Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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Fensacola and the fortifications opposite
Fort Pickens. Before the middle of April
the whole Atlantic coast from Cape Hat-
teras to Perdido Bay, west of Fort Pickens
(excepting Charleston and its vicinity),
had been abandoned by the Confederates.



Andrew Jackson 1821 to 1822

William P. Duval 1822 " 1884

John H. Katon 1834 " 1836

Richard K. Call 1836 " 1839

Robert R. Reid 1839 " 1841

Richard K. Call 1841 " 1844

John Branch 1844 " 1845

Name. Term.

William I). Moseley I 845 to 1849

Thomas Brown 1849 " 1853

James E. Hroome 1&3 " 1857

Madison S. Perry 17 " 1HG1

John Milton 1861 18.",5

William Marvin 165 " 18C,i5

David S. Walker 1866 " 1KC.8

Harrison Reed 168 " 1872

OssianB. Hart 1872 " 1874

Marcellus L. Stearns 1874 " 1877

George F. Drew 1877 " 1881

William D Bloxham 1881 " 1885

Edward A Perry 1885 " 18S9

Francis P. Fleming 1889 " 18 f .)3

Henry L. Mitchell 11893 " 1S97

Willinm D. Bloxham I 1897 " 1001

William S. Jennings 1901 " 1905

Napoleon B. Broward I 1905 " 1909

Name. No. of Congress. Date.

James D. Westcott, Jr.... 29th to 30th 1845 to 1849

David L. Yulee 29th "31st 1*45 " 1851

Jackson Morton 31st " 33d 1849 " 1855

Stephen R. Mallory 32d " 36th 1851 " 1861

David L. Yulee 34th " 30th 1855 " 1861

[37th, 38th, and 39th Congresses, seats vacant.]

Thomas W. Osborn 40th to 42d 1868 to 1873

Adonijah S. Welch 40th 1808 "

A bijah Gilbert 41st to 43d 1869 " 1875

Simon B. Conover 43d 45th 1873 " 1879

Charles W. Jones 44th 49Ui 1X7"> " 1887

Wilkinson Call 46th 54th 1879 " 1897

Samuel Pasro 50th 56th 1887 " 1899

Stephen R. Mallory 54th - 1897 "

James P. Taliaferro. 56th 1899 "

Flower, FRANK ABIAL, author; born in
Cottage, N. Y., May 11, 1854; removed to
Wisconsin. His publications include Old

Abe, the Wisconsin War Eaylc ; Life of
Matthew H. Carpenter; and a History of
the Republican Party.

Flower, GEORGE, colonist; born in Hert
fordshire, England, about 1780; came to
the United States with Morris Birkbeck
in 1817; and established an English col
ony in Albion, 111. He was the author
of a History of the English Settlement
in Edwards County, Illinois, founded in
1S11 and 1818 by Morris Birkbeck and
George Flower. He died in Grayville, 111.,
Jan 15, 1862.

and philanthropist; born in Jefferson
county, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1835; removed to
New York City in 1869, where he was
very successful in business. Elected to
Congress, 1881; re-elected, 1888 and 1890;
elected governor of New York in 1891.
He died suddenly in Eastport, N. Y., May
12, 1899.

Floyd, JOHN, statesman; born in Jef
ferson county, Va., in 1770; member of
Congress in 1817-29; governor of Vir
ginia in 1829-34; received the electoral
vote of South Carolina in the Presiden
tial election of 1832. He died in Sweet
Springs, Va., Aug. 16, 1837.

Floyd, JOHN BUCHANAN, statesman ;
born in Blacksburg, Va., June 1, 1807;
was admitted to the bar in 1828; practised
law in Helena, Ark.; and in 1839 settled
in Washington county, in his native State.
He served in the Virginia legislature sev
eral terms, and was governor of the State
in 1850-53. His father, John, had been
governor of Virginia. In 1857 President
Buchanan appointed him Secretary of
War. As early as Dec. 29, 1859, accord
ing to the report of a Congressional com
mittee, he had ordered the transfer of
65,000 percussion muskets, 40,000 muskets
altered to percussion, and 10,000 percus
sion rifles from the armories at Spring
field, Mass., and the arsenals at Water-
vliet, N. Y., and Watertown, Mass., to the
arsenals at Fayetteville, N. C., Charles
ton, S. C., Augusta, Ga., Mount Vernon,
Ala., and Baton Rouge, La., and these
were distributed in the spring of 1860,
before the meeting of the Democratic Con
vention at Charleston. Eleven days after
the issuing of the above order, Jan. 9,
1860, Jefferson Davis introduced into the
national Senate a bill " to authorize the



