Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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stitutions established by State laws, Tennessee. Personal property to the

church property up to $5,000. value of $1,000, articles manufactured

New Hampshire. Certain farm prod- from the products of the State in the

ucts, school and church property. hands of the manufacturers, all growing

New Jersey. Household furniture of crops and unsold farm products, school

firemen, soldiers and sailors up to $500, and church property.

libraries of educational institutions, school Texas. Household furniture up to

and church property. $250, books, maps, etc., school and church

New Mexico. Public libraries, school property.

and church property, mines and mining Vermont. Household furniture up to

claims for ten years from date of location, $f>00, libraries, tools of mechanics and

irrigating ditches, canals and flumes, cem- farmers, machinery of manufactories, hay

eteries. and grain sufficient to winter stock, school

New York. Buildings erected for use of and church property.

college, incorporated academy or other Virginia. Public libraries and libra-
seminary of learning; buildings for public ries of ministers, all farm products in
worship, school-houses, real and personal hand of producer, church and school prop-
property of public libraries; a>ll stocks erty.

owned by State, or literary or charitable Washington. Each taxable entitled to

institutions; personal estate of incorporate $300 exemption from total valuation, free

company not made liable to taxation ; per- and school libraries, church property up

sonal property and real estate of clergy- to $5,000, public schools, cemeteries, fire

men up to $1,500; also many special ex- engines,

emptions. West Virginia. Public and family

North Carolina. Each taxpayer en- libraries, unsold products of preceding

titled to $25 exemption on personal prop- year of manufactories and farms, colleges,

erty of his own selection, public libraries, academies, free schools, church property in

property used exclusively for educational u?e, parsonages and furniture,

purposes, church property in actual use. Wisconsin. Kitchen furniture, all li-

North Dakota. Books, maps, etc., biaries, growing crops, school property

church and school property. with land not exceeding 40 acres, church

Ohio. Personal property up to $50, property in actual use.

libraries of public institutions, church and Wyoming. Public libraries, church and

school property, cemeteries. school property.



Exhibitions. See EXPOSITIONS, IN- The naval and military engineers at
DUSTRIAL. Shoeburyness were among the first to con-
Exmouth, EDWARD PELLEW, VISCOUNT, duct experiments, and it was found that
naval officer; born in Dover, England, when sufficient collodion cotton was em-
April 19, 1757; entered the navy at the ployed to make the compound about the
age of thirteen years; first distinguished consistency of soft rubber, it could be fired
himself in the battle on Lake Champlain, with a comparative degree of safety from
in 1776; and rendered great assistance to ordinary guns, providing, of course, that
Burgoyne in his invasion of New York, the powder charge used as a propellant
He became a post-captain in 1782. For was not too violent. Large numbers of
the first capture of a vessel of the French rounds were fired under apparently iden-
navy (1792), in the war with France, tical conditions, with the result that per-
Pellew was knighted and employed in haps 99 per cent, passed harmlessly out of
blockading the French coast. For bra- the gun, while about 1 per cent, exploded
very in saving the people of a wrecked in the bore of the gun, completely de-
ship at Plymouth, in 179G, he was made molishing it.

a baronet. Pellew was in Parliament in Another source of danger, especially

1802, but in 1804 was again in the naval when compressed gun-cotton is employed

service; was promoted to rear-admiral, in rifled cannon, arises from the quick

and made commander-in-chief in the East and violent twist given to the projectile,

Indies, when he annihilated the Dutch which rotates the case or shell, without

naval force there. He was created Baron rotating the bursting charge. This I ob-

Exmouth in 1814; made a full admiral viated by dividing the interior of the shell

of the blue, and allowed a pension of into numerous compartments. Still no one

$10,000 a year. With a fleet of nineteen could be persuaded to use my torpedo-gun,

ships, he brought the Dey of Algiers to The next step was the Zalinski gun.

