Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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Pearre, G. A. (7?.)
Perkins, J. B. (R.)
Pierce R A (D )


Maryland
Pennsylvania. . . .
Massachusetts. . .
California. . .


51st, 55th, 56th, 57th. .
*53d, 57th
56th 57th


56th 57th


Nebraska
Ohio


*56th, 57th
57th
53d. 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th


Nevada

Ohio
Pennsylvania. . . ,
Virginia


55th. 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th
54th, 55 lh, 56th, 57th.
54th, 55th. 56th, 57th.
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
57th


March
March
March
March
March
March
March

Mar-h
March
March

March
March

March

March
March
March
March
March
;e.


4, 1897
4. 1807
4. 1895
4. 1S.95
4. 1S95
4. 1901
4, 1901

4. 1893
4, 1901
4, 1901

4, 1889
4. 1899
4, 1901

4. 1897
4. 1899
4, 1901
4, 1901
4, 1901


Wisconsin
Indiana
Tennessee


Pennsyl vania


57th


New Jersey

Pennsylvania. . . .
Tennessee


G

13
10

28

G
31
9

17
4
4
11


53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th
."7th


57th


New York

Maryland
New York


48th, 49th, 51st, 52d,
53d, 54th, 55th,
56th, 57th
56th, 57th

57th . .


Tennessee

Pennsylvania. . . .
North Carolina. .
Maine


48th, 51st, 52d, 55th.
56th, 57th
"6th. 57th
57th


Polk, R K (D )


Pou, E. W. (D.)
Powers, Llewllyn (R.) . .
Powers, S. L. ( R.)
* Vacancy.


45th, *57th
37th


Massachusetts. . .


(a) At lar



337



FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN 1902

LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Continued.



Name.


State.


District.


Congresses.


Beginning of present
service.


Prince, G. W. (A .)
Pugsley, C. A. (I).) . . . .
Randell, C. B. (/>.)....
Kansdell, J. E. (/>.) ....
Ray, G. \V. (R.)

Reid, C. C. (/>.)
lieeder, W. A. (A .) ....
Reeves, Walter (h .) . . . .
Rhea, J. S. (D.)
Rhea, W. F. (D.)
Richardson, J. D. (D.) . .

Richardson, Wm. (D. ) . .
Rixey, J. F. (D.)
Robb, Edward (D )


Illinois


10
16
5

5
20

4
6
11
3
9
5

8
8
13

7
G

12
3

15


*54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
57th


March 4, 1895
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1901
April 23, 1899

March 4, 1891
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1895
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1899

March 4, 1885
April 21, 1900
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1899

Aug. 3, 1887
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1899

March 4, 1887
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1901
June 16, 1899
March 4, 1895
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1897

March 4, 1893
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1897

March 4, 1889
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1897
June 7, 1900
March 4, 1895
March 4, 1899
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1895
March 4, 1901
March 4, 1895
March 4, 1895
Oct. 17, 1898
March 4, 1897

March 4, 1895
March 4, 1897
March 4, 1897

?e.


New York


Texas
Louisiana
New York


57th


*56th, 57th


48th, 52d, 53d, 54th,
55th, 56th, 57th
57th


Arkansas


Kansas
Illinois


56th, 57th. . .


*54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th 57th


Kentucky. . . .


Virginia


56th 57th


Tennessee

Alabama
Virginia. .


49th, 50th, 51st, 52d,
53d, 54th, 55th,
56th, 57th
*56th, 57th


55th, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th
56th, 57th
*50th, 51st, 52d, 53d,
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
55th 56th 57th


Missouri


Roberts, E. W. (N .)....
Robertson, S. M. (D..) . .

Robinson, J. M. (D.) . . . .
Robinson, J. S. (D.) . . . .
Rucker, W. W. (D.)
Rumple, J. N. W. (/?.) . .
Ruppert, Jacob, Jr. (D.)
Russell, C. A. (R ) . .


Massachusetts. . .
Louisiana

Indiana
Nebraska


56th, 57th


Missouri


56th, 57th
57th
56th, 57th.


