Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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the public stores at Patuxent, but he was and Boston did not arrive; and the men
captured in the fight which followed. Af- disbanded. On May 19, 1,200 stands of
terwards he started another insurrection, arms, which had been sent to Rouse s
and was made governor, July 10, 1656, as Point, were seized by the United States
a reward for his alleged services in behalf government, and on May 30 a similar
of the proprietary government. In Decem- seizure was made at St. Albans. June 1,
ber, 1660, he was deposed, for having op- about 1,500 men crossed into Canada at
posed his patron, and in December, 1661, Buffalo. The Dominion militia had been
was found guilty of treason and sentenced called out, and on June 2 a severe skir-
to be exiled, but later \vas pardoned mish occurred, in which the Fenians lost
and compelled to pay a small fine. In heavily in prisoners and wounded men,
1681 he was banished for participating in though not many were killed. Attempt-
seditious practices, and a fine of 140 Ibs. ing to get back over the border into this
of tobacco was imposed on him. country, 700 of them were captured by

Fenelon, FRANCOIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA the United States authorities. Other

MOTHE-FENELON, French prelate; born in bands had by this time reached the fron-

Dordogne, France, Aug. 6, 1651 ; was sent tier, but as a cordon of United States

to Canada while yet inferior in orders, troops, under General Meade, guarded the

and, during his missionary service there, line, they made no attempt to cross,

he so boldly attacked the public authori- Though large sums of money were raised

ties for their shortcomings that Fronte- to aid a further invasion, and consider-

nac had him arrested, while serving in able excitement prevailed, the resolute

the Seminary of St. Sulpice, and put in action of the United States authorities

prison. It is believed that this noted prevented it. No punishment was ac-

archbishop, orator, and author received corded the actors in this affair beyond a

many hints, while engaged in missionary brief term of imprisonment for such as

work in Canada, which were subsequently were taken.

put into telling form in his noted Fenian Invasion of Canada. See

Aventures de Telemaque (1699). He died FENIAN BROTHERHOOD.

in Cambria, France, Jan. 7, 1715. Fenton, REUBEN EATON, statesman;

Fenian Brotherhood, THE. Notwith- born in Carroll, Chautauqua co., N. Y.,

standing the unfriendliness and positive July 4, 1819; was educated at Pleasant

enmity of the government of Great Hill and Fredonia academies, in his na-

Britain to the United States during the tive county; and was admitted to the bar



in 1841. Finding the practice of law un- ing with the Congress, employed Mrs.

congenial, he entered business, and ac- Ferguson to sound Gen. Joseph Reed as

quired a moderate fortune. Meanwhile, to his disposition to aid the royal govern-

he became interested in politics, and in ment in bringing about a reconciliation

1843-51 served as supervisor of Carroll, between it and the revolted colonies. She

In 1852 he was elected to Congress by was patriotic and judicious. Johnstone

the Democrats, and there opposed the instructed her as to what she should say

further extension of slavery. This action to Reed, and she performed the errand

K-sulted in his defeat, in 1854, for a sec- without losing the esteem of any one.

o!id term, and he united with the Re- Her husband never joined her after the

1 nblicnn party, by whom, in 1856, he war. His estate was confiscated, but the

was elected to Congress, where he re- State of Pennsylvania returned a part

mained till 1864, when he resigned to of it to her in 1781. After the war she

become governor of New York, in which applied herself to literature and philan-

oftice he served two terms. In 1869-75 thropy. She died in Montgomery county,

he was in the United States Senate, and Pa., Feb. 23, 1801.

in 1878 was chairman of the United Ferguson, PATRICK, military officer;

States commission to the International born in England; son of Judge James

Monetary Conference in Paris. He died Ferguson and a nephew of Lord Elibank;

in Jamestown, N. Y., Aug. 25, 1885. entered the British army at the age of

Fenwick, GEORGE, colonist; came to eighteen, and came to America in the

America in 1636 to take charge of the spring of 1777, serving under Cornwallis,

infant colony of SAYBROOK (q. v.) , in Con- first in the North and then in the South,

necticut. He returned to England, and After the siege of Charleston in 1780 he

came back in 1639, and from that time was promoted to major, and was detached

governed Saybrook till December, 1644, by Cornwallis to embody the Tories in

when its jurisdiction and territory were South Carolina. He was killed in the

sold to the Connecticut colony at Hart- battle of KING S MOUNTAIN (q. v.) , Oct

ford. Fenwick was one of the judges who 7, 1780.

