Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

. (page 48 of 76)
Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 48 of 76)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

which he called Greenway Court. There
Washington first met him and became a
frequent visitor, for Fairfax found him
a bright young man, a good hunter, in





which sport he himself loved to engage, oners and horses. He lost one man killed,

and useful to him as a surveyor of his four wounded, and one missing. He also

lands. He became very fond of the young lost twelve horses and their equipments,

surveyor, who was a loved companion of About twenty of the Confederates were

Gtorge William Fairfax, a kinsman of killed or wounded.

Lord Fairfax. Many visitors went to Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, BATTLE
Greenway Court, and the hospitable owner AT. In May, 1862, Gen. Fitz-John Porter
always treated everybody kindly. There was sent by General McClellan with a
Lord Fairfax lived during the storms of considerable force to keep the way open
the Frt iu-h and Indian War, and of the for McDowell s army to join him, which
devolution, taking no part in public af- he persistently demanded, in order to vent-
fairs, but always a stanch loyalist. When ure on a battle for Richmond. Porter
the news came that his young friend had some sharp skirmishes near Hanover
Washington had captured Cornwallis, he Court-house, and cut all railway connec-
was ninety years of age. He was over- tions with Richmond, excepting that from
come with emotion, and he called to his Fredericksburg. Meanwhile General Mc-
body-servant to carry him to his bed, Clellan telegraphed to the Secretary of
" for I am sure," he said, " it is time for War that Washington was in no danger,
me to die." A ballad gives the sequel is and that it was the duty and policy of
follows: the government to send him " all the well-
drilled troops available." When these
" Then up rose Joe, all at the word, raids on the Confederate communications

A^"?.^V?lSr had bee <**** *^ -joined the

The lord of Greenway farm, main army on the Chickahommy, and Mc-

Then thrice he called on Britain s name, Clellan telegraphed again to the Secre-

And thrice he wept full sore, tary j wi!1 do all that quick movements

" accomp.ish, but you must send me all
the troops you can, and leave me full lati-

He died at his lodge, Greenway Court, tude as to choice of commanders." Three

in Frederick county, Va., Dec. 12, 1781. days afterwards General Johnston, per-

The eleventh Lord Fairfax and Baron ceiving McClellan s apparent timidity, and

of Cameron, John Coutee Fairfax, was the real peril of the National army, then

born in Vaucluse, Va., Sept. 13, 1830; was divided by the Chickahominy, marched

a physician; succeeded his brother in the boldly out of his intrenchments and fell

title in 1869; and died in Northampton, with great vigor upon the National ad-

Md., Sept. 28, 1900. vance, under Gen. Silas Casey, lying upon

Fairfax Court-house, SKIRMISH AT. each side of the road to Williamsburg, half
Rumors prevailing early in May, 1861, a mile beyond a point known as the Severi
that a Confederate force was at Fairfax Pines, and 6 miles from Richmond. Gen-
Court-house, Lieut. C. H. Tompkins, with eral Couch s division was at Seven Pines,
seventy-five cavalry, was sent from Arling- his right resting at Fair Oaks Station,
ton Heights on a scout in that direction. Kearny s division of Heintzelman s corps
He left late in the evening of May 31, was near Savage s Station, and Hooker s
and reached the village of Fairfax Court- division of the latter corps was guarding
house at three o clock the next morning, the approaches to the White Oak Swamp,
where Colonel Ewell, late of the United General Longstreet led the Confederate
States army, was stationed with several advance, and fell suddenly upon Casey at
hundred Confederates. Tompkins capt- a little past noon, May 31, when a most
ured the pickets and dashed into the sanguinary battle ensued,
town, driving the Confederates before him. Very soon the Confederates gained a
There they were reinforced, and a severe position on Casey s flanks, when they were
skirmish occurred in the streets. Shots driven back to the woods by a spirited
were fired upon the Union troops from bayonet charge by Pennsylvania, New
windows. Finding himself greatly out- York, and Maine troops, led by General
numbered by the Confederates, Tompkins Naglee. Out of the woods immediately
retreated, taking with him several pris- the Confederates swarmed in great num-