terms in 1816, and liberated about 1,200 This had been made and tested in the

prisoners. He died in Teignmouth, Jan. United States, when it was found that

23. 1833. large charges of high explosives could be

Expansion. See ACQUISITION OF TER- thrown considerable distances from an air-

RITORY; ANNEXED TERRITORY, STATUS OF. gun. One of these p- ins was brought to

Expenditures of the United States. England and fired at Shoeburyness. It

See APPROPRIATIONS, CONGRESSIONAL. was said at the time that three shots fired

Explosives for Large Guns. We pre- with the gun firmly locked in a station-
sent some extracts from an article in the ary position landed in the same hole it
yorth American Review by Hiram Stevens the mud. The accuracy was admitted to
Maxim, the highest authority on the sub- be remarkable, but the velocities were sc

ject: low. the range so short, and the trajectorj

so high, that it was almost impossible tc

The properties of nitro-glycerine were hit the target when the gun was fired froitf
for many years but imperfectly under- a ship. It was even said that if the gur
stood. It was said of it that if you wish- were properly aimed from a ship and the
od it to explode it was impossible to make trigger pulled, the barrel, on account of it*
it do so; if you handled it with great care great length, would move sufficiently after
arid did not wish it to explode it was al- the trigger was pulled and before the shot
most sure to go off; sometimes it could left the gun, to throw the shot completely
be set on fire, and would burn very off the target. Still, it was believed that
much like a slow fuse, while again the under certain conditions the gun might
least jar would cause the most frightful be useful for fortifications. In any corn-
detonation. Evidently such an agent was pressed air-gun of the Zalinski type, it
not suitable for use in fire-arms, and it will be evident that an increase in the
was only after Nobel s discovery that atmospheric pressure is not attended by a
nitro-glycerine could be gelatinized with corresponding increase in the velocity of
collodion cotton (di-nitro-cellulose) that the projectile, because the higher the press-
engineers began to experiment with a view ure of the air the greater its weight and
of using this high explosive in projectiles, density, so that when the pressures are in-



creased, we will say from 2,000 to 3,000 glycerine aiid the gun-cotton were in-

Ibs. per square inch, the actual velocity timately combined an explosive wave

cf the projectile is only slightly increased, would not pass through the mixture, and

It occurred to me at that time that if the experiments revealed that I was quite cor-

pressure could be increased without in- rect. All mixtures of from 1 per cent, to

creasing the weight or density of the air 75 per cent, of nitro-glycerine were ex-

a great improvement would result. I perimented with, the result being that

therefore constructed a gun in which I from 10 to 15 per cent, was found to be

used only 1,000 Ibs. pressure per square the best, everything considered,

inch. The gun being loaded, in order to The greater part of the smokeless pow-

tire the trigger was pulled, which acted ders employed to-day consist of a mix-

upon a large balance-valve which suddenly ture of nitro-glycerine and gun-cottor:.

sprang open ; the projectile was then The mixing is brought about by the

driven forward. When it had moved agency of acetone, a species of alcohol

from 2 to 3 calibres, the charge of which dissolves both gun - cotton and

gasoline and air was ignited, and while nitro-glycerine. When a small quantity

the projectile was still moving forward, of this spirit is present, the mass is of

the fire ran back into the chamber, con- a semi-plastic consistency, and may be

stantly raising the pressure, so that by squirted or spun through a die by press-

the time the projectile had reached the ure, in the same way that lead pipe is

muzzle of the gun the pressure had made. The first powder experimented

mounted from 1,000 to 6,000 Ibs. per with was drawn into threads and called

square inch, and the result was a com- by the British government " cordite."

paratively high velocity with a short bar- This was found to work admirably in

rd. This gun was fired a great number small-bore ammunition, but when it came

of rounds in 1888, and found to be quite to a question of larger guns it was found

reliable. advantageous to form the powder into

The first smokeless powder that I made tubes with one or more holes,
in England was made in exactly the same By increasing the number of perfora-
nianner as the French. I had obtained tions, it was found that a pow r der could
a quantity of true gun-cotton that is, be made which, instead of burning slow-
tri-nitro-cellulose (known sometimes as er and slower as the projectile moved
insoluble gun-cotton because it cannot be forward in the gun, would cause the de-
dissolved in alcohol and ether like collo- velopment of gas to increase as the pro-
dion cotton, di-nitro-cellulose) . Some of jectile moved forward with accelerated
this powder, when freshly made, produced velocity in the bore. This was exactly
fairly good results, quite as good as those what was required, and led to my patent
produced by the French powder, but upon on progressive smokeless pow r der.
keeping it for a few months the grains In the olden time, when guns were not
lost their transparency, became quite rifled, and spherical shots were employed
opaque and fibrous, and it then burned with a powder charge of about one-eighth
with great violence. Investigation showed of the weight of the projectile, the erosion
that about 1 to 2 per cent, of the solvent caused by the gases passing the projectile
was still in the powder when the first was so small as to be considered a negli-
tests were made, whereas the drying out gible quantity in fact, its existence was
of this last trace of solvent had completely practically unknown to the majority of
changed the character of the powder. I artillerists at that time, but upon the
then added to this powder about 2 per introduction of rifled guns with elongated
cent, of castor oil, with the result that projectiles and heavy powder charges ero-
the castor oil remained after the solvent sion became a serious obstacle, which in-
had been completely removed, so that the creased as the powder and range of the
powder would keep any length of time gun increased. Large guns made in Eng-
indeed, powder made at that time (1889) land from ten to fifteen years ago, using
is quite good to-day. black or cocoa powder with projectiles of