tried and condemned Charles I. He died Fergusson, ARTHUR W., translator;
in England in 1657. born about 1855; has been for many years
Fenwick, JOHN, Quaker colonist; a connected with the State Department in
founder of the colony of West Jersey; Washington, D. C. ; accompanied the mem-
born in England in 1618 ; obtained a grant bers of the Pan-American Congress on
of land in the western part of New their trip through the United States dur-
Jersey in 1673; emigrated thither in 1675; ing Secretary Elaine s tenure of office; was
and settled in Salem. His claim was chief translator of the bureau of the
resisted by Governor Andros, of New American republics; Spanish interpreter
York, and he was arrested and cast into for the American peace commissioners in
jail, where he remained about two years. Paris in 1898; appointed Spanish secre-
He subsequently conveyed his claim to tary to the Philippine commission in
West Jersey to William Penn. He died 1900; and secretary to the chief civil
in England in 1683. executive (Governor Taft) of the Philip-
Ferguson, ELIZABETH, patriot; born in pines, July 10, 1901.

Philadelphia, Pa., in 1739; daughter of Fernow, BERTHOLD, historian; born in
Dr. Gnome, of Gramme Park, near Phila- Prussian Poland, Nov. 28, 1837; came to
delphia ; became famous during the Revo- the United States in 1860; served in the
lution by a futile mission which she good- National army in 1862-64; was New York
naturedly undertook. She was a culti- State archivist in 1876-89; and was also
vated woman, and enjoyed the personal one of the editors and translators of .Doc-
friendship of many eminent persons. Her uments Relating to the Colonial History
husband was in the British army, yet of New York ; Records of New Amsterdam;
she possessed the esteem and confidence of and New York in the Revolution. He has
both Whigs and Tories. Johnstone, one also published Albany, and its Place in the
of the peace commissioners sent over History of the United States; The Ohio
here in ifffc, finding they could do noth- Valley in Colonial Days; and contributions




to the Narrative and Critical History of Fersen, AXEL, COUNT, military officer;
America. born in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1755; came

Ferrero, EDWARD, military officer; to America on the staff of Rochambeau;
born of Italian parents in Granada, Spain, fought under Lafayette. Returning to
Jan. 18, 1831; was brought to the United France, he became a favorite at court.
States while an infant. His parents
taught dancing, and that became his pro
fession, which he taught at the United
States Military Academy. When the
Civil War broke out he raised a regiment
(Shepard Rifles), and as its colonel ac
companied Burnside in his expedition to
the coast of North Carolina early in 1862.
He commanded a brigade under General
Reno, and served in the Army of Virginia,
under General Pope, in the summer of
1862. He was promoted to brigadier-gen
eral of volunteers in September, and was
in the battles of South Mountain, Antie-
tam, and Fredericksburg. He served in
the siege of Vicksburg (1863), and com
manded a division at the siege of Knox-
ville, in defence of Fort Sanders. In the
operations against Petersburg he led a
division of colored troops, and, Dec. 2,
1864, was brevetted major-general of vol- After the Revolution he returned to
unteers. He died in New York City, Dec. Sweden, and in 1801 was made grand
11, 1899. marshal of Sweden. On suspicion of corn-

Ferris, BENJAMIN, historian; for many plicity in the death of Prince Christian of
years a resident of Philadelphia, Pa., from Sweden, he was seized by a mob, while
which place he removed to Wilmington, marshalling the funeral procession, and
He is the author of History of the Early tortured to death, June 20, 1810.
Settlements on the Delaware, from iis Fessenden, THOMAS GREEN, author;
Discovery to its Colonization under Will- born in Walpole, N. H., April 22, 1771;
iam Penn. He died in Wilmington, Del., graduated at Dartmouth College in 1796;
in 1867. began the practice of law in Bellows Falls,

Ferro, MERIDIAN OF. A line drawn due Vt., in 1812. His publications include
north and south through the poles, from Democracy Unveiled; Laws of Patents for
which longitudes are reckoned, is a me- New Inventions, etc. He died in Boston,
ridian. Ferro, the most western Canary Mass., Nov. 11, 1837.

isle, known to the ancients and rediscover- Fessenden, WILLIAM PITT, legislator;
ed in 1402. was taken as the prime me- born in Boscawen, N. H., Oct. 16, 1
ridian by the geographers of Columbus s graduated at Bowdoin College in 1823;
time. See COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER. admitted to the bar in 1827; member of