bers, and the battle raged more fiercely
than ever. The Nationals fell back to the
second line, with a loss of six guns and
many men ; yet, notwithstanding the over
whelming numbers of the Confederates,
and exposed to sharp enfilading fires,
Casey s men brought off fully three-
fourths of their artillery. Keyes sent
troops to aid Casey, but they could not
withstand the pressure, and the whole
body of Nationals were pushed back to
Fair Oaks Station, on the Richmond and
York Railway. Reinforcements were sent
by Heintzelman and Kearny, but these
were met by fresh Confederates, and the
victory seemed about to be given to the
latter, when General Sumner appeared
with the divisions of Sedgwick and Rich
ardson. Sumner had seen the peril, and,
without waiting for orders from McClel-
lan, had moved rapidly to the scene of
action in time to check the Confederate
advance. The battle continued to rage
fiercely. General Johnston was severely
wounded, and borne from the field; and
early in the evening a bayonet charge by
the Nationals broke the Confederate line
and it fell back in confusion. The fight
ing then ceased for the night, but was re
sumed in the morning, June 1, when Gen-

tionals remained masters of the field of
Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines. The losses
in this battle were about the same on both
sides 7,000 men each. It was nearly
one-half of both combatants, for not more
than 15,000 men on each side were en
gaged. In this battle Gen. O. O. Howard
lost his right arm. Casey s division, that
withstood the first shock of the battle,
lest one-third of its number.

Falkland Islands, THE. In 1831 the
policy of President Jackson towards for
eign nations was intimated in his instruc
tions to Louis McLane, his first minister
to England, in which he said, " Ask noth
ing but what is right; submit to nothing
that is wrong." In this spirit he dealt
with the lessee of the Falkland Islands,
lying east of Patagonia, South America.
These islands were under the protection
of Buenos Ayres, and had been leased to
Don Louis Vernet, who undertook to com
pel sailing vessels to take out license to
catch seals under his authority. He
captured three American vessels, and
when the news of this and other out
rages reached the United States, the
President, always prompt in the vindi
cation of the rights of his countrymen
against foreign aggressors, sent Captain

cral Hooker and his troops took a con- Duncan, in the ship-of-war Lexington, to
spicuous part in the struggle, which lasted protect American sealers in that region,
several hours. Finally the Confederates, In December, 1831, he broke up Vernet s
loiled, withdrew to Richmond, and the Na- establishment, restored the captured prop-



evty to the owners, and sent seven of the
most prominent actors to Buenos Ayres
for trial. The authorities of that repub
lic were indignant at this treatment of
Vernet, as he was under the protection


of their flag, but they did not think it
proper to pursue the affair beyond a vigor
ous protest.

Fallen Timbers, BATTLE OF. On the
morning of Aug. 20, 1794, General Wayne,
on his campaign in the Indian wilder
ness, advanced with his whole army from
his camp at Roche de Bout, at the head
of the Maumee Rapids, according to a
plan of march prepared by his young
aide-de-camp, Lieut. William Henry Har
rison. Pie had proceeded about 5 miles,
when they were smitten with a ter
rible volley of bullets from a concealed
foe, and compelled to fall back. They
were on the borders of a vast prairie, at
a dense wood, in which a tornado had
prostrated many trees, making the move
ments of mounted men very difficult, and
forming an excellent cover for the foe,
who were, composed of Canadians and Ind
ians, 2,000 in number, posted on their
lines within supporting distance of each
other. But Wayne s troops fell upon
them with fearful energy, and made them
flee towards the British Fort Miami, be
low, like a herd of frightened deer for

cover. In one hour the victory was com
plete. The fugitives left forty of their
number dead in the pathway of their
flight. By the side of each dead body lay
a musket and bayonet from British armo
ries. Wayne lost in
killed and wounded
133 men; the loss of
his foes was not as
certained. On the
battle-ground, at the
foot of the Maumee
Rapids, is a lime
stone rock, on which
are numerous carv
ings of bird s feet. It
is a stone upon which
Me-sa-sa, or Turkey-
foot, a renowned
chief, leaped when he
saw his line of dusky
warriors giving way,
and by voice and
gesture endeavored to
make them stand
firm. He fell, pierced
by a musket-ball, and
died by the side of
the rock. Members

of his tribe carved turkeys feet upon the
stone in commemoration of him, and for
many years men, women, and children,
passing there, would linger at the stone,
place dried beef, parched corn, and pease,
or some cheap trinket upon it, and, call
ing upon the name of Me-sa-sa, weep
piteous, y. This battle ended the Indian
War in the XT orthwest.