But I wished to produce still higher 3 or 4 calibres, and having a veloc-

results. I believed that if the nitro- ity rather less than 2,000 feet per sec-



ond, were destroyed after firing from 300
to 400 rounds. When the velocities were
increased to about 2,200 feet it was found
that the wear was about four times as
great, while some very powerful guns
made in France were completely worn out
after firing sixty rounds. With smoke
less powder, which gives a still higher
velocity to the projectile, the erosion is
still further increased, so that in some
cases I have known guns to be destroyed
after firing only a few rounds.

In order to obviate this trouble we have
provided the projectiles with what might
be termed an obturating band; that is,
just behind the copper driving band we
have placed a semi-plastic gas check. Be
hind it is placed what might be termed a
junk ring, arranged in such a manner
that when the gun is fired the junk ring
moves forward and subjects the gas ring
to a pressure 20 per cent, greater than
the pressure in the gun that is, if the
pressure in the gun amounts to 14 tons
per square inch the pressure on the gas
ring is about 17 tons to the square inch.
This is found to completely stop the pas
sage of gas between the projectile and the
bore of the gun ; so we are now able to fire
large guns many hundreds of rounds with
full charges before any perceptible wear
takes place in the barrel. This will en
able our naval authorities to practise
gunnery to almost any extent without the
danger of wearing their guns out, and it
is believed by many that in the near fut
ure no large guns will be fired on ship
board without the employment of the ob
turating gas check.

Export Exposition, NATIONAL, a
unique exposition held in Philadelphia,
Pa., between Sept. 14 and Dec. 2, 1899,
under the auspices of the Philadelphia
Commercial Museum and the Franklin In
stitute. It had the distinction of being
the first national exposition of manufact
ures adapted for export trade that was
ever held. Its aim was to show that the
United States could manufacture any arti
cle which might be needed in any foreign
market. The construction of the build
ings and the preparation of the grounds,
covering 9 acres, cost about $1,000,000.
Nearly 1,000 exhibits, consisting of the
most complete collection of strictly do
mestic manufactures ever brought to

gether and representing more than $500,-
000,000 of invested capital, were shown.
Under a special appropriation by Congress
there was also exhibited a collection of
samples of foreign goods to enable Ameri
can manufacturers to become acquainted
with the style of goods required in for
eign markets. The exposition was hand
somely promoted by the United States
government; representatives of foreign
governments and industrial life were nu
merous in attendance, and the affair was
fruitful in beneficial results. The presi
dent was Peter A. B. Widener, and the
director-general, Dr. William P. Wilson.

Exports. The following table shows
the exports of American merchandise in
decade years:

1790 $19,666,000

1800 31,840,903

1810 42,366,675

1820 51,683,640

1830 58,524,878

1840 111,660,561

1850 134,900,233

1860 356,242,423

1870 455,208,341

1880 823,946,353

1890 845,293;828

1900 1,477,949,666


Exports of the United States. See

Expositions, INDUSTRIAL. The first
industrial exposition in the United States
was held in Philadelphia in 1824 under
the auspices of the Franklin Institute.
In 1828 the American Institute in New
York City was chartered, and after this
came the founding of the Massachusetts
Charitable Mechanics Association in Bos
ton, and the Maryland Institute in Bal
timore. These four organizations early
began holding annual expositions, or
fairs," as they were then called, and
have since continued to do so. Numer
ous other mechanics institutes were soon
afterwards organized in various cities, and
these for various periods imitated the ex
position features of the older organiza
tions. The American agricultural " fair "
dates from 1810, when Elkanah Watson
succeeded in gathering, in Pittsfield,
Mass., an exposition, or " fair," of arti
cles allied to agricultural life. Now near
ly every State and Territory in the coun
try has its agricultural society, which