Ferry, ORRIS SANFORD, statesman; the Maine legislature two terms; and
born in Bethel, Conn., Aug. 15, 1823; was elected to Congress in 1841. From
graduated at Yale in 1844; held many Feb. 24, 1854, till his death he was
State offices; colonel of the 5th Connecti- United States Senator, excepting when
cut U. S. V., July, 1861; served through Secretary of the Treasury from July, 1864,
the war; United States Senator, 1867-75. to March, 1865. He was one of the found-
He died in Norwalk, Conn., Nov. 21, 1875. ers of the Republican party in 1856, and
Ferry, THOMAS WHITE, statesman; throughout the Civil War did eminent
born in Mackinac, Mich., June 1, 1827; service as chairman of the finance corn-
member of Congress, 1865-71; United mittee of the Senate. He died in Port-
States Senator, 1871-83. He died in land, Me., Sept. 8, 1869.
Grand Haven, Mich., Oct. 14, 1896. Few, WILLIAM, jurist; born in Balti-



more county, Md., June 8, 1748. His an- across the Atlantic. In 1854 he obtained
costors came to America with William from the Newfoundland legislature the ex-
Penn. His family went to North Caro- elusive right for fifty years to land cables
lina in 1758, and in 1776 settled in on that island to be continued to the
Georgia, where he assisted in framing the United States. He next formed a cor-
State constitution. He was in the military poration consisting of Peter Cooper, Moses
service, and in 1778 was made State Taylor, Marshall 0. Roberts, and Chandler
surveyor-general. In 1780-83 and 1786 White, and known as the New York, New-
he was in Congress, and in 1787 assisted in foundland, and London Telegraph Corn-
framing the national Constitution. He was pany, to procure and lay a cable. After
United States Senator in 1789-93; and a many failures and disappointments a
judge on the bench of Georgia three years, cable was successfully laid across the At-
He died in Fishkill, N. Y., July 16, 1828. lantic in 1866 (see ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH).

F. F. V. A term of Northern invention For his achievement he received a medal
applied to the leading Southern families, from Congress and the thanks of the na-
It is an abbreviation of " First Families tion. In 1867 the Paris Exposition be-
pf Virginia." stowed upon him the grand medal, its

Fiat Money, a colloquial term applied highest honor. He also was the recipient
especially to paper money, issued by a gov- of many other medals and honors. Subse-
ernment, marked as legal tender for a cer
tain value, but without a guarantee that
it will be redeemed by the government for
metallic money or its equivalent. Irre
deemable and inconvertible money are
other terms applied to such issues. In a
particular sense the phrase was applied
to the " greenback " certificates authorized
by the United States government in 1862.
An aggregate of $450,000,000 of such
money was put into circulation between
1862 and 1865, to which Congress gave
the quality of legal tender for all debts.
The first issue of such inconvertible paper
money in this country was made by the
colony of Massachusetts to pay soldiers
in 1690. About twenty years later the oth
er New England colonies and New York
and New Jersey also made use of the expe
dient. Between 1775 and 1779 the Con
tinental Congress authorized the issue of quently he became actively identified with
about $200,000,000 of such scrip, which the construction and management of ele-
the States individually made legal tender, vated railroads in New York City. He
After the Revolution many of the States died in New York, July 12, 1892.
issued paper money on their own account. Field, DAVID DUDLEY, lawyer: born in
See CURRENCY. Haddam, Conn., Feb. 13, 1805; brother of

Field, CYRUS WEST, benefactor; born Cyrus West Field; graduated at Will-
in Stockbridge, Mass., Nov. 30, 1819; was iams College in 1825; studied law ami
educated in his native town, and went to was admitted to the bar in 1825 in New
work when fifteen years old. In 1840 he York, where he began practice. In 1836
began the manufacture and sale of paper he went to Europe and studied English
on his own account, and in fifteen years and French court methods, codes, and civil
became so prosperous that he was able laws. Returning to the United States he
to partially retire. About this time he became strongly impressed with the con-
became interested in ocean telegraphy, and viction that New York State needed a
for some time pondered the question codification of its common law. To pro-
whether a cable could not be stretched mote this reform he sought an election to





as a candidate to the Constitutional Con

the legislature in 1841, and when he was he prepared The Draft Outlines of an
defeated sent drafts of three bills to the International Code. He died in New York
Assembly, where they were referred to City, April 13, 1894.

the judiciary committee, but no further Field, DAVID DUDLEY, clergyman, son of
action was taken. He was also defeated Timothy Field, a captain in the War of

the Revolution; born in East Guilford,
Conn., May 20, 1781. He wrote histories
of Berkshire and Middlesex counties;
Genealogy of the Brainerd Family, etc.
He died in Stockbridge, Mass., April 15,

