Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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with their respective views. Hence the destroy the republic. The proclamation of
delay in the passage of the bill. The act Queen Victoria, made with unseemly haste
also made allowance for " outfits," which before the minister of the new administra-
had been insisted upon by Jefferson when tion, CHARLES F. ADAMS (q. v.), could
he was appointed to succeed Franklin. reach England, was followed by corre-

Foreign Governments and the United spending unfriendly action in the British
States. From the time when the South Parliament. And in addition to affected
Carolina ordinance of secession was passed indifference to the fate of the American
there was observed in most of the Euro- nation, British legislators, orators, pub-
pean courts an unfriendliness of spirit tow- Heists, and journalists were lavish of
ards the national government and a causeless abuse, not only of the govern-
willingness to give its enemies encourage- ment, but of the people of the free-labor
ment in their revolutionary measures. States who were loyal to the government.
The public journals in their interest were This abuse was often expressed in phrases
equally unfriendly in their utterances, so unmanly and ungenerous, and even
When, early in February, the Confederate coarse and vulgar at times, that high-
States government was organized, Europe minded Englishmen blushed for shame,
seemed prepared to accept the hopeless The Emperor of the French was more
dismemberment of the republic as an ac- cautious and astute; but he followed
complished fact. This belief was strength- Queen Victoria apparently in according
ened by the despatches of most of the for- belligerent rights to the Confederates by a
eign ministers at Washington to their re- decree (June 11, 1861), and. at the same
spective governments, who announced, time, entered into political combinations
early in February, the practical dissolu- for the propagation of imperialism in
tion of the Union ; and some affected to be North America, with a belief that the days
amazed at the folly of Congress in legis- of the great republic were numbered and
lating concerning the tariff and other na - its power to enforce the MOXKOE Doo
tional measures when the nation was hope- TRINE (q. v.) had vanished. The Queen
lessly expiring. The Queen of England, of Spain also hastened to proclaim the
in her speech from the throne, expressed neutrality of her government, and to cqm-
a "heartfelt wish" that the difference bine with France in replanting the seeds
that distracted our country "might be of monarchical institutions in the west-
susceptible of a satisfactory adjustment." ern hemisphere, now that the republic
For these humane expressions she was re- was apparently expiring. The King of
proved; and, finally, yielding to the im- Portugal also recognized the Confederates
portunities of her ministers, some of whom as belligerents.

earnestly desired the downfall of the "But the more enlightened and wise mon-

American republic, she issued (May 13, arch of Russia, who was about to strike

1861) a proclamation of neutrality, by off tho shncklos of almost 40,000,000 slaves

which a Confederate government, as ex- in his own dominions, instructed his

isting, was acknowledged, and belligerent minister (July 29, 1861) to say to the

rights were accorded to the Confederates. imperial representative at Washington:

Already an understanding existed be- " Tn every event the American nation may

tween the governments of England and count upon the most cordial sympathy on



the part of our august master during the ized 1881); grand courts, 20; sub-courts,

important crisis which it is passing 1,475; members, 175,569; benefits dis-

through at present." The Russian Em- bursed since organization, $7,500,000;

peror kept his word; and the powers of benefits disbursed last fiscal year, $907,-

western Europe, regarding him as a pro- 973.

nounced ally of the American Republic, Forestry. For many years the cutting
acted with more circumspection. The of valuable timber in various parts of the
attitude of foreign governments en- United States has been carried to such an
couraged the Confederates to believe that extent that there has been quite a change
recognition and aid would surely be fur- in climatic conditions in various sections
nished; and the government of England, and the denudation of the virgin forests
by a negative policy, did give them all has been seriously threatened. For the
the aid and encouragement it prudently purpose of checking the indiscriminate
could until it was seen that the Confed- cutting of valuable timber and to provide
evate ca.use was hopeless, when Lord a future supply of the principal woods re-
John Russell addressed the head of the quired in the manufacturing industries the
Confederacy in insulting terms. That as- national government has established a
tute publicist, Count Gasparin, of France, bureau of forestry under the direction of
writing in 1802, when considering the un- the Department of Agriculture, and more
precedented precipitancy with which lead- recently Cornell University has been en-
ing European powers recognized the Con- abled to create a school of forestry for
federates as belligerents, said: "Instead the promotion of the science of forest cult-
of asking on which side were justice and ure. The Cornell school has had placed
liberty, we hastened to ask on which side at its disposal for study large tracts of
were "our interests; then, too, on which forest-land belonging to the State of New
side were the best chances of success." York and to private individuals. As a
He said England had a legal right to be means of educating the rising generation
neutral, but had no moral right to with- into a love for tree preservation, almost
hold her sympathies from a nation every State in the country now has its
"struggling for its existence and uni- ARBOR DAY (q. y.),one day set apart in
versal justice against rebels intent on each year for the planting of young trees
crimes against humanity." and for class-room instruction in the value