sale of public arms to the several States act of Congress (1825), Floyd sold to the
and Territories, and to regulate the ap- States and individuals in the South over
point men t of superintendents of the na- .31,000 muskets, altered from flint to per-
tional armories." Davis reported the cussion, for $2.50 each. On Nov. 24, I860,
bill from the military committee of the he sold 10,000 muskets to G. B. Lamar, of
Senate, and, in calling it up on Feb. 21, Georgia; and on the 16th he had sold
said: "I should like the Senate to take 5,000 to Virginia. The Mobile Advertiser
up a little bill which I hope will excite said, "During the past year 135,430
no discussion. It is the bill to authorize muskets have been quietly transferred
the States to purchase arms from the from the Northern arsenal at Spring
field alone to those of the Southern
States. We are much obliged to Sec
retary Floyd for the foresight he has
thus displayed in disarming the North
and equipping the South for this emer
gency. There is no telling the quan
tity of arms and munitions which were
sent South from other arsenals. There
is no doubt but that every man in the
South who can carry a gun can now be
supplied from private or public sources."
A Virginia historian of the war (Pollard)
said, " It was safely estimated that the
South entered upon the war with 150,000
small-arms of the most approved modern
pattern and the best in the world." Only
a few days before Floyd left his office as
Secretary of War and fled to Virginia he
attempted to supply the Southerners with
heavy ordnance also. On Dec. 20, 1800,
he ordered forty columbiads and four 32-
pounders to be sent from the arsenal at
Pittsburg to an unfinished fort on Ship
Island, in the Gulf of Mexico; and seven
ty-one columbiads and seven 32-pounders

national armories. There are a number of to be sent from the same arsenal to an
volunteer companies wanting to purchase embryo fort at Galveston, Tex., which
arms, but the States have not a sufficient would not be ready for armament in five
supply." Senator Fessenden, of Maine, years. When Quartermaster Taliaferro
asked, Feb. 23, for an explanation of the (a Virginian) was about to send off these
reasons for such action. Davis replied heavy guns, an immense public meeting
that the Secretary of War had recom- of citizens, called by the mayor, was held,
mended an increase of appropriations for and the guns were retained. When Floyd
arming the militia, and as " the militia fled from Washington his successor, Jo-
of the States were not militia of the seph Holt, of Kentucky, countermanded
United States," he thought it best for the the order.

volunteer companies of States to have Indicted by the grand jury of the Dis
arms that were uniform in case of war. trict of Columbia as being privy to the
Fessenden offered an amendment, March abstracting of $870,000 in bonds from the
26, that would deprive it of mischief, but Department of the Interior, at the close
it was lost, and the bill was passed by of 1860 he fled to Virginia, when he was
a strict party vote twenty-nine Demo- commissioned a general in the Confederate
crats against eighteen Republicans. It army. In that capacity he was driven
was smothered in the House of Represent- from West Virginia by General Rosecrans.
atives. The night before the surrender of FORT

. By a stretch of authority under an old DONELSON (q. v.) he stole away in the





Folk, JOSEPH WINGATE, lawyer; born in

darkness, and, being censured by the Con- and in 1880 became chief-justice. In No-
federate government, he never served in vember of the latter year he was re-elected
the army afterwards. He died near Ab- to the Court of Appeals, but resigned in
ingdon, Va., Aug. 26, 1863. 1881 to accept the office of Secretary of

Floyd, WILLIAM, signer of the Declara- the United States Treasury. In 1882 he
tion of Independence ; born in Brookhaven, was the Republican candidate for governor
Suffolk county, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1734; took of New York, but was defeated by Grover
an early and vigorous part in the Revolu- Cleveland. He died in Geneva, N. Y.,
tion; was a member of the New York Sept. 4, 1884.