Field, EUGENE, poet; born in St. Louis,
Mo., Sept. 2, 1850; was educated at Will
iams and Knox colleges, and at the Uni
versity of Missouri. He was on the edi
torial staff of several newspapers in Kan
sas City and St. Louis, and on the Denver
Tribune. Later he moved to Chicago, and
in 1883 became a member of the editorial
staff of the Chicago Daily News. His
poems for children are admirable for their
simplicity. His works comprise Love
Songs of Childhood; A Little Book of
Western Verse; The Holy Cross; With
Trumpet and Drum; The Love Affair of
a Bibliomaniac, etc. He died in Chicago,
Nov. 4, 1895.

Field, JAMES GAVEN, lawyer; born in
vention, but kept up his agitation by Walnut, Va., Feb. 24, 1826; went to
issuing a number of articles on The Re- California as paymaster United States
organization of the Judiciary. In Janu- army in 1848; was a secretary of the con-
ary, 1847, prior to the meeting of the vention that framed the first constitu-
Icgislature, he published an essay on tion of California; returned to Virginia
What Shall be Done with the Practice in 1850; county attorney for Culpeper
of the Courts? and followed it by request- county in 1860-65; enlisted in the Con
ing the appointment of a commission to federate army in 1861 ; and lost a leg
provide for the abolition of existing plead- at the battle of CEDAR CREEK (q. v.) . He
ings and forms of action at common law, was attorney-general of Virginia in 1877-
and for a uniform course of procedure. In 82; and the candidate of the People s
the following April such a commission party for Vice-President in 1892. He died
was appointed, and later Mr. Field became in 1901.

a member of it. In February, 1848, the Field, RICHARD STOCKTON, statesman;
first instalment of the Code of Civil Pro- born in White Hill, N. J., Dec. 31, 1803;
cedure was presented to the legislature a grandson of Richard Stockton, one of
and soon adopted. Other reports were the signers of the Declaration of Inde-
inade until Jan. 1, 1850, when the last pendence; graduated at Princeton in
codification of civil and criminal laws was 1821, and admitted to the bar in 1825.
submitted. In 1857 the legislature passed In 1862 he was appointed to the United
an act making Mr. Field chairman of the States Senate for the unexpired term of
commission to codify all the laws of the John R. Thompson; and in 1863 became
State not yet so treated. In 1865 this work district judge of the United States Court
was finished, but only the penal code was for the District of New Jersey. For many
adopted. Within a few years twenty-four years Judge Field was president of the
States and Territories adopted his Code of New Jersey Historical Society. He was
Civil Procedure, and eighteen his Code of the author of The Provincial Courts of
Criminal Procedure. Besides these works New Jersey; The Constitution not a Com-



pact between 8overeign States; An Ora- holding this office for more than thirty-
tion on the Life and Character of Abraham four years he resigned in April, 1897.
Lincoln, etc. He died in Princeton, N. J., During his experience in this court he

May 25, 1870.


opinions, which, with


Field, STEPHEN JOHNSON, jurist; born seven in the Circuit Court, and 365 in the
in Haddarn, Conn., Nov. 4, 1816; brother Supreme Court of California, made an
of Cyrus West and David Dudley Field; aggregate of 1,042 cases decided by him.
graduated at Williams College, in 1837; He died in Washington, D. C., April 9,
studied law and was admitted to the 1899.

Field, THOMAS W., historian; born in
Onondaga Hill, N. Y., in 1820; was the
author of a History of the Battle of Long
Island; Historic and Antiquarian Scenes
in Brooklyn and Vicinity; An Essay Tow
ards an Indian Bibliography, etc. He was
well known for his extremely valuable col
lection of books on American history, which
was sold at auction shortly after his
death, in Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 25, 1881.

Fields, JAMES THOMAS, publisher; born
hi Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 31, 1817; was
educated in his native place; went to
Boston and became a clerk in a book-store
in 1834. Soon after he reached his ma
jority he became a partner in the pub
lishing firm of Ticknor, Reed & Fields, of
which he remained a member till 1870.
After retiring from the publishing busi
ness Mr. Fields became a lecturer on
literary subjects. His published works

bar in 1841. He went to San Francisco include a volume of Poems; A Few Verses
in 1849 and opened a law office, but got for a Few Friends; Yesterdays with Au-