Foresters, ANCIENT ORDER OF, a of tree culture. In 1901 official reports

fraternal organization founded in 1745; showed that the standing timber in the

established in the United States in 1836. United States covered an area of 1,094,496

The American branch is composed of 3 square miles, and contained a supply of

high courts and 397 subordinate courts, 2,300,000,000,000 feet. Timber was then

and has 38,089 members. Total member- being cut. at the rate of 40,000,000,000

ship throughout the world 912,669, as feet a year, and it was estimated that if

stated by the Foresters Directory, Dec. that average was continued the supply

31, 1899. The surplus funds of the society would be exhausted in about sixty

amounted to $33,124,695, and its assets years.

aggregated over $76,000,000. Benefits Forney, JOHN WEISS, journalist; born
disbursed since 1836, $111,250,000; bene- in Lancaster, Ta., Sept. 30, 1817; pur-
fits disbursed last fiscal year, $5,000,000. chased the Lancaster Intelligencer in 1837

Foresters, INDEPENDENT ORDER OF, a and three years later the Journal, which

fraternal organization founded in 1874; papers he amalgamated under the name of

high courts, 43; subordinate courts, the Intelligencer and Journal. He sub-

4,000; members, 170,000; benefits dis- sequently became part owner of the Penn-

bursed since organization, $8,853,190; sylvania and Washington Union. He was

benefits disbursed last fiscal year, $1,- clerk of the national House of Represent-

430.200. atives in 1851-55; started the Press, an

Foresters of America, a fraternal independent Democratic journal, in Phila-

organization, not in affiliation with the delphia, in 1857, and upon his re-election

above, with jurisdiction limited to the as clerk of the House of Representatives in

United States. Founded 1864, reorgan- 1859 he started the Sunday Morning



Chronicle in Washington. Among his pub
lications are Anecdotes of Public Men (2
volumes) ; Forty Years of American Jour
nalism; A Centennial Commissioner in
Europe, etc. He died in Philadelphia, Pa.,
Dec. 9, 1881.

Forrest, EDWIX, actor; born in Phila
delphia, Pa., March 9, 1806. While still
a boy he began performing female and
juvenile parts, being especially remem
bered as Young Norval in Home s play of
Douglas. His first appearance on the
professional stage was on Nov. 27, 1820,
at the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadel
phia., in the title role of Douglas. Af
ter a long professional tour in the West,
during which he undertook several Shake
spearian characters, he filled engagements
in Albany and Philadelphia, and then ap
peared as Othello at the Park Theatre.
New York, in 1820. He met with remark
able success, owing to his superb form and
presence and his natural genius. Not be
ing satisfied with merely local fame, he
played in all the large cities in the Unit
ed States. His chief characters were
Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet, Richard III.,
Metamora and Spartacus, the last of
which he made exceedingly effective by
his immense energy. In 1835 he went to
England and the Continent, and played
with much acceptance, making many warm
friends, among them WILLIAM C. MAC-
READY (q. v.}. In 1837 he again visited
Europe and while there married Catha
rine, a daughter of John Sinclair, the
widely known ballad-singer. After 1845
Mr. Forrest spent two more years in Eng
land, during which his friendship with
Mr. Macready was broken. He had acted
with great success in Virginins and other
parts, but when he attempted to personate
Macbeth he was hissed by the audience.
This hissing was attributed to profession
al jealousy on the part of Macready. A
f < -w weeks after, when Macready appeared
HS Hamlet in Edinburgh, Forrest hissed
him from a box in which he stood. On
May 10, 1849, when Macready appeared
as Macbeth in the Astor Place Theatre, in
New York, the friends of Forrest inter
rupted the performance. The result w r as
the Astor Place riot, in which twenty-two
men were killed and thirty-six wounded.
In 1858 Mr. Forrest announced his retire
ment from the stage, but appeared at in

tervals till 1871, when ill-health com
pelled him to retire permanently. He was
a man of literary culture and accumu
lated a large library rich in Shakespeari-
ana, which was destroyed by fire on
Jan. 15, 1873. He left his Philadelphia
home and a considerable portion of his
large fortune for the establishment of
an asylum for aged and indigent act
ors. He died in Philadelphia, Dec. 12,

