Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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the bitterest contempt is bestowed upon premonitions, may be said to have begun
those at the North who still speak the with the calling of the Long Parliament,
language of compromise, and who con- in 1640, and to have ended with the re-
denm those measures of the administration turn of Charles II., in 1(5(50; twenty years
which are alleged to have rendered the of discord, conflict, and civil war; of con-
return of peace hopeless. fiscation, plunder, havoc; a proud heredi-

No, my friends, that gracious Provi- tary peerage trampled in the dust; a na-

dence which overrules all things for the tional Church overturned, its clergy

best, " from seeming evil still educing beggared, its most eminent prelate put

good," has so constituted our natures to death; a military despotism estab-

that the violent excitement of the passions lished on the ruins of a monarchy which

in one direction is generally followed by had subsisted 700 years, and the legiti-

a reaction in an opposite direction, and mate sovereign brought to the block; the

the sooner for the violence. If it were great families which adhered to the King

not so, if injuries inflicted and retaliated proscribed, impoverished, ruined; prison-

of necessity led to new retaliations, with ers of war a fate worse than starvation

forever accumulating compound interest in Libby sold to slavery in the West

of revenge, then the world, thousands of Indies; in a word, everything that can

years ago, would have been turned into embitter and madden contending factions,

an earthly hell, and the nations of the Such was the state of things for twenty

earth would have been resolved into clans years; and yet, by no gentle transition,

of furies and demons, each forever war- but suddenly, and " when the restoration



of affairs appeared hopeless," the son of troversies in that country at the present

the beheaded sovereign was brought back day, but they grow mainly out of the

to his father s blood-stained throne, with rivalry of the two leading powers. There

such " unexpressible and universal joy " is no country in the world in which the

as led the merry monarch to exclaim, sentiment of national brotherhood is

" He doubted it had been his own fault stronger.

he had been absent so long, for he saw In Italy, on the breaking up of the
nobody who did not protest he had ever Roman Empire, society might be said
wished for his return." " In this won- to be resolved into its original elements
derful manner," says Clarendon, " and into hostile atoms, whose only movement
with this incredible expedition, did God was that of mutual repulsion. Ruthless
put an end to a rebellion that had raged barbarians had destroyed the old organi-
for twenty years, and had been carried zations, and covered the land with a mer-
on with all the horrible circumstances of ciless feudalism. As the new civilization
murder, devastation, and parricide that grew up, under the wing of the Church.
fire and sword in the hands of the most the noble families and the walled towns
wicked men in the world [it is a royalist fell madly into conflict with each other;
that is speaking] could be instruments the secular feud of pope and emperor
of, almost to the devastation of two king- scourged the land; province against prov-
doms, and the exceeding defacing and de- ince, city against city, street against
forming of the third. ... By these street, waged remorseless war with each
remarkable steps did the merciful hand other from father to son, till Dante was
of God, in this short space of time, not able to fill his imaginary hell with the
only bind up and heal all those wounds, real demons of Italian history. So fero-
but even made the scar as indiscernible cious had the factions become that the
as, in respect of the deepness, was pos- great poet-exile himself, the glory of his
sible, which was a glorious addition to native city and of his native language,
the deliverance." was. by a decree of the municipality, con-
In Germany the wars of the Reforma- demned to be burned alive if found in the
tion and of Charles V., in the sixteenth city of Florence. But these deadly feuds
century, the Thirty Years War in the and hatreds yielded to political influences,
seventeenth century, the Seven Years as the hostile cities were grouped into
War in the eighteenth century, not to states under stable governments: the lin-
speak of other less celebrated contests, gfring traditions of the ancient animosities
entailed upon that country all the mis- gradually died away, and now Tuscan and
eries of intestine strife for more than Lombard, Sardinian and Neapolitan, as
three centuries. At the close of the last- if to shame the degenerate sons of Amer-
named war which was the shortest of ica, are joining in one cry for a united
all, and waged in the most civilized age Italy.