no clients. In 1850 he sett ed in Yuba-
ville (afterwards Marysville), which in
January of that year had been founded
at Nye s Ranch. He was soon made jus
tice of the peace, and for a time was the
entire government. In the autumn of
1850 he was elected a member of the first
legislature under the State constitution.
As a member of the judiciary committee
he drew up a code for the government of
the State courts, and prepared civil, crim
inal, and mining laws, which were later
generally adopted in the new Western
States. In 1857 he was elected a justice
of the Supreme Court of California, for
the term of six years, but before his term
began a vacancy occurred in the court and
he was appointed for the unexpired term.
In September, 1859, David S. Terry, chief-
justice of the court, resigned and Justice
Field took his place. He remained in this

tJiors; Hawthorne; and In and Out of


Doors unth Charles Dickens. He was ed
itor of the Atlantic Monthly in 1862-70,

office till 1863, when President Lincoln and afterwards (with Edwin P. Whipple)
appointed him an associate justice of the
United States Supreme Court. After

edited the Family Library of English
Poetry. He died in Boston, April 24, 1881.



Fifteenth Amendment to the Consti- acquitted May 15, 1854. The next year
tution. See CONSTITUTION AND GOVERN- Walker was invited to Nicaragua by one
MENT OF THE UNITED STATES. of the local factions. He landed on the
Fifty-four Forty or Fight. 54 40 Pacific coast of Nicaragua, May 4, 1855,
was the accepted southern limit of Alaska and defeated the Nicaraguans in a battle
in the possession of Russia. The forty- at Virgin Bay, Sept. 1, 1855. Walker
ninth parallel was held by the United forced his election as President of Nica-
States to be the northern limit of the ragua, but on May 1, 1857, he surrendered
United States against which there could to the United States sloop-of-war Mary
be no claim by England, and, further, that and was taken to New Orleans. In Novem-
the territory between 49 and 54 40 on ber of that year he again invaded Niea-
the Pacific coast was as much the property ragua, but was compelled to surrender to
of the United States as that of England, the United States frigate Wabash. On
In 1818 a treaty provided for the joint Aug. 5, 1860, Walker again landed at
occupation of the disputed territory by Truxillo, Honduras, but after short suc-
Great Britain and the United States. In cesses was eventually defeated, captured,
1844 the watch-word of the Democratic tried, and shot Oct. 12, 1860.
party was " Fifty-four forty or fight." For many years prior to the American-
Consequently when Polk was elected he Spanish War quite a number of filibuster-
claimed this as the boundary of the United ing expeditions were fitted out in the
States, thus shutting out Great Britain United States for the purpose of operating
from access to the Pacific Ocean. On June on Cuba. The United States government
15, 1846, a compromise was made by which invariably issued official warning against
the northern limit of the United States such hostile actions against Spain, and
was fixed at 49. in a majority of cases intercepted or other-
Filibuster, originally a freebooter; sub- wise prevented the landing of the parties,
sequently applied to one who delayed The most notable of these actions was that
legislation by dilatory motions or similar of a party which left in the Cuban war-
artifices. Narcisco Lopez with an expedi- ship Virginius, Oct. 8, 1873, for Cuba,
tion of armed men sailed from New The vessel, under command of Capt. James
Orleans, Aug. 3, 1851, and landed near Fry, was captured by a Spanish war
Havana on the llth. Unable to bring steamer on the 31st, and the officers and
about a rise of the people he was obliged 175 volunteers were taken to Santiago,
to surrender and on Sept. 1, 1851, was where in the following month Captain Fry
garroted at Havana. Colonel Crittenden, and 109 of his associates were shot for
who was associated with Lopez, was also piracy. Through the action of the United
captured and with fifty others was shot States government in organizing a strong
at Havana, Aug. 16, 1851. William naval force Spain agreed to surrender the
Walker led a filibustering expedition into Virginius and the remainder of her crew.
Lower California in 1853, but was This was done Dec. 16, and while the
obliged to retreat and surrendered to the Virginius was being convoyed to New
United States authorities of Santiago. He York it mysteriously sunk off North Car-
was tried under the neutrality laws and olina.


Fillmore, MILLARD, thirteenth Presi- was apprenticed to a fuller. He became

dent of the United States; born in Locke fond of reading, and at the age of nine-

(now Summerhill), Cayuga co., N. Y., teen years desired to study law. He

June 7, 1800. At the time of his birth made an arrangement with his master to

Cayuga county was a wilderness, with few pay him $30 for the two years of the un-

settlements, the nearest house to that of expired term of his apprenticeship, and

the Fillmores being 4 miles distant, studied law with Walter Wood, who gave

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 56 of 76)