gives annual expositions of the products* For details of the most noteworthy of these
of the farm and dairy, with a variety expositions, see their respective titles,
of other features deemed necessary to pop- Expunging Resolution. President
ularize the undertaking. Some of the most Jackson was censured by the Senate in
noteworthy State agricultural fairs be- June, 1834, but Jan. 16, 1837, the censure
gan to diminish in interest about the was repealed, and in the Journal of the
time of the first International or World s Senate a black line was drawn around the
Fair held in London in 1851, and to this entry of the original resolution, and the
form of exposition succeeded expositions words " Expunged by order of the Senate,
of special articles possessing features of Jan. 10, 1837," inserted.
State, national, and international combi- Extradition. Treaties on the subject
nations. Among such that have been held of criminals arise from the universal prac-
in the United States, or to which Ameri- tice of nations to surrender criminals only
can artisans have contributed when held under special treaty with the country
in other countries, are the international which claims them. Treaties of this char-
expositions of fishery and fishery ineth- acter have been made between the United
ods; life-saving apparatus and methods; States and the principal nations of the
forestry products and methods of forest world. The crimes for which extradition
preservation; railroad appliances; elec- is usually granted are forgery, burglary,
trical apparatus; food preparations; and embezzlement, counterfeiting, grand lar-
wood-working and labor-saving machin- cony, manslaughter, murder, perjury, rape,
ery. Then, too, in the United States, there and other felonies. In modern states,
have been the special expositions of art particularly in England and the United
associations and leagues in the principal States, political offences have always been
cities, and horse, dog, and sportsmen s excepted from extradition. In the United
shows, the latter a notable feature of the States, persons committing certain crimes
year in New York City. The United in one State and fleeing to another are
States stands alone in maintaining four generally extraditable on application of
permanent expositions: one in the former the governor of the State in which the
Art Palace of the World s Columbian Ex- crime was committed to the governor
position in Chicago, now known as the o f the State wherein the fugitive has
Field Columbian Museum; another in the sought refuge. In the case of States,
former Memorial Hall of the Centennial as \vell as of nations, it is now gener-
Exposition in Philadelphia; and two, a iiy } ie ]d that extradition can be effect-
known as Commercial Museums, in Phil- e d only for the specific crime charged in
adelphia. The following is a list of the the papers accompanying the official de-
principal industrial expositions of the mand.

world, to nearly all of which the United Eyma, Louis XAVIER, author; born in
States has been a large contributor: Lon- Martinique, W. I.. Oct. 16, 1816; was sent
don, 1851; Cork, 1852; New York, New by the French government on several mis-
Hrunswick, Madras, and Dublin, each s i oris to the United States and the West
isr>3; Munich, 1854; Paris, 1855; Edin- Indies; spent a number of years in study-
1 iirgh and Manchester, each 1857; Lon- i n or the institutions of America; and pub-
don, 1862; Paris, 1867; Vienna, 1873; Hshed a number of books on the subject,
Philadelphia, 1876; Paris, 1878; Atlanta, among them The Women of the New
1881; Louisville, 1883; New Orleans, World; The Two Americas; Tli" Indian*
1884-85; Paris, 1881); Chicago, 1803; and ihc Ncgroe8; The American Repub-
Atlanta, 1895; Nashville, 1897; Omaha, Mc> iis institutions, etc. He died in Paris,
1898: Omaha and Philadelphia, each 1899; F raTlce March 29 1876
Paris, 1900; Buffalo and Glasgow, each Ezra s Church ( Ga. ), BATTLE OF. See
1901; St. Louis, 1904; Portland, Or., 1905. ATLAXTA (July 2 8, 1864).