" an officer," says Archenholz, " rode In France, not to go back to the civil

through seven villages in Hesse, and wars of the League in the sixteenth cen-

found in them but one human being." tury and of the Fronde in the seventeenth :

More than 300 principalities, compre- not to speak of the dreadful scenes

hended in the empire, fermented with the throughout the kingdom which followed

fierce passions of proud and petty states; the revocation of the edict of Nantes; we

at the commencement of this period the have, in the great revolution which com-

castles of robber-counts frowned upon menced at the close of the last century,

every hill-top; a dreadful secret tribunal seen the blood-hounds of civil strife let

whose seat no one knew, whose power loose as rarely before in the history of the

none could escape, froze the hearts of world. The reign of terror established at

men with terror through the land; relig- Paris stretched its bloody Briarean arms

ious hatred mingled its bitter poison in to every city and village in the land ; and

the seething caldron of provincial ani- if the most deadly feuds which ever divided

inosity; but of all these deadly enmities a people had the power to cause permanent

between the states of Germany scarcely alienation and hatred, this surely was the

the memory remains. There are con- occasion. But far otherwise the fact. In



seven years from the fall of Robespierre, ical features of the country; the mighty
the strong arm of the youthful conqueror rivers that cross the lines of climate, and
brought order out of this chaos of crime thus facilitate the interchange of natural
and woe; Jacobins whose hands were and industrial products, while the won-
scarcely cleansed from the best blood of der-working arm of the engineer has
France met the returning emigrants, levelled the mountain-walls which sepa-
whose estates they had confiscated and rate the East and the West, compelling
whose kindred they had dragged to the your own Alleghanies, my Maryland and
guillotine in the imperial ante-chambers; Pennsylvania friends, to open wide their
and when, after another turn of the wheel- everlasting doors to the chariot-wheels of
of- fortune, Louis XVIII. was restored to traffic and travel these bonds of union
his throne, he took the regicide Fouche, are of perennial force and energy, while
who had voted for his brother s death, to the causes of alienation are factitious
his cabinet and confidence. and transient. The heart of the people,

The people of loyal America will never North and South, is for union. Indica-
ask you, sir, to take to your confidence or tions, too plain to be mistaken, announce
admit again to share in the government the fact, both in the east and the west
the hard-hearted men whose cruel lust of of the States in rebellion. In North
power has brought this desolating war Carolina and Arkansas the fatal charm
upon the land, but there is no personal at length is broken. At Raleigh and Lit-
bitterness felt even against them. They tie Rock the lips of honest and brave men
may live, if they can bear to live after are unsealed, and an independent press is
wantonly causing the death of so many unlimbering its artillery. When its rifled
of their fellow-men; they may live in safe cannon shall begin to roar, the hosts of
obscurity beneath the shelter of the gov- treasonable sophistry, the mad delusions
ernment they have sought to overthrow, of the day, will fly like the rebel army
or they may fly to the protection of the through the passes of yonder moun-
governments of Europe some of them are tain. The weary masses of the people are
already there seeking, happily in vain, to yearning to see the dear old flag again
obtain the aid of foreign power in fur- floating upon their capitols, and they sigh
therance of their own treason. There let for the return of the peace, prosperity,
them stay. The humblest dead soldier and happiness which they enjoyed under
that lies cold and stiff in his grave before a government whose power was felt only
us is an object of envy beneath the clods in its blessings.

that cover him in comparison with the " And now, friends, fellow-citizens of
living man I care not with what trump- Gettysburg and Pennsylvania, and you
ery credentials he may be furnished who from remote States, let me again, as we
is willing to grovel at the foot of a for- part, invoke your benediction on these
eign throne for assistance in compassing honored graves. You feel, though the oc-
the ruin of his country. casion is mournful, that it is good to be

But the hour is coming, and now is, here. You feel that it was greatly au-
when the powers of the leaders of the re- spicious for the cause of the country that
bellion to delude and inflame must cease, the men of the East and the men of the
There is no bitterness on the part of the West, the men of nineteen sister States,
masses. The people of the South are not stood side by side on the perilous ridges
going to wage an eternal war for the of the battle. You now feel it is a new
wretched pretexts by which this rebellion bond of union that they shall lie side
is sought to be justified. The bonds that by side till a clarion, louder than that
unite us as one people, a substantial com- which marshalled them to the combat,
munity of origin, language, belief, and shall awake their slumbers. God bless
law (the four great ties that hold the the Union; it is dearer to us for the blood
societies of men together) ; common na- of the brave men which has been shed in
tional and political interests; a common its defence. The spots on which they
history; a common pride in a glorious stood and fell; these pleasant heights;
ancestry; a common interest in this great the fertile plains beneath them: the thriv-
heritage of blessings; the very geograph- ing village whose streets so lately rang



