stripped of power
Storms o er the British faction lower.
Soon we Republicans shall see
Columbia s sons from bondage free.
Lord, how the Federalists will stare

The Echo.

Early in 1809, John Quincy Adams, be
ing in Washington attending the Supreme
Court, in a confidential interview with
President Jefferson, assured him that a
continuation of the embargo (see EM
BARGO ACTS) much longer would certainly
be met by forcible resistance in Massa
chusetts, supported by the legislature, and
probably by the judiciary of the State;
that if force should be resorted to to quell
that resistance, it would produce a civil
war, and in that event he had no doubt
the leaders of the Federal party (refer
ring to those of the old Essex Junta)
would secure the co-operation of Great
Britain. He declared that the object was,
and had been for several years, a dissolu
tion of the Union and the establishment
cf a separate confederacy. He knew from
unequivocal evidence, not provable in a
court of law, that in a case of civil war
the aid of Great Britain to effect that
purpose would bo as surely resorted to
as it would be indispensably necessary to
the design. A rumor of such a design
was alluded to, at about the same time,
by De Witt Clinton, in New York, and in
the Boston Patriot, a new administration
paper, to which the Adamses, father and
son, were contributors. Such a plot, if it
ever existed, was confined to a few Federal
ist members of Congress, in consequence
of the purchase of Louisiana. They had
proposed to have a meeting in Boston, to
which Hamilton was invited, though it
was known that he was opposed to the
scheme. The meeting was prevented by
Hamilton s sudden and violent death. A
series of articles signed " Falkland " had
appeared in New England papers, in which
it was argued that if Virginia, finding her
self no longer afre to control the national
government, should secede and dissolve it,
the Northern States, though thus deserted,
might nevertheless be able to take care
of themselves. There seem to have been
no more treasonable designs among the
members of the Essex Junta than in the

HARTFORD CONVENTION (q. v.) , and the
designs of that body were known to have
been patriotic.

Established Churches. Unlike for
eign countries generally, neither the na
tional nor State governments of the Unit
ed States recognize officially any form of
religious worship. There is neither a
State Church nor an Established Church.
Legislation, both national and State, has
steadily opposed any sectarian form. The
right of a citizen to worship according to
the dictates of his own conscience is guar
anteed by the national Constitution; the
fullest toleration of forms of religious be
lief exists everywhere; and no legal dis
crimination is anywhere permitted, every
religious denomination maintaining itself
without support or hinderance by any
legal authority.

COUNT D , naval officer; born in Auvergne,
France, in 1729; guillotined in Paris,
April 28, 1794; was colonel of a French


regiment in 1748; brigadier-general in
1756; and served in the French fleet after
1757, joining the East India squadron
under Count Lally. Made lieutenant-
general in 1763 and vice-admiral in 1778,
he was sent to America with a strong
naval force to assist the patriots, arriving
in Delaware Bay in July, 1778. As soon
as his destination became known in Eng
land, a British fleet, under Admiral



Byron, was sent to follow him across the remainder (Passamaquoddies) on the

Atlantic. It did not arrive at New York western shore of Passamaquoddy Bay

until late in the season. Byron proceeded and on the Schoodic lakes. These rem-

to attack the French fleet in Boston Har- nants are mostly Roman Catholics, and

bor. His vessels were dispersed by a have churches and schools. Their blood

storm, and D Estaing, his ships perfectly remains pure, for the laws of Maine will

refitted, sailed (Nov. 1, 1778) for the not allow them to intermarry with the

West Indies, then, as between England white people, and they are declining in

and France, the principal seat of war. strength.

On the same day 5,000 British troops Ethan Allen, FORT, a garrisoned mili-
sailed from New York for the same des- tary post officially established 2 miles
tination, escorted by a strong squadron, from Essex Junction and 5 miles from
The English fleet arrived first, and, join- Burlington, Vt., Sept. 28, 1894, and named
ing some other vessels already there, pro- in honor of Ethan Allen, the famous
ceeded to attack the island of St. Lucia, leader of the Green Mountain Boys in the
D Estaing unsuccessfully tried to relieve Revolutionary War. There are twenty-
it. Soon afterwards Byron s fleet, from eight buildings of brick and stone, with
the northeast coast, arrived, when slated roofs, including four cavalry
D Estaing took refuge at Martinique, stables, four double officers quarters, four
Byron tried in vain to draw him into single officers quarters, two double bar-
action, and then started to convoy, a part racks, a hospital, guard-house, bakery,
of the way, the homeward-bound West workshop, a water-tower 80 feet high,
Indiamen of the mercantile marine. Dur- built of white Vermont marble, and sev-
ing his absence a detachment from Mar- eral storehouses. The parade - ground
tinique captured the English island of St. covers 50 acres, and there is an excel-
Vincent. Being largely reinforced soon lent rifle range of 1,000 yards. More
afterwards, D Estaing sailed with his than $000,000 was expended in creating
whole fleet and conquered the island of the post. The land for the site, which
Grenada. Before the conquest was quite extends over 600 acres, was purchased by
completed Byron returned, when an in- Dr. W. Seward Webb, Gov. U. A. Wood-
decisive engagement took place, and the bury, Col. E. C. Smith, and other citizens
much-damaged British fleet put into St. of Vermont and presented to the govern-
Christopher s. D Estaing then sailed ment.