committee of correspondence; and a Folger, PETER, pioneer; born in Eng-
member of the first Continental Congress land in 1617; emigrated to America with
in 1774, and until 1777. He was again a his father in 1635; settled in Martha s
member after October, 1778. He W 7 as a Vineyard in 1641; became a Baptist
State Senator in 1777. During the occu- minister and was one of the commissioners
pation of Long Island by the British, for to lay out Nantucket. In his poem en-
nearly seven years, his family were in titled A Looking-glass of the Times; or,
exile. He held the commission of briga- The Former Spirit of New England Re-
dier-general, and commanded the Suffolk vived in this Generation, he pleaded for
county militia in repelling an invasion of liberty of conscience and toleration of all
Long Island by the British. General sects. He died in Nantucket, Mass., in
Floyd was a member of the first national
Congress, and as Presidential elector gave
his vote for Jefferson in 1801. He died Brownsville, Tenn., Oct. 28, 1869; son of
in Weston, Oneida co., N. Y., Aug. 4, 1821. Judge Henry B. Folk; was graduated at
Folger, CHARLES JAMES, jurist; born Vanderbilt University; admitted to the
in Nantucket, Mass., April 16, 1818; bar in 1890; practised in Brownsville till
graduated at Geneva (now Hobart) Col- 1892; removed to St. Louis; was conspicu-
lege in 1836; studied law in Canandaigua, ous in the settlement of the great street-
N. Y. ; was admitted to the bar in Albany car strike in 1900; became district attor-
in 1839; and returned to Geneva to prac- ney; made himself widely known by his
tise in 1840. He was judge of the Court successful prosecution of bribery cases
of Common Pleas in Ontario county in against members of the municipal assem-
1843-46; county judge in 1852-56; State bly in 1902-03; and was the Democratic

was candidate for governor of Missouri in

Folsom, GEORGE, historian ; born in
Kennebunk, Me., May 23, 1802; gradu
ated at Harvard in 1822; practised
law in Massachusetts until 1837, when he
removed to New York, where he became an
active member of the Historical Society.
He was charge d affaires at The Hague in
1850-54. He was the author of Sketches
of Saco and Biddeford; Dutch Annals of
New York ; Address on the Discovery of
Maine, He died in Rome, Italy, March 27,

Food Adulteration. The United
States of America, the greatest food-
producing country in the world, is suf
fering from the adulteration of food prod
ucts to an extent which it is difficult
to comprehend. There is hardly an article
United States assistant treasurer in New of food that has not been adulterated
York City; in 1871 was elected associate flour, butter, cheese, tea and coffee,
judge of the New York Court of Appeals; syrups, spices of all kinds, extracts, bak-


Senator in 1861-69; in 1869-70



ing powders; and yet, notwithstanding
this great adulteration of food, every
manufacturer will testify that he is per
fectly willing to stop the adulteration if
his competitors will stop, so that he can
honestly compete with them.

This was especially true in the case
of flour, and investigation in Congress
showed that very dangerous and abso
lutely insoluble substances were being
used to adulterate flour, and it became
very well known that this fact impaired
the credit of American flour in foreign
countries. The adulteration became so
extensive that the manufacturers who
would not use adulteration appealed to
Congress for protection, and the law as
applied to oleomargarine and filled cheese
was made applicable to mixed flour. At
the present time it is believed that the
mixing of flour has practically stopped in
the United States. This not only assists
the honest manufacturer of flour, but it
protects the consumer, and at the same
time gives us a reputation for manu
facturing honest goods, and its influence
has already been felt in our export trade
to all the countries that buy our flour.

The committee on manufactures of the
United States Senate has had presented
to it letters that come from at least
twelve or fifteen of the large cities of
the world, all of the same tenor and gen
eral effect as the following:

" LONDON, October 12, 1899.
" DEAR SIRS, Replying to yours of the 16th
ultimo, with regard to the pure food law
now in operation in your country, since this
act was passed by Congress it has certainly
restored confidence on this side, and in my
opinion will materially assist your export

"Yours faithfully,

" The Modern Miller, St. Louis."

It is a well-known fact that our meat
products have had a greater demand and
better sale since the government under
took their inspection, and it is safe to say
that nothing will more encourage our
export trade than for the government of
the United States to have some standard
fixed, to which the food products of the
United States must rise before they can
be sold to our own people or our
customers abroad.

It is believed by those who have given
the matter careful attention that then we
will encourage the honest manufacturer
and protect him from dishonest competi
tion, we shall protect the consumer, who
will know in each instance what he is
buying; we shall, by establishing a repu
tation for a high standard of food prod
ucts, increase the demand for our goods
all over the world, and also, what is more
important to all, we shall raise the stand
ard of the purity of goods that go into
the human stomach, and, by the use of
better foods, make a better citizen. " The
destiny of the nations depends upon how
they feed themselves."