Iowa


New York ....


Connecticut


3

32
4
6


50th, 51st, 52d, 53d,
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
56th, 57th


Ryan, W. H. (/).)


New York
Xew Jersey
South Carolina


Salmon, J. S. (/).)
Scarborough, R. 15. (/>.)
Schirin, C. R. (R.)
Scott, C. F. ( R. )
Selby T J (/) )


56th, 57th


57th


Maryland
Kansas


4
(a)
16


57th


57th


Illinois


57th


Shackleford, D. W. (D.)
Shafroth, J. F. (8.).. ..

Shallenberger, A. C. (D.)
Shattuc, W. B. (R.) . . . .
Shelden, C. D. (R.) . . .
Sherman, J. S. (R.) . . . .

Sheppard J L (D )


Missouri
Colorado


8
1

5


*56th, 57th
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
57th


Nebraska


Ohio
Michigan
New York .


1

12
25

4
25
27
8
14
12
1
4
22

2
6
9
5
4
5
9
20
1
2
2
4
11

13 ,
4 I


55th, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th
50th, 51st, 53d, 54th,
55th, 56th, 57th...
56th, 57th . . .


Texas


Showalter, J. B. (R.) . . .
Sibley, J. C. (R.)
Sims T W (D )


Pennsylvania. . . .
do


*55th, 56th. 57th. . . .
53d, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th


Tennessee


Skiles, W. W. (7?.)
Slayden, J. L. (D.)
Small, J. II. (D.)
Smith, D. II. (D.)
Smith, G. W. (/? ) ....


Ohio


57th


Texas
North Carolina. .


55th, 56th, 57th
56th 57th


55th 56th 57th


Illinois


51st, 52d, 53d, 54th,
55th, 56th, 57th. . .
56th, 57th
55th 56th 57th


Smith, II. C. (7?.)


Michigan
. . . .do
[owa
Michigan


Smith, S. W. (7?.)
Smith, W. I. (7?.)
Smith, W. A. (/?.)
Snodgrass, C. E. (D.) . .
Snook, J. S. (D.)
Southard J II (R )


*56th 57th


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
56th, 57th


Tennessee
Ohio
Ohio


57th


14th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
54th, 55th, 57th


Southwick, G. N. (/?.)..
Sparkman, S. M. (D.) . .
Sperry, N. D. (R.)
Spight, Thomas (D.) . . .
Stark, W. L. (P.)


New York


Florida
Connecticut


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th .
54th, 55th. 56th. 57th.
*55th, 56th, 57th. . . .
55th, 56th, 57th
47th, 48th, 49th, 50th,
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th
55th, 56th, 57th

(a) At lar


Mississippi
Nebraska
Indiana


Steele, G. W. (R.)
Stephens, J. H. (D ) . . .


Texas


Stevens, F. C. (R.)
* Vacancy.


Minnesota



FEDEKAL GOVERNMENT IN 1902

LIST OF MEMKKRS OF THE HOUSE OF RKI KESENTATIVES Concluded.



Name.


State.


District.


Congresses.


Beginning
serv


of present
ice.


Stewart, J. F. (R.)
Stewart, J. K. (A*.)


New Jersey ....
New York


5
21


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
56th, 57th. . .


March
March


4, 1895

4 1&<Q


Storm, Frederick (R.) . .


. . .do


1


57th


March




Sulloway, C. A. (R.) . . .
Sulzer, William (D.) . . .


New Hampshire.
New Y ork


1
11


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.


March


4, 1895


Sutherland, George (R.)


Utah




57th . .


March




S \\anson, C. A. (D.) . . . .


Virginia


5


53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th




41 COO


Talbert, W. J. (D.) . .


South Carolina


o














57th ....


March


4 1 SO 1 ?


Tate, F. C. (D.)

Tayler, R. W*. (R.) ....
Taylor, G. W. (D.) . . .


Georgia

Ohio
Alabama.