(August, 1770) to escort, part of the way, Etheridge, EMERSON, statesman; born

the homeward-bound French West India- in Carrituck county, N. C., Sept. 28, 1819;

men; and, returning, engaged jointly admitted to the bar in 1840; member of

with the American army in the siege of Congress in 1853-57 and in 1859-61 ;

Savannah, but abandoned the contest be- clerk of the national House of Representa-

fore a promised victory for the allies was tives in 1861-63. He published Speeches

won. He returned to Frarce in 1780, and in Congress. He died in 1902.

in 1783 he commanded the combined fleets Eulalia, INFANTA, fifth child of Maria

of France and Spain, and was made a Louise Isabella, ex-Queen of Spain, born

Spanish grandee. He favored the French at Madrid, Feb. 12, 1864; married to

Revolution, and commanded the National Prince Antoine, son of Prince Antoine

Guards at Versailles, but falling under d Orleans, Due de Montpensier, March 6,

the suspicion of the Terrorists, he was be- 1886. At the invitation of the United

headed. States government she, as a representa-

Etchemin Indians. This Algonquin tive of the Spanish government, and the

family, occupying the eastern part of Duke of Veragua, as the lineal descendant

Maine, lived, at an early period, on the of Christopher Columbus, became guests

Penobscot River, between the Abenakes of the nation during the Columbian cele-

proper and the Micmacs. They are now brations and World s Exposition in 1893.

represented by the remnants of the Penob- Princess Eulalia arrived in the United

scots and Passamaquoddies. About one- States May 20, 1893, and left June 25.

half of them (the Penobscots) lived on During her stay she was entertained in a

islands in the Penobscot River, and the manner befitting her rank.



Europe, PLAN FOR THE PEACE OF. Sec Eustis, WILLIAM, physician; born in
PENN, WILLIAM. Cambridge, Mass., June 10, 1753; died

Eustis, JAMES BIDDLE, diplomatist; in Boston, Feb. 6, 1825; was graduated
born in New Orleans, La., Aug. 27, 1834; at Harvard in 1772, and studied medicine
was educated in Brookline, Mass., and under Dr. Joseph Warren. As a surgeon
in the Harvard Law School; was ad- he served throughout the Revolutionary
mitted to the bar in 1856, and practised War, and was a member of the Massa-
in New Orleans till the beginning of chusetts legislature from 1788 to 1794.
the Civil War, when he entered the Con- He was in the governor s council two
federate army: served as judge-advocate years, and was in Congress from 1800 lo
on the staff of General Magruder till 1805, and from 1820 to 1823. Secretary
1862, and then on the staff of Gen. Joseph of War from 1809 until 1812, he then
E. Johnston. When the war closed he resigned, for there was much fault found
entered the State legislature, where he v/ith his administration. In 1815 he was
seived in each House. In 1876 he was sent as minister to Holland, and was
elected to the United States Senate to governor of Massachusetts in 1824, dying
fill a vacancy, and after the expiration while in office, Feb. 6, 1825.
of the term took a trip through Europe. Eutaw Springs, a place in South Caro-
Returning to the United States, he was lina, near Nelson s Ferry, on the Santee,
made Professor of Civil Law in the Uni- miles northwest of Charleston; the
versity of Louisiana. In 1884 he was scene of a notable battle in the Revolu-
again elected to the United States Sen.- tionary War. The principal spring, from
ate, and became a member of the com- which the locality derived its name, f rst