Forrest, NATIIAX BEDFORD, military
officer; born in Bedford county, Tenn.,
July 13, 1821; joined the Tennessee
Mounted Rifles in June, 1861; and, in
July following, raised and equipped a
regiment of cavalry. By 1863 he had be
come a famous Confederate chief; and
early in 1864 the sphere of his duties was
enlarged, and their importance increased.
He was acknowledged to be the most
skilful and daring Confederate leader in
the West. He made an extensive raid in
Tennessee and Kentucky, with about 5,000
mounted men, in March and April, 1864.
He had been skirmishing with Gen. W.
S. Smith in northern Mississippi, and,
sweeping rapidly across the Tennessee

River into western Tennessee, rested a
while at Jackson, and then (March 23)
pushed on towards Kentucky. A part of
his force captured Union City the next
day, with the National garrison of 450
men. Forrest then pushed on to Paducah,
on the Ohio River, with 3,000 men, and
demanded the surrender of Fort Anderson



there, in which the little garrison of 700
men, under Colonel Hicks, had taken
refuge. It was refused; and, after assail
ing the works furiously, and plundering
and burning the town until midnight, he
ceased the assault. Hearing of reinforce
ments for Hicks approaching, he retreated
(March 27), with a loss of 300 men killed
and wounded. The National loss was
sixty killed and wounded. Forrest was
chagrined by this failure, and proceeded
to attack Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi,
which he captured in April. Hearing of
the march of General Sturgis from Mem
phis to intercept him, Forrest escaped
from Tennessee into Mississippi. A few
weeks later, troops sent out from
Memphis to hunt up and capture him
were defeated by him in a severe engage
ment at Gun Town (June 10), on the
Mobile and Ohio Railway, and were driven
back with great loss. On the 14th he
was defeated near Tupelo, Miss. Not
long afterwards, when Smith was in Mis
sissippi with 10,000 men, the bold raider
flanked him, and dashed into Memphis in
broad daylight, at the head of 3,000
cavalry, in search of National officers,
and escaped again into Mississippi. He
died in Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1877.

His invasion of Tennessee, in 1864, was
a remarkable performance. For several
weeks he had been in northern Alabama,
to prevent troops from the Mississippi
joining Sherman. He crossed the Ten

nessee River, near Waterloo (Sept. 25,
1864), with a force of light cavalry, about
7.000 strong, and invested Athens. The
post was surrendered about half an hour
before sufficient reinforcements arrived
to hold it. These, with the garrison, after
a sharp conflict, became prisoners. For
rest then pushed on northward to Pulaski,
in Tennessee, destroying the railway ; but
General Rousseau, at Pulaski, repulsed
Forrest after brisk skirmishing several
hours, when the raider made eastward,
and struck the railway between Tulla-
homa and Decherd. He was confronted
and menaced by National forces under
Rousseau, Steedinan, and Morgan, and
withdrew before he had done much
damage. At Fayetteville he divided his
forces, giving 4,000 to Buford, his second
in command. Buford attacked Athens
(Oct. 2-3), which General Granger had
regarrisoned with the 73d Indiana Regi
ment, and was repulsed. Forrest had
pushed on to Columbia, on the Duck
River, with 3,000 men, but did not attack,
for he met Rousseau. Avith 4,000 men,
coming down from Nashville. At the
same time, Gen. C. C. Washburne was
moving up the Tennessee on steamers,
with 4,000 troops. 3,000 of them cavalry,
to assist in capturing the invaders. Sev
eral other leaders of the National troops,
under the command of General Thomas,
who had then arrived at Nashville, joined
in the hunt for Forrest. He saw his peril,

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and, paroling his prisoners (1,000), he Fort Washington. See CINCINNATI.
destroyed 5 miles of the railway south Fortifications. When the question of
from the Duck River, and escaped over taking measures for the defence of the
the Tennessee (Oct. 6), at Bainbridge, colonies was proposed in Congress, a dis
with very little loss. cussion arose that was long and earnest,