with the strange din of war; the fields
beyond the ridge, where the noble
Reynolds held the advancing foe at bay,
and, while he gave up his own life, as
sured by his forethought and self-sacri
fice the triumph of the two succeeding
days; the little stream which winds
through the hills, on whose banks in after
time the wondering ploughman will turn
up the fearful missiles of modern artil
lery; Seminary Ridge, the Peach Orchard,
Cemetery, Gulp and Wolf Hill, Round
Top, Little Round Top humble names,
henceforward dear and famous, no lapse
of time, no distance of space, shall cause
you to be forgotten. " The whole earth,"
said Pericles, as he stood over the remains
of his fellow-citizens who had fallen in
the first year of the Peloponnesian War,
" the whole earth is the sepulchre of il
lustrious men." All time, he might have
added, is the millennium of their glory.
Surely I would do no injustice to the
other noble achievements of the war,
which have reflected such honor on both
arms of the service, and have entitled
the armies and the navy of the United
States, their officers and men, to the
warmest thanks and the richest rewards
which a grateful people can pay. But
they, I am sure, will join us in saying,
as we bid farewell to the dust of these
martyr heroes, that wheresoever through
out the civilized world the accounts of
this great warfare are read, and down to
the latest period of recorded time, in the
glorious annals of our common country
there will be no brighter page than that
which relates the battles of Gettysburg.

Evertsen, CORNELIS, naval officer; born
in Zealand. In 1673 he was despatched
against the English colonies in America.
He captured or destroyed a large number
of ships from Virginia to Staten Island,
where he arrived on Aug. 7. He demand
ed the surrender of New York City, and
the next day, Aug. 8, he landed 600 men,
to whom the fort was surrendered, the
British garrison being allowed to march
out with the honors of war. He renamed
the city New Orange and reorganized the
government upon the old Dutch lines, and
after proclaiming Captain Colve governor
he sailed for Holland.

Ewell, BENJAMIN STODDERT, educator;
born in Washington, D. C., June 10, 1810 ;

graduated at the United States Mili
tary Academy in 1832; Professor of
Mathematics at Hampden-Sidney College
in 1840-46; professor of the same and act
ing president of William and Mary College
in 1848-54. He opposed secession until
the Civil War opened, when he became a
colonel in the Confederate army. After
the war he used all his influence to
promote reconstruction. He died in James
City, Va., June 21, 1894.

Ewell, RICHARD STODDERT, military
officer; born in Georgetown, D. C., Feb.
8, 1817; graduated at West Point in
1840; served in the Mexican War, and
received the brevet of captain. He joined
the Confederate army in 1861; was pro-


moted to major-general in 1862; and was
conspicuous in the Shenandoah Valley, in
the battles near Richmond, Malvern Hill,
Cedar Mountain, Gettysburg, the Wilder
ness, Spottsylvania Court-house, and dur
ing the siege of Petersburg. In the BATTLE"
OF GROVETON (q. v.) he lost a leg, and
in May, 1863, was made lieutenant-gen
eral. He was engaged in stock-raising in
Spring Hill, Tenn., at the time of his
death, Jan. 25, 1872.

Ewing, HUGH BOYLE, military officer;
born in Lancaster, O., Oct. 31, 1826; son
of Thomas Ewing; studied in the United
States Military Academy; went to Cali
fornia in 1849; returned to Lancaster in
1852; and began the practice of law. In
1861 he entered the National army as



brigadier-inspector of Ohio volunteers; nia soon after its enactment, and when

promoted brigadier-general Nov. 29, 1862; steps were taken for its enforcement,

brevetted major-general in 1865. His pub- The law was disregarded, indictments

lications include The Grand Ladron: A were found against a number of distillers,

Tale of Early California, etc. and thirty warrants were issued, which

Ewing, JAMES, military officer; born the marshal of the district undertook to

in Lancaster, Pa., Aug. 3, 1736; was serve. He had served twenty-nine of

chosen a brigadier-general of Pennsylvania them, when he and the inspector of the