bubbles up from a bed of rock marl, at
the foot of a hill 20 or 30 feet in height,
and, after flowing less than 60 yards.
descends, rushing and foaming, into a
cavern beneath a high ridge of marl,
covered with alluvium and forest trees.
After traversing its subterranean way
some 30 rods, it reappears on the other
side, where it is a broader stream, of
sufficient volume to turn a mill - wheel.
It flows over a smooth, rocky bed, shaded
by cypress - trees, about 2 miles, when
it enters the Santee. It was near this
spring that a severe battle was fought,
Sept. 8, 1781. Early in August, General
Greene, on the High Hills of Santee, was
reinforced by North Carolina troops

under General Sumner; and at the clo

mittee on foreign relations. He was ap- of that month he crossed the Wateree

pointed minister to France in March, and Congaree and marched against the

1893, and had charge of the negotiations British camp at Orangeburg, command-

which finally secured the release of John ed by Lieutenant - Colonel Stuart. Raw-

L. Waller, ex-United States consul j n don had left these troops in Stuart s

Madagascar, who had been convicted of charge and returned to England. Stuart.

illegally communicating with the Hovas who had been joined by the garrison ot

during the French campaign, and who had Fort Ninety-six, immediately retreated.

been sentenced to serve twenty-one years on the approach of Greene, to Eutaw

in prison. After his return to the Springs, 40 miles eastward, and there

United States, in 1897, Mr. Eustis re- encamped. Greene pursued so stealthilv

entered law practice in New York. He that Stuart was not fully aware that tho

translated Institutes of Justinian, and Americans were after him until they were

Guizot s History of the United States, close upon him, at dawn on the morning

He died in Newport, R. I., Sept. 9, 1899. of Sept. 8, 1781.



Greene moved in two columns, the ing (Sept. 9) by paities who chased them
centre of the first composed of North far towards the sea. Although the battle-
Carolina militia, with a battalion of South field remained with the Americans, neither
Carolina militia on each flank, commanded party could fairly claim a victory. Dur
ing the day and the pursuit the
Americans lost in killed and wounded
about 550 men; the British loss,
including prisoners, was fully 800.
Lieutenant-Colonel Washington was
severely wounded in the second battle,
and was made prisoner. For his
good conduct on that occasion Con
gress presented to Greene its thanks,
a gold medal, and a British standard
taken in the fight. A few days after
the battle, with a large number of
sick soldiers, he retired with his
troops to the Santee hills and en
camped. There his militia left him.
He remained until the middle of
November, when he marched his
army into the low" country, where he
might obtain an abundance of food.
The necessities of Greene s army had
compelled him to go to the hills. The
troops were too much exhausted
to continue active operations. They
respectively by Marion and Pickens. The were barefooted and half naked. He had
second consisted of North Carolina regu- no army hospital stores, very little salt,
lars, led by General Sumner, on the right ; and his ammunition was very low.
an equal number of Virginians, under Evacuation Day, the anniversary of
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, in the the evacuation of New York City by the
centre; and Marylanders, commanded by British, Nov. 25, 1783.
Col. O. H. Williams, on the left. Lee s Evangelical Alliance, THE, an associ-
Legion covered the right flank, and Lieu- ation of Christians belonging to the
tenant-Colonel Henderson s troops covered Evangelical Churches. It was estab-
the left. Washington s cavalry and Kirk- lished Aug. 19-23, 1846, in London by a
wood s Delaware troops formed a reserve, world s convention of delegates from
and each line had artillery in front. Christian denominations. Its aim is to
Skirmishing began at eight o clock in the promote religious liberty, Christian union
morning, and very soon the conflict be- and co-operation, and it sprang from a
came general and severe. The British general desire for united efforts among
were defeated and driven from the field Protestants. Its purpose is not towards
with much loss. The victory was com- organic union, nor church confederation,
p ete, and the winners spread over the but simply towards a free Christian union
British camp, eating, drinking, and plun- of members from churches who hold
dering. Suddenly and unexpectedly the fundamentally the same faith. It claims
fugitives rallied and renewed the battle, no legislative nor official authority that
and after a terrible conflict of about five could in any way affect the internal work-
hours, the Americans, who had lost heav- ings of any denomination, but relies sole-
ily, were compelled to give way. But ly on the moral power of love and truth.
Stuart, knowing that partisan legions were When it was organized there were 800
not far away, felt insecure, and that night, Christians present, including Episco-
after breaking up 1,000 muskets and de- palians, Presbyterians, Independents,
stroying stores, he retreated towards Methodists, Baptists, Lutherans, Re-
Charleston, pursued early the next morn- formed, Moravians, etc., from England,



the United States, Germany, France,
Switzerland, and other countries. At
that time the following articles were
adopted :

" 1. The divine inspiration, authority,
and sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures.