Forsyth, JAMES W., military officer; for many members yet hoped for recon-
borii in Ohio in 1835; graduated at West ciliation. On the very day that a British
Point in 1850; promoted first lieutenant reinforcement at Boston, with Howe, Clin-
in 1801 and brigadier-general in 1805. He ton, and Burgoyne, entered that harbor,
served in the Maryland, Richmond, and Duane, of New York, moved, in the com-
Shenandoah campaigns. He wrote Report mittee of the whole, the opening a nego-
of an Expedition up the Yellowstone River tiation, in order to accommodate the im-
in 1815. happy disputes existing between Great

Forsyth, JOHN, diplomatist; born in Britain and the colonies, and that this be
Fredericksburg, Va., Oct. 22, 1780; grad- made a part of the petition to the King,
uated at the College of New Jersey in But more determined spirits prevailed,
17!)!). His parents removed to Georgia and a compromise was reached late in May
when he was quite young, and there he (25th), when directions were given to
studied law, mid was admitted to its prac- the Provincial Congress at New York to
tice about 1801. He was attorney-gen- preserve the communications between that
eral of the State in 1808; member of Con- city and the country by fortifying posts
gress from 1813 to 1818, and from 1823 at the upper end of Manhattan Island,
to 1827; United States Senator, and near King s Bridge, and on each side of
governor of Georgia from 1827 to 1829. the Hudson River, on the Highlands.
Mr. Forsyth was United States min- They were also directed to establish a
ister to Spain in 1819-22, and iiego- fort at Lake George and sustain the posi-
tiated the treaty that gave Florida to tion at Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain,
the United States. He opposed NULLIFI- which the " GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS "
CATION (q. v.) in South Carolina, favored (<[. v.) and others had seized a fortnight
Clay s compromise act of 1833, and was before.

United States Secretary of State from The first bill for the fortification of
1835 till his death, which occurred Oct. American harbors was reported in Con-
21, 1841. gress, March 4, 1794, by a committee of

Forsyth, JOHN, clergyman : bom in one from each State, while the bill for
NTewburg, N. Y., in 1810; graduated at the construction of a navy was under
Rutgers in 1829: studied theology in Edin- consideration. The act authorized the
burgh University: ordained in 1834: Pro- President to commence fortifications at
lessor of Biblical Literature in Newburg, Portland, Portsmouth, Gloucester, Salem,
1830; of Latin in Princeton in 1847-53; Boston, Newport, New London, New York,
later again in Newbunr. and occupied, the Philadelphia, Wilmington, Baltimore, Al-
Chair of English Literature in Rut- exandria, Norfolk, Ocracoke Inlet, Cape
gers in 1800-03. From 1871 to 1881 he Fear River, Georgetown, Charleston, Sa-
was chaplain of West Point. Among his vannah, and St. Mary s. Annapolis was
works are Lives of Hie 1 cirlu florernors of added by a subsequent act. For this pur-
\ctr York; and History of the Public pose only $130,000 were appropriated.
Schools of Ncirburtj. He died in New- The President was authorized to purchase
burg, Oct. 17, 1880. 200 cannon for the armament of the new

Fort FORTS. Special articles will be fortifications, and to provide 150 extra
found on the various forts under their gun-carriages, with 250 tons of cannon
respective names. For instance: FORT balls, for which purpose $90,000 were
CLINTON, see CLINTON ; FORT SUMTER, see appropriated. Another act appropriated
SUMTER, etc. $81,000 for the establishment of arsenal?

Fort Leavenworth War College. See and armories in addition to those at
LEAVENWORTH, FORT. Springfield and Carlisle, and $340,000 for

Fort Montgomery. See CLINTON, the purchase of arms and stores. The
FORT. exportation of arms was prohibited for



one year, and all arms imported during
the next two years were to come in free
of duty.

In recent years the national government
has been giving a larger degree of atten
tion to the question of coast defences, and
a board of ordnance and fortification
has in charge the erection of new works,
the strengthening of old ones, and the
provision of the most approved ordnance
for the protection of the principal coast
cities of the country. The plans under
which the board has been working will
require many years time, even with un
usually liberal appropriations by Con
gress, to complete. After the United
States declared war against Spain in 1898
one of the first works of importance was
the preparation of the principal harbors
of the Atlantic coast to be able to suc
cessfully resist any hostile naval attacks.
For the adequate defence of the coast not
only were the existing fortifications at
once put on a war footing and supplied
with the latest style of ordnance, but the
harbors of the cities that were likely to
invite attack were reinforced by the most
complete system of mines and torpedoes.
In this work the navy also bore an im
portant share, as the exceptionally swift
cruisers Columbia and Minneapolis were
kept constantly patrolling at sea for many
weeks, while a special fleet of smaller
vessels aided them in keeping watch nearer
shore for the two Spanish fleets that were
expected to menace the coast from Maine
to Florida. Similar precautions were
taken also at San Francisco. For a list
of the forts of the United States see MILI