Falling Waters, SKIRMISH NEAR. Em
barrassing telegraphic despatches were re
ceived by Cren. Robert Patterson, near
Harper s Ferry, late in June, 1861. He
was eager to adA^ance, though Johnston
had a greatly superior force. He made a
reconnoissance on July 1, and on the 2d,
with the permission of Scott, he put the
whole army across the river at Williams-
port, and pushed on in the direction of
the camp of the Confederates. Near Fall
ing Waters, 5 miles from the ford they
had crossed, the advanced guard, under
Col. John J. Abercrombie, which had ar
rived at 4 A. M., fell in with Johnston s
advance, consisting of 3,500 infantry, with
Fendleton s battery of field-artillery, and a
large force of cavalry, under Col. J. E. B.


Stuart, the whole commanded by " Stone- tain Bowie; at the head of ninety men he

wall " Jackson. Abercrombie advanced to defeated a much greater force of Mexicans

attack with musketry. A severe conflict at San Antonio. On March 19, 1836, he

ensued. In less than half an hour, when was attacked by a Mexican force under

Col. George II. Thomas was hastening to General Urrea. He succeeded in driving

support Abercrombie, Jackson fled, and off the Mexicans, but they returned the

was pursued for about five miles, when, next day with a reinforcement of 500 men,

the Confederates being reinforced, the pur- together with artillery. Resistance being

MI it ceased. practically useless, they surrendered upon

Falmouth, TREATIES AT. The Penob- condition that they be treated as prisoners
scot and Xorriclgewock Indians sent dele- of war. After being disarmed they were
gates to a conference in Boston, June 23, sent to Goliad, Tex., where by order of
1749, and there proposed to treat for General Santa Aria all American prison-
peace and friendship with the people of ers, 357 in number, were marched out in
New England. A treaty was. soon after- squads under various pretexts, and were
wards made at Falmouth, N. H., between fired upon by the Mexicans. All of the
them and the St. Francis Indians, by prisoners were killed with the exception of
which peace w y as established. At a confer- twenty-seven, who escaped, and four phy-
ence held at St. George s, in York county, sicians, whose professional services were
Me., Sept. 20, 1753, the treaty at Fal- required by Santa Ana.
mouth was ratified by more than thirty Fanning 1 , DAVID, freebooter; born in
of the Penobscot chiefs; but the next Wake county, N. C., about 1756; was a
year, when hostilities betw r een France and carpenter by trade, and led a vagabond
England began anew, these Eastern Ind- life, sometimes trading with Indians,
ians showed signs of enmity to the Eng- Late in the Revolution he joined the
lish. With 500 men, the governor of Tories, for the purpose of revenge for
Massachusetts, accompanied by Colonel injuries inflicted upon him. He gathered
Mascarene, a commissioner from Nova a small band of desperadoes like himself.
Scotia, Major-General Winslow, com- and laid waste whole settlements and
mander of the forces, held another con- committed fearful atrocities. For these
ference with these Indians at Falmouth. services he received the commission of
There, at the last of June, 1754, former lieutenant from the British commander
treaties were ratified. at Wilmington. So encouraged, he capt-

Famine, COTTON, in England. See COT- ured many leading Whigs, and hanged

TON FAMINE. those against whom he held personal re-

Faneuil, PETER, merchant; born in sontment. At one time he captured a
New Rochelle, N. Y., in 1700; went, with whole court in session, and carried off
his parents, to Boston in 1701; succeeded judges, lawyers, clients, officers, and some
to his father s business; and in 1740 of the citizens. Three weeks later he capt-
oft ered to build and present to the city a ured Colonel Alston and thirty men in
public market-house. He died in Boston, his own house, and soon afterwards, dash-
Mass., March 3, 1743. ing into Hillsboro, he captured Governor

Faneuil Hall, the " Cradle of Lib- Burke and his suite, and some of the
erty"; built by Peter Faneuil; completed principal inhabitants. The name of Fan-
in 1742; burned out in 1761: rebuilt in ning became a terror to the country, and
1763; used by the British as a theatre in he was outlawed. At the close of the
1775; and enlarged in 1805. The lower war he fled to New r Brunswick, where he
story was used as a market. It was became a member of the legislature,
a meeting-place of the people during the About 1800 he was sentenced to be
disputes with Great Britain which led to hanged for rape, but escaped, and died
the Revolutionary War, hence the name in Digby, Nova Scotia, in 1825.
" Cradle of Liberty." See BOSTON. Fanning, EDMUND, jurist ; born on