9

18
1


53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
55th 56th 57th


March
March


4, 1893
4, 1895


Tawney, J. A. (R.) . . . .


Minnesota


1


53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th


Alarch


41 SQ


Thayer, J. R. (D.)


Massachusetts


3


56th 57th






Thomas, C. R. (D.) . . . .


North Carolina.


3


56th, 57th


March


4, 1899

41 SQQ


Thomas, Lot (R.)


Iowa


11


56th 57th


March


4 1 8QQ


Thompson, C. W. (D.) .
Tirrell, C. Q. (R.)


Alabama
Massachusetts. .


5
4


57th
57th


March
March


4, 1901

4 1901


Tompkins, A. S. (A*.) ...


New York . . .


17


56th 57th


Ma rr h




Tornpkins, Emmett (R.) .


Ohio. . .


12


57th


Afp ,.,.V,




Tongue, T. II. (R.) . . . .


Oregon


1


55th, 56th 57th


March


4 1&07


Trimble, South (D.) . . .


Kentucky


7


57th


March


4 1 QO1


Underwood, O. W. (D.) .
Vandiver, W. I). (D.) . . .
Van Voorhis, II. C. (A*.)


Alabama
Missouri
Ohio


9
14
15


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
55th, 56th, 57th
53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th


March
March


4, 1895
4, 1887

41 80


Vreeland E B (7? )


New York


34


*56th, 57th


March


4 1899


Wichter F C (A* )


Maryland .


3


56th 57th


Alarch


4 1 &<) l >


Wadsworth J W (A )


New York


30


47th, 48th, 5d 53d






Wanger, I. P. (R.)

Warner, Vespasian (R.)
War nock W R ( A )


ennsylvania. . . .

llinois
)hio


7

13

8


54th, 55th, 56th, 57th
53d, 54th, 55th, 56th,
57th
54th, 55th, 56th, 57th.
57th


March

March
March
March


4, 1891

4, 1893
4, 1895
4 1901


Watson, J. E (A )


ndiana


6


54th, 56th 57th


March


4 1899


Weeks Edgar ( If )


Michigan . . .




56th 57th




4 1899


Wheeler C K (/) )


ventuckv


1


55th, 56th, 57th. . .


M a re h


4 1897


White John B (I) )


. .do


10


">7th


March


4 1901


W T iley A A (I) )


Alabama




57th


March


4 1901


Williams, .7. R. (/>.)....


llinois


20


51st, 52d, 53d, 56th,
57th ...


March


4 1899


Williams, J. S. (D.) . . . .


lississippi


5


53d, 54th, 55th, 56th.
57th




4 1893


Wilson. F. E. (D.)
Woods S D (A )


\ew York
alifornia. . . .


5


56th, 57th
*56th, 57th. . .


March
Aug


4, 1899
1900


Wooten D G ( /> )


Texas. . . .


6


*57th


June


5 1901


Wright. C. F (A )


Pennsylvania. . . .


15


56th, 57th


March


4. 1899


Young, J. R. ( R. )


do


4


55th, 56th, 57th


March


4, 1897


Zenor, W. T. (/).)

DELEGATES.

Flynn, D. T. (R.)
Rodey, B. S. (R.)
Smith, M. A. (D.)

Wilcox, R. W. (hid.) . . .


Indiana

TERRITORIES.

Oklahoma
New Mexico
Arizona

Hawaii


3


55th, 56th, 57th

53d, 54th, 56th. 57th.
57<h
50th, 51st. 52d, 53d,
55th. 57th
56th, 57th


March

March
March

March
Dec.


4, 1897

4, 1899
4, 1901

4. 1901
3, 1900



* Vacancy



Senate :
Republicans


54


Democrats


30


All others


3


Total


87


(Three vacancies.)





(a) At large.
CLASSIFICATION".