Poote, ANDREW HULL, naval officer;
born in New Haven, Conn., Sept. 12, 1806;
entered the navy as midshipman in 1822;
was flag-lieutenant of the Mediterranean


squadron in 1833; and in 1838, as first
lieutenant of the ship John Adams, under
Commodore Read, he circumnavigated the
globe, and took part in an attack on the
pirates of Sumatra. He was one of the
first to introduce (1841) the principle of
total abstinence from intoxicating drinks
into the United States navy; and on the
Cumberland (1843-45) he delivered, on
Sundays, extemporary sermons to his
crew. He successfully engaged in the sup
pression of the slave-trade on the coast of
Africa in 1849-52. In command of the
China station in 1856, when the Chinese
and English were at war, Foote exerted



himself to protect American property, ative in Congress in 1819-21, 1823-25,
and was fired upon by the Celestials. His and 1833-34; and was United States Sena-
demand for an apology was refused, and tor in 1827-33. He resigned his seat in
he stormed and captured four Chinese Congress in his last term on being elected
forts, composed of granite walls 7 feet governor of Connecticut. In 1844 he was
thick and mounting 176 guns, with a loss a Presidential elector on the Clay and
of forty men. The Chinese garrison of Frelinghuysen ticket. In 1829 he intro-
5,000 men lost 400 of their number killed duced a resolution in the Seriate which was
and wounded. In the summer of 1861 the occasion of the great debate between
Foote was made captain, and in September Robert Young Hayne, of South Carolina,
was appointed flag-officer of a flotilla of and Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts,
gunboats fitted out chiefly at Cairo, and The resolution, which seemed a simple af-
commanded the naval expedition against fair to elicit such a notable debate, was
FORTS HENRY and DONELSON (qq. v,) on as follows:

the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, " Resolved, that the committee on pub-
early in 1862, in co-operation with Gen- lie lands be instructed to inquire and re-
eral Grant. In the attack on the latter he port the quantity of the public lands re-
was severely wounded in the ankle by a main ing unsold within each State and
fragment of a shell. Though suffering, Territory, and whether it be expedient to
he commanded the naval attack on ISLAND limit, for a certain period, the sales of the
NUMBER TEN (q. v.). After its reduction public lands to such lands only as have
he returned to his home at New Haven, heretofore been offered for sale, and are
He was promoted to rear-admiral in July, now subject to entry at the minimum
1862; and in May, 1863, was ordered to price. And, also, whether the office of
take command of the South Atlantic surveyor-general, and some of the land
squadron, but died while preparing in offices, may not be abolished without detri-
New York to leave for Charleston, June ment to the public interest; or whether it
26. be expedient to adopt measures to hasten

Foote, HENRY STUART, statesman; born the sales, and extend more rapidly the
in Fauquier county, Va., Sept. 20, 1800; surveys of the public lands." For the de-
graduated at Washington College in bate in full see HAYNE, ROBERT YOUNG,
1819, and admitted to the bar in 1822; and WEBSTER, DANIEL. Senator Foote
removed to Mississippi in 1826, where he died in Cheshire, Dec. 15, 7846.
entered into active politics while prac- Foote, WILLIAM HENRY, clergyman;
tising his profession. In 1847 he was born in Colchester, Conn., Dec. 20, 1794;
elected to the United States Senate, and in graduated at Yale College in 1816; and
1852 was elected governor of the State, became chaplain in the Confederate
his opponent being Jefferson Davis. Mr. army. He was author of Sketches, His-
Foote was a strong opponent of secession tor leal and Biographical, of the Presby-
at the Southern Convention held at Knox- tcrian Church in Virginia ; and Sketches in
ville, Tenn., in May, 1859, but when seces- Xorth Carolina. He died in Romney, W.
sion was an assured fact he accepted an Va., Nov. 18, 1869.

election to the Confederate Congress, Foraker, JOSEPH BENSON, statesman ;
where he was active in his opposition to born near Rainsboro, O., July 5, 1846 ;
most of President Da vis s measures. He graduated at Cornell in 1869 and admitted
wrote Texas and the Texans (2 volumes) ; to the bar the same year. He enlisted in
The War of the Rebellion, or Scylla and the 89th Ohio Regiment on July 14, 1862;
Charybdlfs ; Personal Reminiscences, etc. was made sergeant August, 1862; received
In his day he was a noted duellist. He the commission of first lieutenant March
died in Nashville, Tenn., May 20, 1880. 14, 1864; elected governor of Ohio in 1885

Foote, SAMUEL AUGUSTUS, legislator; and 1887, and United States Senator for
born in Cheshire, Conn., Nov. 8, 1780; the term 1897-1903. In 1900 he was chair-
graduated at Yale College in 1797; en- man of the committee on Pacific islands
gaged in mercantile business in New and Porto Rico, and a member of the
Haven; was for several years a member committee on foreign relations,
of the State legislature; was a Represent- Forbes, JOHN, military officer; born in
Hi. 2 c 401


Fift shire, Scotland, in 1710; was a physi
cian, but, preferring military life, entered
the British army, and was lieutenant-
colonel of the Scots Greys in 1745. He
was acting quartermaster-general under
the Duke of Cumberland; and late in 1757
lie came to America, with the rank of
brigadier-general. He commanded the
troops, 8,000 in number, against Fort Du-
quesne, which he named Pittsburg. He
died in Philadelphia, March 11, 1759. See