Forts Clinton and Montgomery. See

Forty, FORT, a protective work erected
by the Connecticut settlers in Wyoming
Valley, Pa., in 1769. It was the rendez
vous of the Americans \vhen the valley
was invaded by Tories and Indians on
June 3, 1778, and was surrendered on the
following day. See WYOMING, MASSACRE

" Forty-five." See "NINETY-TWO AND

Forward, WALTER, statesman; born in
Connecticut in 1780: removed to Pittsburg,
where he was editor of the Tree of Lib
erty, a Democratic paper; admitted to the

bar of Pennsylvania in 1806; elected to
Congress in 1822; appointed first comp
troller of the United States Treasury in
1841; Secretary of the United States
Treasury in 1841; elected judge of the
district court of Alleghany county, Pa.,
in 1851. He died in Pittsburg, Nov. 24,

Forwood, WILLIAM STUMP, physician;
born in Harford county, Md., Jan. 27,
1830; graduated at the University of
Pennsylvania in 1854; began the practice
of medicine in Darlington, Md. He was
the author of The History of the Passage
of General Lafayette with his Army
through Harford County in 1781; The
Hislory of Harford County; and An His
torical and Descriptive Narrative of the
Mammoth Cave of Kentucky.

Foster, CHARLES, financier; born in
Seneca county, O., April 12, 1828; was
first elected to Congress as a Republican
in 1870; elected governor of Ohio in
1879 and 1881; was appointed Secretary
of the United States Treasury in Febru
ary, 1891. He was concerned in a number
of financial enterprises in which he ac
quired a large fortune, but in 1893 was
obliged to make an assignment of his vast
interests for the benefit of his creditors.
He died in Springfield, O., Jan. 9, 1904.

Foster, JOHN GRAY, military officer;
born in Whitefield, N. H., May 27, 1823;
graduated at West Point in 1846, en
tering the engineer corps. He served in
the war with Mexico and was brevetted
captain for meritorious services. For two
years (1855-57) he was Professor of En
gineering at West Point; promoted to
captain in July, 1860; major in March
1863; and lieutenant-colonel in 1867. He
was one of the garrison of Fort Sumter
during the siege, and was made brigadier-
general of volunteers in October, 1861.
He took a leading part in the capture of
Koanoke Island, early in 1862, and of
Newbern, N. C. ; was promoted to major-
general of volunteers, and became com
mander of the Department of North Car
olina, and defended that region with skill.
In July, 1863, he was made commander of
the Department of Virginia and North
Carolina, with his headquarters at Fort
Monroe. He was afterwards in command
of the Department of Ohio, of which he
was relieved on account of wounds in



January, 1864. He afterwards commanded for governor in 1892 and was elected; and

the Departments of South Carolina and was re-elected in 1896. In 1900 he was

Florida. He was brevetted major-general unanimously elected to the United States

in the regular army for services during Senate as a Democrat,

the Civil War in 1865. He died in Foster, KOGER, lawyer; born in Wor-

Naslma, N. H., Sept. 2, 1874. cester, Mass., in 1857; wa graduated at

Foster, JOHN WATSON, diplomatist; Yale College in 1878, and at the law school
born in Pike county, Ind., March 2, 1836; of Columbia University in 1880; and ad-
graduated at the Indiana State Uni- mitted to the New York bar in the same
versity in 1855; studied at Harvard Law year. Among his publications are A
School, and was admitted to the bar in Treatise on the Federal Judiciary Acts of
Evansville, Ind. During the Civil War 1875 and 1887; A Treatise on Federal
he served in the Union army, reaching the Practice; Commentaries on* the Constitu-
rank of colonel of volunteers. After the tion; A Treatise on the Income Tax of
war he was in turn editor of the Evans- ISO /; etc.

ville Daily Journal and postmaster of that Foster, WILLIAM EATON, historian ;

city in 1869-73. He was minister to Mex- born in Brattleboro, Vt., June 2, 1851; be-

ico in 1873-80, and to Russia in 1880-81. came librarian of Providence Public Li-

On his return to the United States he en- brary. He is the author of The Literature

gaged in the practice of international law of the Civil Service Reform Movement;

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 63 of 76)