troops, July 4, 1776. After the war he district were fired upon by some armed

was vice-president of Pennsylvania for men and compelled to fly for their lives,

two years; then a member of the As- They assailed the inspector s house, and

sembly and State Senator. He died in an appeal to the militia was in vain. A

Hellam, Pa., March 1, 1806. small detachment of soldiers was obtained

Ewing, THOMAS, statesman; born near from the neighboring garrison of Fort
West Liberty, Va., Dec. 28, 1789. While Pitt (Pittsburg). The next morning
still a child his father removed to Ohio, (July 17, 1794) 500 assailants appeared,
where he settled on the Muskingum River. One man was killed, the buildings were
Thomas was educated at the Ohio Uni- burned, and the officers of the law were
versity; admitted to the bar in 1816; and driven out of Pittsburg and compelled to
elected United States Senator from Ohio Hee for their lives down the Ohio River,
as a Whig and a follower of Henry Clay in The mob were led by John Holcroft, who
1831. In 1841 he was appointed Secretary assumed the name of Tom the Tinker,
of the Treasury; in 1849 Secretary of the Leading politicians took part in a pub-
Interior; and in 1850 was again elected lie meeting at Mingo Creek Meeting-house
to the United States Senate, succeeding (July 23) , who were disposed to make coin-
Thomas Corwin. During this term he op- mon cause with the rioters. They finally
posed the Fugitive Slave Law bill and also agreed to call a convention of delegates
advocated the abolition of slavery in the from all the townships west of the moun-
District of Columbia. In 1851 he resumed tains, and from the adjoining counties of
law practice in Lancaster, O., where he Maryland and Virginia, to meet in three
died Oct. 26, 1871. weeks at Parkinson s Ferry, on the

Exchange, BILLS OF. See BILLS OF Monongahela. A few days afterwards the

EXCHANGE. mail from Pittsburg to Philadelphia was

Excise, FIRST. The first bill to impose intercepted and robbed. Two leading poli-
a tax on liquors was introduced into the ticians Bradford and Marshall con-
Congress at the beginning of 1791, on the cerned in this robbery forthwith addressed
recommendation of Alexander Hamilton, a circular letter to the officers of tho
then Secretary of the Treasury. As finally militia of the western counties, stating
passed, it imposed upon all imported that letters in the rifled mail revealed im-
spirits a duty varying from 25 to 40 cents portant secrets, which made it necessary
per gallon, according to strength. The for the military to act, and called upon
excise to be collected on domestic spirits the militia to muster, on Aug. 1, at Brad-
varied with their strength from 9 to 25 dock s Field, with arms and accoutre-
cents per gallon on those distilled from ments and provisions for four days. Fully
grain, and from 11 to 30 cents when the 7,000 men appeared at the appointed ren-
material was molasses or other imported dezvous. The leaders in the insurrection
product; thus allowing, especially when were elated. The meeting at Parkinson s
the duty on molasses was taken into ac- Ferry was an armed convention. Colonel
count, a considerable discrimination in Cook, one of the judges of Fayette county,
favor of the exclusively home product, presided, and Albert Gallatin (afterwards
There was much opposition to this law Secretary of the Navy) acted as secretary,
in and out of Congress. The details of Bradford assumed the office of major-
the working of the law for securing a general and reviewed the troops. It was
revenue from this source were very strin- his design to get possession of Fort Pitt
gent, yet very just. The most violent op- and the arms and ammunition therein, but
position appeared in western Pennsylva- finding most of the militia officers unwilK



ing to co-operate, he abandoned the proj
ect. The excise officers were expelled
from the district, and many outrages were
committed. The insurrectionary spirit
spread into the neighboring counties of
Virginia. The reign of terror was ex
tended and complete, when President
Washington, acting with energy, sent
an armed force and quelled the insur

Exemptions from Taxation. The
property of the United States and of a
State or Territory, county and municipal
ity is exempt from taxation in nearly ev
ery State and Territory. Other properties
that are exempted in local tax laws are
summarized as follows:

Alabama, Household furniture up to
$150, books, maps, charts, etc., except pro
fessional libraries, tools of trade up to
$25, certain farm products, all school and
church property.