House of Representatives :

Republicans

Democrats

All others . ,



. . . 200
. 152



Total



FEDERAL HALL FEDEBAL UNION



on the northeast corner of Wall and
Nassau streets. This building
had fallen into decay when the
first national Congress was about
to meet there. Desirous of per
manently retaining the seat of
the national government at New
York, and to provide the national
legislature with suitable accom
modations, several wealthy cit
izens advanced to the city treas
ury (then empty) $32,500, with
which the old building was re
modelled and extensively repair
ed. The name " Federal Hall " was
given to it, and the city councils
placed it at the disposal of the

Federal Hall. The Continental Con- Congress. New York retained the nation-
gress, when sitting in New York, had al capitol only a short time, as it was
been accommodated in the old City Hall, removed to Philadelphia in 1790.




FEDERAL UNION, THE

Federal Union, THE. JOHN FISKE the world grows, the more varied our ex-

(q. v.) , the eminent historian, contributes perience of practical politics, the more

the following essay, originally delivered comprehensive our survey of universal

as a lecture in London, England: history, the stronger our grasp upon the

comparative method of inquiry, the more

The great history of Thucydides, which brilliant is the light thrown upon that

after twenty-three centuries still ranks brief day ol Athenian greatness, and the

(in spite of Mr. Cobden) among our chief more wonderful and admirable does it all

text-books of political wisdom, has often seem. To see this glorious community

seemed to me one of the most mournful overthrown, shorn of half its virtue (to

books in the world. At no other spot on use the Homeric phrase), and thrust down

the earth s surface, and at no other time in into an inferior position in the world, is

the career of mankind, has the human in- a mournful spectacle indeed. And the

tellect flowered with such luxuriance as at book which sets before us, so impartially

Athens during the eighty-five years which yet so eloquently, the innumerable petty

intervened between the victory of Mara- misunderstandings and contemptible jeal-

thon and the defeat of Aegospotamos. In ousies which brought about this direful

no other like interval of time, and in no result, is one of the most mournful of

other community of like dimensions, has books.

so much work been accomplished of which We may console ourselves, however, for

we can say with truth that it isKr////aft, - atl the premature overthrow of the power of

an eternal possession. It is impossible Athens, by the reflection that that power

to conceive of a day so distant, or an era rested upon political conditions which

of culture so exalted, that the lessons could not in any case have been perma-

taught by Athens shall cease to be of nent or even long-enduring. The entire

value, or that the writings of her great political system of ancient Greece, based

thinkers shall cease to be read with fresh as it was upon the idea of the sovereign

profit and delight. We understand these independence of each single city, was one

things far better to-day than did those which could not fail sooner or later to ex

monsters of erudition in the sixteenth haust itself through chronic anarchy. The

century who studied the classics for p li!1 o- on\v remedy lay either in some kind of

logical purposes mainly. Indeed, the older permanent federation, combined with rep-

340



FEDERAL UNION, THE



resentative government; or else in what been wrought out by the genius of the

we might call " incorporation and assimi- English race.

lation," after the Roman fashion. But the We have seen how the most prim-
incorporation of one town with another, itive form of political association known
though effected with brilliant results in to have existed is that of the clan,
the early history of Attica, involved such or group of families held together by
a disturbance of all the associations which ties of descent from a common an-
in the Greek mind clustered about the cestor. We saw how the change from a
conception of a city that it was quite im- nomadic to a stationary mode of life, at-
practicable on any large or general scale, tendant upon the adoption of agricultural
Schemes of federal union were put into pursuits, converted the clan into a mark
operation, though too late to be of avail or village-community, something like
against the assaults of Macedonia and those which exist to-day in Russia. The



Rome. But as for the principle of repre- political
sentation, that seems to have been an in
vention of the Teutonic mind ; no states
man of antiquity, either in Greece or at



progress of primitive society
seems to have consisted largely in the
coalescence of these small groups into
larger groups. The first series of corn-