Force, MANNING FERGUSON, author;
born in Washington, D. C., Dec. 17,
1824; graduated at Harvard in 1845; ap
pointed major of the 20th Ohio Regiment
in 1861; took part in the battles at Fort
Donelsori and Shiloh, and in the siege at
Vicksburg. He was with Sherman in the
Atlanta campaign and became a brevet
major-general of volunteers. In 1889 he
became commandant of the Ohio Soldiers
and Sailors Home. Among his publica
tions are From Fort Henry to Corinth;
The Mound - Builders ; Prehistoric Man;
The Vicksburg Campaign; Marching
Across Carolina; etc. He died near San-
dusky, O., May 8, 1899.

Force, PETER, editor; born at Passaic
Falls, N. J., Nov. 20, 1790; learned the
printer s trade in New York City, and
was president of the New York Typo
graphical Society in 1812. In November,
1815, he settled in Washington, D. C., be
came a newspaper editor and publisher;
and was mayor 1836-40. He was major-
general of the militia of the District of
Columbia in 1860, and was president of
the National Institute. In 1833 he made
a contract with the United States gov
ernment for the preparation and publi
cation of a documentary history of the
American colonies covering the entire
period of the Revolution. He prepared
and published 9 volumes, folio, and had
the tenth prepared, when Congress re
fused to make further appropriations for
the work, and it has never been brought
out. He had gathered an immense col
lection of books, manuscripts, maps, and
plans; and in 1867 his entire collection
was purchased by the government for
$100,000, and was transferred to the li
brary of Congress. His great work is en
titled American Archives. Mr. Force s
first publication in Washington was the

National Calendar, an annual volume of
national statistics, which was published
from 1820 to 1836. He died in Washing
ton, D. C., Jan. 23, 1868.

Force Bill, THE. See Ku-Kxux KLAX.

Ford, PAUL LEICESTER, author; born in
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1865; has published
The True George Washington; The Many-
Sided Franklin, etc. ; and has edited the
writings of Christopher Columbus, Thomas
Jefferson, and John Dickinson; Bibli
ography of Works Written by and Re
lating to Alexander Hamilton, and Essays
on the Constitution of the United States.
He was killed by his brother Malcolm in
New York City, May 8, 1902.

Foreign Affairs. On Sept. 18, 1775,
the Continental Congresy appointed
Messrs. Welling, Franklin, Livingston,
Alsop, Deane, Dickinson, Langdon, Mc-
Kean, and Ward a " secret committee "
to contract for the importation from
Europe of ammunition, small-arms, and
cannon, and for such a purpose Silas
Deane w r as soon sent to France. By a
resolution of the Congress, April 17, 1777,
the name of this committee was changed
to committee of foreign affairs," whose
functions were like those of the present
Secretary of State (see CABINET, PRESI
DENT S). Foreign intercourse was first
established by law in 1790. President
Washington, in his message, Jan. 8,
1790, suggested to Congress the propriety
of providing for the employment and com
pensation of persons for carrying on in
tercourse with foreign nations. The
House appointed a committee, Jan. 15,
to prepare a bill to that effect, which
was presented on the 21st. It passed the
House on March 30. The two Houses
could not agree upon the provisions of
the bill, and a committee of conference
was appointed; and finally the original
bill, greatly modified, was passed, June
25, 1790. The act fixed the salary of
ministers at foreign courts at $9,000 a
year, and charges d affaires at $4,500.
To the first ministers sent to Europe the
Continental Congress guaranteed the pay
ment of their expenses, with an additional
compensation for their time and trouble.
These allowances had been fixed at first
at $11,111 annually. After the peace the
Continental Congress had reduced the
salary to $9,000, in consequence of which



Franklin insisted upon his recall, tin; sum Franco that, they wore to act together in
being insufficient. When the hill of 1790 regard to American a Hairs. They had
went before the Senate that body was only < ven gone so far as to apprise other Euro-
willing to vote a general sum for the ex- pcan governments of this understanding,
penses of foreign intercourse, and to leave with the expectation that they would con-
the compensation of the respective minis- cur with them and follow their example,
ters to the discretion of the President, whatever it might be. Thus, at the very
urging that the difference in expenses at outset of the Civil War, these two power-
the various courts called for discrimi- fill governments had entered into a coin-
nation in the sums allowed. To this the bination for arraying Europe on the side
House would not agree, and for a while of the Confederates, and giving them mor-
both Houses insisted upon compliance al if not material aid in their efforts to

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 62 of 76)