Fannin, JAMES W., military ollicer; Long Island, N. Y., in 1737; gradu-

born in North Carolina in 1800; took part ated at Yale College in 1757, and settled

in the struggle between Texas and Mexico, an a lawyer in Hillsboro. N. C., where ho

serving as captain; associated with Ca t - became popular, and was made colonel of



Orange county (1763) and clerk of the Fargo, N. D., was named after him. He
Supreme Court (1765). He was also a died in Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 3, 1881. See
member of the legislature, and married PONY EXPRESS.

the daughter of Governor Tryon. He be- Faribault, JOHN BAPTIST, pioneer ; born
came rapacious, and by his exorbitant in Berthier, Quebec, about 1769; entered
legal fees made himself very obnoxious the service of the American Company, of
to the people. Their hatred was increased which John Jacob Astor was president,
by his energetic exertions in suppress- in 1796, and was assigned to the North
ing the Regulator movement (see REGU- west. After traversing the country he
LATORS). He fled to New York with Gov- located at Des Moines, la., and later on
ernor Tryon to avoid the consequences of removed to Saint Peter, Minn. After ten
popular indignation. He was appointed years service with the American Company
surveyor-general of North Carolina in he went into business on his own account,
1774. In 1776 he raised and led a force and soon accumulated a fortune, but
called " the King s American Regiment of lost it all in the War of 1812 through the
Foot." After the Revolution he went to fact of his having taken the American side
Nova Scotia, where he became a council- during the contest. The English seized
lor and lieutenant-governor in September, him at Mackinac as a trader and kept him

confined for a short period. He died in
Faribault, Minn, (which city had been
founded by his son Alexander), in 1860.

Farman, ELBERT ELI, jurist; born in
New Haven, Oswego co., N. Y., April 23,
1831; graduated at Amherst College in
1855, and studied in Warsaw, N. Y.,
where he was admitted to the bar in 1858.
He studied in Europe in 1865-67, and on
returning to the United States was made
district attorney of Wyoming county,
N. Y. In March, 1876, he was appointed
United States consul-general at Cairo,
Egypt, and there became a member of the
commission to revise the international
codes. Later President Garfield appoint-
EDMUND FANNING. ed him a judge of the international

court of Egypt. He was also a member

1783, and from 1786 to 1805 was governor of the international committee appointed
of Prince Edward s Island. He rose to the to investigate the claims of citizens of
rank of general in the British army in Alexandria for damages caused by the
1808. Fanning was an able jurist, and bombardment of that city by the British
always regretted his later career in North in 1882. It was principally through his
Carolina. He was greatly influenced by efforts that the obelisk known as " Cleo-
his father-in-law. He died in London, patra s needle," which stands near the
Feb. 28, 1818. Metropolitan Art Museum in Central

Fargo, WILLIAM GEORGE, expressman ; Park, New York City, was secured. When
born in Pompey, N. Y., May 20, 1818; be- he left Egypt, Mr. Farman received from
came the Buffalo agent of the Pomeroy the Khedive the decoration of Grand Offi-
Express Company in 1843; established the cer of the Imperial Order of the Med-
first express company west of Buffalo in jidi, an honor rarely bestowed upon a
partnership with Henry Wells and Daniel foreigner.

Dunning in 1844. The line was extended Farmer, JOHN, historian; born in
until it reached San Francisco, Cal. In Chelmsford, Mass., June 12, 1789; became
1868 Mr. Fargo became president of the a school-master, but abandoned this pro-
corporation, which by the time of his death fession to enter trade; was one of the
had 2,700 offices, over 5,000 employees, and founders and corresponding secretary of
a capital of $18,000,000. The city of the New Hampshire Historical Society.



Among his works are Belknap s History of
New Hampshire; Genealogical Register of
the First Settlers of New England; His
tories of Billerica and Amherst, etc., and,
in connection with J. B. Moore, the Col
lections of New Hampshire. He died in
Concord, N. H., Aug. 13, 1838.