Rome, seems to have conceived the idea pound groups resulting from the coales-

of a city sending delegates armed with cence of adjacent marks is that which was*

plenary powers to represent its interests known in nearly all Teutonic lands as the

in a general legislative assembly. To the hundred, in Athens as the <}>paTpia or

Greek statesmen, no doubt, this too would brotherhood, in Rome as the curia. Yet

have seemed derogatory to the dignity of alongside of the Roman group called the

the sovereign city. curia there is a group whose name, the

This feeling with which the ancient century, exactly translates the name of

Greek statesmen, and to some extent the the Teutonic group; and, as Mr. Free-



has be-
to the
modern mind, so far removed are we from



Romans also, regarded the city,
come almost incomprehensible



man says, it is difficult to believe that the
Roman century did not at the outset in
some way correspond to the Teutonic



the political cirmcumstances which made hundred as a stage in political organiza-



such a feeling possible. Teutonic civiliza
tion, indeed, has never passed through a



tion. But both these terms, as we know
them in history, are survivals from some



stage in which the foremost position has prehistoric state of things; and whether
been held by civic communities. Teutonic they were originally applied to a hun-
civilization passed directly from the stage dved of houses, or of families, or of war-
of tribal into that of national organiza- riors, we do not know.* M. Geffrey, in
tion, before any Teutonic city had ac- his interesting essay on the Germania of
quired sufficient importance to have claim- Tacitus, suggests that the term canton
ed autonomy for itself; and at the time may have a similar origin.** The out-
when Teutonic nationalities were form- lines of these primitive groups are, how-
ing, moreover, all the cities in Europe had ever, more obscure than those of the more
so long been accustomed to recognize a primitive mark, because in most cases
master outside of them in the person of they have been either crossed and effaced
the Roman emperor that the very tradi- O r at any rate diminished in importance
tion of civic autonomy, as it existed in by the more highly compounded groups
ancient Greece, had become extinct. This which came next in order of formation,
dhf erence between the political basis of Next above the hundred, in order of coin-
Teutonic and of Graeco-Roman civilization position, comes the group known in an-
is one of which it would be difficult to ex- cient Italy as the pagus, in Attica per-
aggerate the importance; and when thor- haps as the deme, in Germany and at first
oughly understood it goes further, perhaps, j n England as the gau or ga, at a later
than anything else towards accounting for ( | a t e in England as the shire. Whatever
the successive failures of the Greek and its name, this group answers to the tribe
Roman political systems, and towards in
spiring us with confidence in the future



stability of the political system which has



* Freeman, Comparative Politics, 118.
** Geffroy, Rome et les Barbares, 209.



341



FEDERAL UNION, THE



regarded as settled upon a certain deter
minate territory. Just as in the earlier
nomadic life the aggregation of clans
makes ultimately the tribe, so in the
more advanced agricultural life of our
Aryan ancestors the aggregation of marks
cr village-communities makes ultimately
the gau or shire. Properly speaking, the
name shire is descriptive of division and
not of aggregation; but this term came
into use in England after the historic
order of formation had been forgotten,
and when the shire was looked upon as
a piece of some larger whole, such as the
kingdom of Mercia or Wessex. Histori
cally, however, the shire was not made,
like the departments of modern France,
by the division of the kingdom for admin
istrative purposes, but the kingdom was
made by the union of shires that were
previously autonomous. In the primitive
process of aggregation, the shire or gau,
governed by its ivitenagemote or " meet
ing of wise men," and by its chief magis
trate who was called ealdorman in time of
peace and heretoga, " army-leader," dux,
or duke, in time of war, the shire, I say,
in this form, is the largest and most com
plex political body we find previous to
the formation of kingdoms and nations.
But in saying this, we have already passed
beyond the point at which we can include
in the same general formula the process
of political development in Teutonic coun
tries on the one hand and in Greece and
Home on the other. Up as far as the
formation of the tribe, territorially re
garded, the parallelism is preserved; but
at this point there begins an all-important
divergence. In the looser and more dif
fused society of the rural Teutons, the
tribe is spread over a shire, and the aggre
gation of shires makes a kingdom, em
bracing cities, towns, and rural districts
held together by similar bonds of rela
tionship to the central governing power.
But in the society of the old Greeks and
Italians, the aggregation of tribes, crowd
ed together on fortified hill-tops, makes
Ihe Ancient City a very different thing,
indeed, from the modern city of later
Roman or Teutonic foundation. Let us
consider, for a moment, the difference.