Fabian Policy, a military policy of ing chairman of the United States corn-
avoiding decisive contests and harassing missioners, in 1898; was a delegate from
the enemy by marches, counter-marches, Indiana to the Republican National Con-
ambuscades, and orderly retreats. vention at Philadelphia in 1900, and, as

Fairbank, CALVIN, clergyman; born in chairman of the committee on resolutions
Pike, N. Y., Nov. 3, 1816,; graduated reported the platform; and was re-elected
at Oberlin College in 1844. He was an United States Senator in 1903. In 1904
ardent abolitionist, and during 1837-39 he was chairman of the Committee on Pub-
aided twenty-three slaves to escape by lie Buildings and Grounds, and a member
ferrying them across the Ohio River, of other important committees. The same
Later he freed others, bringing the number year he became the Republican candidate
of those whom he had helped to escape for Vice-President.

up to forty-seven. In 1843 he heard of a Fairbanks, GEORGE R., historian; born
nearly white slave-girl at Lexington who in Watertown, N. Y., July 5, 1820;
was to be sold at auction. He secured her graduated at Union College in 1839; ad-
liberty for $1,485, and took her to Cincin- mitted to the bar in 1842; removed to
nati, where she was educated. In 1844, Florida in 1842; commissioned major in
with Miss D. A. Webster, he opened the the Confederate army in 1862. He is
way for the escape of the Hayden family, the author of History and Antiquities
For this offence he was sentenced to fifteen of St. Augustine; History of Florida;
years imprisonment, and Miss Webster etc.

to two years. He was pardoned in 1849. Fairchild, CHARLES STEBBINS, lawyer;

Later he was again detected in the viola- born in Cazenovia, N. Y., April 30, 1842;

tion of the Fugitive Slave Law, and sen- graduated at Harvard in 1863; acl-

tenced a second time to fifteen years in mitted to the New York bar in 1865; ap-

prison at Frankfort. In 1864 he was set pointed Secretary of the United States

at liberty. He published How the Way Treasury in 1887; was affiliated with the

was Prepared. He died in Angelica, N. Y., Democratic party, but acted with the

Oct. 12, 1898. Gold Democrats in 1897, taking a promi-

Fairbanks, CHARLES WARREN, lawyer; nent part in the Indianapolis Monetary

born near L T nionville Centre, Union county, Conference.

O., May 11, 1852; was graduated at Ohio Fairchild, Lucius, military officer;

Wesleyan University in 1872; admitted to born in Kent. O., Dec. 27, 1831; removed

the bar in Columbus, 0., in 1874; and with his father to Wisconsin in 1846,

practised in Indianapolis till 1897, when but returned in 1855. At the beginning

he was elected to the United States Senate, of the Civil War he enlisted, and in Au-

In 1892 he was chairman of the Indiana gust, 1861, was commissioned captain in

State Convention and again in 1898; was the regular army and major in the volun

chosen by the Republican caucus in the teers. He took part in the battle of Bull

State Legislature as candidate for United Run, and at Antietam went to the front

States Senate in 1893, but was defeated; from the hospital; he led the charge up

was a delegate-at-large to the Republican Seminary Hill at the battle of Gettysburg,

convention at St. Louis in 1896; ap- and was badly wounded, losing his left

pointed a member of the United States arm. He was promoted to brigadier-gen-

and British Joint High Commission to eral in 1863, but left the service to serve

settle the differences with Canada, becom- as Secretary of State of Wisconsin. He



was afterwards elected governor, and
served six consecutive terms. In 1886 he
was elected commander - in - chief of the
Grand Army of the Republic. He died in
Madison, Wis., May 23, 1896.

Fairfax, DONALD MCNEILL, naval offi
cer; born in Virginia, Aug. 10, 1822; join
ed the navy in 1837; and served with the
Pacific fleet during the war with Mexico.
In 1862-63 he was with Farragut; was
then given command successively of the
Nantucket and the Montauk, with which
he took part in a number of attacks upon
the defences of Charleston Harbor; and in
1864-65 was superintendent of the Naval
Academy. He was promoted rear-admiral
in July, 1880; retired in 1881. He died in
Hagerstown, Md., Jan. 11, 1894.

Fairfax, THOMAS, sixth Baron of Cam
eron; born in England in 1691; edu
cated at Oxford; was a contributor to
Addison s Spectator, and finally, soured
by disappointments, quitted England for
ever, and settled on the vast landed
estate in Virginia which he had inherited
from his mother, daughter of Lord Culpep-
er. He built a lodge in the midst of 10,-
000 acres of land, some of it arable and ex
cellent for grazing, where he resolved to
build a fine mansion and live a sort of


hermit lord of a vast domain. He was at
middle age when he came to America. He
never built the great mansion, but lived
a solitary life in the lodge he had built,

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 47 of 76)