" 2. The right and duty of private judg
ment in the interpretation of the Holy

" 3. The unity of the Godhead, and the
Trinity of the persons therein.

" 4. The utter depravity of human
nature in consequence of the Fall.

" 5. The incarnation of the Son of God,
his work of atonement for the sins of
mankind, and his mediatorial intercession
and reign.

" 6. The justification of the sinner by
faith alone.

" 7. The work of the Holy Spirit in the
conversion and sanctification of the sin

" 8. The immortality of the soul, the
resurrection of the body, the judgment
of the world by our Lord Tesus Christ,
with the eternal blessedness of the
righteous and the eternal punishment
of the wicked.

" 9. The divine institution of the Chris
tian ministry, and the obligation and
perpetuity of the ordinances of baptism
and the Lord s Supper."

In 1807 the American branch of the
Alliance was founded, and adopted the
above articles, with the following quali
fying preamble:

" Resolved, That in forming an Evan
gelical Alliance for the United States in
co-operative union with other branches
of the Alliance, we have no intention to
give rise to a new denomination ; or to
effect an amalgamation of churches, ex
cept in the way of facilitating personal
Christian intercourse and a mutual good
understanding; or to interfere in any
way whatever with the internal affairs of
the various denominations; but simply
to bring individual Christians into closer
fellowship and co-operation, on the basis
of the spiritual union which already ex
ists in the vital relations of Christ to the
members of his body in all ages and

" Resolved, That in the same spirit we
propose no new creed; but, taking broad,
historical, and evangelical catholic

ground, we solemnly reaflirm and profess
our faith in all the doctrines of the in
spired Word of God, and in the consensus
of doctrines as held by all true Christians
from the beginning. And we do more
especially affirm our belief in the divine-
human person and atoning work of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as the
only and sufficient source of salvation, as
the heart and soul of Christianity, and as
the centre of all true Christian union and

" Resolved, That, with this explanation,
and in the spirit of a just Christian liber
ality in regard to the minor differences
of theological schools and religious de
nominations, we also adopt, as a sum
mary of the consensus of the various Evan
gelical Confessions of Faith, the Articles
and Explanatory Statement set forth and
agreed on by the Evangelical Alliance at
its formation in London, 1846, and ap
proved by the separate European organ
izations; which articles are as follows,

The Evangelical Alliance since its origin
has extended its work throughout the
Protestant world. It has no central au
thority and appears in active operation
only from time to time, as it meets in
general conference. The character of these
conferences are purely religious, lasting
from ten to twelve days. The time is
spent in prayer and praise, in discussions
of the great religious questions of the
day, and in brotherly communion. Nine
international meetings have thus far been
held. The first occurred in London, 1851 ;
the second in Paris, 1855; the third in
Berlin, 1857; the fourth in Geneva, 1801;
the fifth in Amsterdam, 1807; the sixth
in New York, 1873; the seventh in Basel,
Switzerland, 1879; the eighth in Den
mark, 1884; and the ninth in Italy, 1891.
The United States branch held a national
conference in Chicago, 1893, in connec
tion with the Columbian World s Expo
sition. The week of prayer, beginning
with the first Sunday in each year, and
now generally observed throughout Prot
estant Christendom, is one of the most
important results obtained by the Alli

Evangelical Association, a religious
organization established in the United
States in 1800 by the Rev. Jacob Albright.


This movement was the outcome of a work war in the Crimea in 1854. He died in
of reform begun in 1790 by Albright, who London, Jan. 2, 1870.

held that the German churches in the Evans, HUGH DAVEY, author; born in
eastern part of Pennsylvania were cor- Baltimore, Md., April 26, 1792; began
rupt. In 1810 the first general confer- the practice of law in Baltimore in 1815;
ence of the body was held in Union county, and became widely known as a constitu-
Pa. In doctrine the Evangelical Asso- tional lawyer. His publications include
ciation is Arminian; in mode of worship Theophilus Americanus (an American
and form of government it agrees with adaptation, with additions, of Canon
the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which Wordsworth s Theophilus Anglicanus) ;
Albright during his early life was a mem- Essay on the Episcopate of the Protestant
ber. The ministers, who are itinerant, are Episcopal Church in the United States,
divided into deacons and elders;
the presiding elders and bishops are
elected for four years, the former
by individual conferences, the lat
ter by the general conference, which
is the highest legislative body in
the church. In 1900 the Asso
ciation reported 1,052 ministers,

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 41 of 76)