Alaska. Same as Oregon.

Arizona. Churches, cemeteries, chari
table institutions, schools, and libraries;
properties of widows and orphans up to
$1,000 for a family, where total assess
ment does not exceed $2,000.

Arkansas. School and church property
in actual use, property used exclusively
for public or charitable purposes.

California. Growing crops, school and
church property.

Colorado. Real estate of schools and
churches in actual use, public libraries.

Connecticut. Household furniture up
to $500, property of honorably discharged
soldiers and sailors up to $1,000, tools of
trade up to $200, school a-nd church prop
erty, parsonages up to $500, public li
braries, private libraries up to $200, cer
tain farm products.

Delaware. Household furniture, books,
maps, charts, etc., belonging to churches
or charitable institutions, and all profes
sional books, tools of mechanics or manu
facturers in actual use, stock of manufac
tories on hand and imported merchandise,
products of farms, vessels trading from
ports of the State, all school and church

Florida. Household property of widows
with dependent families and cripples un
able to perform manual labor up to $400,
all public libraries, church and school

Georgia. Public libraries, church and
school property.

Idaho. Household property up to $200,
tools of trade, growing crops, books, school
property, church property in actual use
and not rented.

Illinois. Church property in actual use,
property of agricultural societies, United
States public buildings, cemeteries, and
certain other public property.

Indiana. Public libraries, school prop
erty (with land not to exceed 320 acres),
church property in actual use.

loiva. Kitchen furniture and bedding,
public libraries, private libraries up to
$300, tools of trade up to $300, certain
farm products, school property includ
ing residences of teachers and land up
to 640 acres, church property in actual

Kansas. Household furniture up to
$200 for each family, private libraries up
to $50 and all public libraries, sugar man
ufactories, school buildings including land
not to exceed 5 acres, church property
in actual use including land not exceeding
10 a^res.

Kentucky. Articles manufactured in
family for family use, public libraries, cer
tain farm products, all church and school

Louisiana. Household furniture up to
$500, public libraries, school and church
property, and until 1899 certain specific
manufacturing property.

Maine. Household furniture up to
$200 for each family, libraries for be
nevolent or educational institutions, a me
chanic s tools necessary for his business,
certain farm products, vessels being con
structed or repaired, school property,
church property in use and parsonages up
to $6,000 each.

Maryland. Libraries of charitable or
educational institutions, tools of mechan
ics or manufacturers use by hand, all
unsold farm products, school and church

Massachusetts. Household furniture up
to $1,000, all farming tools, mechanics
tools up to $300, public libraries, vessels
engaged in foreign trade, school property,
church property in actual use.

Michigan. Household furniture, public
libraries, private libraries up to $150,
$200 of personal property besides special



exemptions, church property in actual use Oregon. Household furniture up to

and school property. $300, books, maps, etc., church and school

Minnesota. Each taxpayer entitled to property.

exemption on $100 personal property se- Pennsylvania. Household furniture,
lected by himself, public libraries, church books, maps, etc., tools of trade, products
and school property. of manufactories, all products of farms ex-
Mississippi. Household furniture up to cept horses and cattle over four years old,
$250, certain farm products, tools of trade, water craft, property of all free schools,
cemeteries, school and church property, and church property in actual use.
until 1900 certain specified manufactories. Rhode Island. School property and en-

Missouri. Cemeteries, church property, dowments, buildings and personal estates

school property including land not to ex- of incorporated charitable institutions,

ceed 1 acre in the city and 5 acres in the church buildings in use, and ground not

country. to exceed 1 acre.

Montana. Books of educational institu- South Carolina. Household furniture

tions, school property and church property up to $100, all necessary school and church

in actual use. buildings and grounds not leased.

Nebraska. Libraries of schools and South Dakota. Household furniture up

charitable institutions, school and church to $25; all books, etc., belonging to chari-

property in actual use. table, religious, or educational societies,

Nevada. Household furniture of widows school property, church buildings in ac-

and orphans, property of educational in- tual use, and parsonages,

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 46 of 76)