Farmer, MOSES GERRISH, electrician;
born in Boscawen, N. H., Feb. 9, 1820;
graduated at Dartmouth College in
1844; taught in Elliot, Me., and in Dover,
N. H., for two years. During his leisure
hours while in Dover he invented several
forms of electro-motors, one of which he
used in his experimental workshop to
drive a vertical lathe, and the other was
used on a miniature railway. Both
motors were originally designed to illus
trate his lectures. He demonstrated that
the electrical current could be used for
discharging torpedoes and in submarine
blasting. On his miniature railway he
transported by electricity the first passen
gers ever so carried in the United States.
In 1847 he moved to Framingham, Mass.,
and invented the telegraph fire-alarm. In
1865 he invented a thermo-electric bat
tery and also built the first dynamo
machine. In 1880 he patented an auto
matic electric-light system. Besides these
inventions he brought to light and per
fected many others. He is considered
one of the pioneers in electricity. He
died in Chicago, 111., May 25, 1893.

Farmer, SILAS, historian; born in
Detroit, Mich., June 6, 1839. In 1882 he
was elected historiographer of Detroit, and
in 1884 published a History of Detroit and

Farmers Alliance, a political organ
ization that originated soon after the close
of the Civil War. The main purpose of
this movement \vas the mutual protection
of farmers against the encroachment of
capital. The first body was organized in
Texas to prevent the wholesale purchase
of public land by private individuals. In
1887 the Farmers Union of Louisiana
united with the Texas organization under
the name of the Farmers Alliance and
Co-operative Union of America. The
movement soon spread into Missouri, Ken
tucky, Tennessee, North and South Caro
lina, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi.
In 1889 a similar organization, which had
been formed in 1877 in Illinois, and which

had spread into neighboring States, was
amalgamated with the Southern Alliance,
and the name of Farmers Alliance and
Industrial Union was adopted. The found
ers of the alliance held that the party
was formed along political lines because
the parties already existing failed to
undertake to solve the problems covered
by the demands of the alliance. In 1890
the alliance elected several governors,
other State officers, and a few Congress
men. On May 19, 1891, delegates from
the Farmers Alliance, the Knights of
Labor, and several other organizations
met in a national convention in Cincin
nati, adopted a platform, and formed a
new political party under the name of the
People s Party of the United States of
America, which became contracted to
Populist party. Another convention was
held in St. Louis, Feb. 22, 1892, at which
the Farmers Alliance had 246 delegates
out of the 656 present. It was not, how
ever, until 1897 that the alliance dropped
its old name, its interests having been by
that time merged with those of the PEO
PLE S PARTY (q. v.}.

Farmers Institutes. The Secretary
of the American Association of Farmers
Institute Managers, Mr. Frederick W.
Taylor, who has been identified with the
prominent horticultural business of the
West for many years, writes as follows:

Within recent years the idea has gone
abroad that education may be taken to a
larger constituency than it is possible to
reach by the schools of higher grade
through the ordinary channels. This idea
has received the name of UNIVERSITY EX
TENSION (q. v.) , and in one form or an
other the work has been attempted along
various lines with varying results.

The University Extension idea contem
plates the facilitating the study by the
people of certain higher branches by means
of lectures, which are usually given by
university professors in the same way as
are their class-room lectures. Meetings of
the local centres, as they are sometimes
called, are held as frequently as possible,
perhaps weekly, and a- regular amount of
home preparation is expected of those in
attendance. In many cases this work has
been very successful, making possible tln>
acquirement of systematic training by



those who might otherwise never have which was referred all correspondence on
been able to make any addition to the that subject. The university, soon finding
perhaps slight education which they ac- itself unable to supply all the speakers re
quired in the public schools. quired, would call on the various State

But there has been developed, more or societies to supply speakers on subjects

less directly from University Extension, coming within the scope of their work,

a work among farmers and others en- This is the actual record of the growth

gaged in rural occupations which has out- of institute work in one State, and it is

stripped, in far-reaching effects and in only a type of what is going on in nearly

point of numbers touched, all the other all the States.

forms of extension work. This has taken After the various organizations and so-

to itself the name of " Farmers Insti- cieties in a State for promoting the spread

tutes," and has made itself felt all over of education through this means have

the United States. Nearly every State in united their forces, it has usually been

the Union now has some sort of an ar- only a short time until the expansion has

rangement under which Farmers Insti- been so great as to make it necessary to

tutes are held. ask the legislature for a direct appropria-

A study of the manner of growth in a tion for the Farmers Institutes, and then

single State may serve to indicate pretty the work may be said to be really estab-

clearly what has been the experience in lished. As a rule, the results actually ac-

almost every State in which the institutes complished require only to be brought

have gained a strong foothold. clearly before the lawmakers to secure

Some of the progressive farmers in the needed funds.

certain communities gathered together a One of the first States to reach such

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 48 of 76)