Sir Henry Maine tells us that in Hindu
stan nearly all the great towns and cities
have arisen either from the simple expan



sion or from the expansion and coales
cence of primitive village-communities;
and such as have not arisen in this way,
including some of the greatest of Indian
cities, have grown up about the intrenched
camps of the Mogul emperors.* The case
has been just the same in modern Europe.
Some famous cities of England and Ger
many such as Chester and Lincoln, Stras-
burg and Maintz grew up about the
camps of the Roman legions. But in
general the Teutonic city has been formed
by the expansion and coalescence of
thickly peopled townships and hundreds.
In the United States nearly all cities
have come from the growth and expansion
of villages, with such occasional cases of
coalescence as that of Boston with Rox-
bury and Charlestown. Now and then a
city has been laid out as a city ab initio,
with full consciousness of its purpose, as
a man would build a house; and this was
the case not merely with Martin Chuz-
zlewit s " Eden," but with the city of
Washington, the seat of our federal gov
ernment. But, to go back to the early age
of England the country which best ex
hibits the normal development of Teu
tonic institutions the point which I wish
especially to emphasize is this: in no case
does the city appear as equivalent to the
dwelling-place of a tribe or of a confedera
tion of tribes. In no case does citizenship,
or burghership, appear to rest upon the
basis of a real or assumed community of
descent from a single real or mythical pro
genitor. In the primitive mark, as we have
seen, the bond which kept the community
together and constituted it a political unit
was the bond of blood-relationship, real or
assumed; but this was not the case with
the city or borough. The city did not
correspond with the tribe, as the mark
corresponded with the clan. The aggrega
tion of clans into tribes corresponded with
the aggregation of marks, not into cities
but into shires. The multitude of com
pound political units, by the further com
pounding of which a nation was to be
formed, did not consist of cities but of
shires. The city was simply a point in
the shire distinguished by greater density
of population. The relations sustained by
the thinly peopled rural townships and



* Maine, Village Communities, 118.



342



FEDERAL UNION, THE

hundreds to the general government of who combined in himself the functions of

the shire were co-ordinate with the rela- king, general, and priest. Thus, too, there

tions sustained to the same government was a severance, politically, between city

by those thickly peopled townships and and country such as the Teutonic world

hundreds which upon their coalescence has never known. The rural districts sur-

were known as cities or boroughs. Of rounding a city might be subject to it,

course I am speaking now in a broad and but could neither share its franchise nor

general way, and without reference to such claim a co-ordinate franchise with it.

special privileges or immunities as cities Athens, indeed, at an early period, went

and boroughs frequently obtained by royal so far as to incorporate with itself Eleu-

charter in feudal times. Such special sis and Marathon and the other rural

privileges as for instance the exemption towns of Attica. Tn this one respect

of boroughs from the ordinary sessions of Athens transgressed the bounds of an-

the county court, under Henry I.* were cient civic organization, and no doubt it

in their nature grants from an external gained greatly in power thereby. But

source, and were in nowise inherent in the generally in the Hellenic world the rural

position or mode of origin of the Teutonic population in the neighborhood of a great

city. And they were, moreover, posterior city were mere TrepioiKoi, or " dwellers in

in date to that embryonic period of na- the vicinity " ; the inhabitants of the city

tional growth of which I am now speak- who had moved thither from some other

ing. They do not affect in any way the cor- city, both they and their descendants, were

rectness of my general statement, which mere fieroiKoi, or "dwellers in the

is sufficiently illustrated by the fact that place"; and neither the one class nor the

the oldest shire - motes, or county assem- other could acquire the rights and priv-

blies, were attended by representatives ileges of citizenship. A revolution, in-

from all the townships and hundreds in deed, went on at Athens, from the time of

the shire, whether such townships and Solon to the time of Kleisthenes, which

hundreds formed parts of boroughs or not. essentially modified the old tribal divi-



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 53 of 76)