Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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in Washington, representing foreign lega- Toii n Government in Rhode Island; Ste-

tions before arbitration boards, commis- phcn Hopkins, a Rhode Island Statesman;

sions, etc. In 1883-85 he was minister to etc.

Spain; and in 1891 was a special commis- Fouchet, JEAN ANTOINE JOSEPH,

sioner to negotiate reciprocity treaties BARON, diplomatist; born in St. Quentin,

with Spain, Germany, Brazil, and the France, in 1763; was a law student at

W r est Indies. He was appointed United Paris when the Revolution broke out, and

States Secretary of State in 1892 and published a pamphlet in defence of its

served till 1893, when he became the agent principles. Soon afterwards he was ap-

for the United States before the Bering pointed a member of the executive council

Sea arbitration tribunal at Paris. In of the revolutionary government, and was

1895, on the invitation of the Emperor of French ambassador to the United States

China, he participated in the peace nego- in 1794-95. Here his behavior was less

tiations with Japan; in 1897 he was a offensive than that of "Citizen" Genet,

special United States commissioner to but it was not satisfactory, and he was

Great Britain and Russia, and in 1898 succeeded by Adet, a more prudent man.

was a member of the ANGLO-AMERICAN After he left the United States, the French.

COMMISSION (a. ?;.). He is the author of Directory appointed him a commissioner

A Century of American Diplomacy, a to Santo Domingo, which he declined,

brief review of the foreign relations of Under Bonaparte he was prefect of Var,

the United States from 1776 to 1876. See and in 1805 he was the same of Am. He

HI-KING SEA ARBITRATION. remained in Italy until the French evac-

Foster, MURPHY JAMES, lawyer; born uated it in 1814. On Napoleon s return

in Franklin, La., Jan. 12, 1849; was from Elba Fouchet was made prefect of

graduated at Cumberland University, the Gironde. The date of his death is not

Lebanon, Tenn., in 1870, and at the law known.

school of Tulane University, New Orleans, Founders and Patriots of America,

in 1871 ; and practised in his native town. ORDER OF, a patriotic organization incor-

He was elected a member of the State porated March 18, 1896. The object of

Senate in 1879, was returned for three the order is " to bring together and associ-

consecutive terms of four years each, and ate congenial men whose ancestors

was president pro tern, in 1880-90. He struggled together for life and liberty,

was the leader in the long and successful home and happiness, in the land when it

fight against the Louisiana Lottery Com- was a new and unknown country, and

pnny, while in the State Senate: was whose line of descent from them comes

nominated by the Anti-lottery Convention through patriots who sustained the colo-



nies in the struggle for independence in he was joint partner with Gamaliel

the Revolutionary War; to teach reverent Rogers in publishing the Independent

regard for the names and history, char- Advertiser. They had published the

acter and perseverance, deeds and hero- American Magazine from 1743 to 1746,

ism, of the founders of this country and and were the first in America to print

their patriotic descendants ; to inculcate the New Testament. Mr. Fowle settled

patriotism; to discover, collect, and pre- in Portsmouth, N. H. ; and there, in Octo-

serve records, documents, manuscripts, ber, 1756, began the publication of the

monuments, and history relating to the New Hampshire Gazette. He died in

first colonists and their ancestors and Portsmouth, N. H., in June, 1787.

their descendants ; and to commemorate Fowler, SAMUEL PAGE, antiquarian ;

nnd celebrate events in the history of the born in Danvers, Mass., April 22, 1800;

colonies of the republic." The officers in aided in founding the Essex Institute.

1900 were: Governor-general, Stewart L. He was the author of articles in the His-

Woodford, New York; deputy governor- torical Collections of the Essex Institute;

general, Samuel Emlen Meigs, Philadel- Life and Character of the Rev. Samuel

phia; secretary-general, Charles Mather Parris, of Salem Village, and his Connec-

Glazier, Hartford, Conn. ; treasurer-gen- tion with the Witchcraft Delusion of

eral, Samuel Victor Constant, New York; 1692, etc.

attorney - general, William Raymond Fowler, WILLIAM CHAUNCEY, author;

Weeks, New York ; registrar-general, Will- born in Killingworth, Conn., Sept. 1,

iam Anderson Mitchell, New York; and 1793; graduated at Yale in 1816; be-

chaplain-general, Rev. Daniel Frederick came pastor of the Congregational Church

Warren, Jersey City, N. J. in Greenfield, Mass., in 1825. He publish-

Fountain of Youth, a fabled fountain, ed many school-books and also The See
the discovery of which was one of the ob- tional Controversy, or Passages in the
jects of the exploration of Florida, in Political History of the United States;
1512 by PONCE DE LEON (q. v.) . The History of Durham; Local Law in Massa-
water of this fountain was supposed to chusetts and Connecticut; genealogical
constitute an elixir, the drinking of which works on the Fowler and Chauncey fami-
would greatly prolong human life. lies, etc. He died in Durham, Conn., Jan.

Four Mile Strip, a strip of land 4 15, 1881.

miles wide on each side of the Niag- Fowler, WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, au-

ara River, extending from Lake Erie thor; born in Middlebury, Vt., June 24,

to Lake Ontario, which was ceded to 1833; graduated at Amherst College in

the British government in 1764 by a 1854; admitted to the bar in 1857; and

council of Indians representing Iroquois, began practice in New York City. His

Ojibways, Wyandottes, and publications include Ten Years in Wall

Ottawas, Ojibways, Wyandottes,

Fourier, CHARLES, socialist; born in
Bensangon; France, April 7, 1772; devised

a social system known as Fourierism. He Wall Street; etc. He died in 1881.
died in Paris, Oct. 10, 1837. See BROOK Fowltown, BATTLE OF, an engagement

Street; Life and Adventures of Benjamin
F. Money penny; Women on the American
Frontier; Twenty Years of Inside Life in


in 1817 fought by National troops under

Fourteenth Amendment to the Con- Gen. E. P. Gaines and hostile Creek Ind-

stitution. See CONSTITUTION AND Gov- ians during the Seminole War in Florida.

ERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. The Indians had committed depredations

Fourth of July, the American natal on the frontier settlements of Georgia and

day, so designated because of the DECLA- Alabama. General Gaines followed them

RATION OF INDEPENDENCE (q. v.) on July up, and on the refusal of the inhabitants

4, 1776; also popularly known as Inde- of Fowltown to surrender the ringleaders

pendence Day. See ADAMS, JOHN. he took and destroyed the Indian village,

Fowle, DANIEL, printer; born in for which the Indians soon afterwards re-

Charlestown, Mass., in 1715; learned the taliated by capturing a boat conveying

art of printing, and began business in supplies for Fort Scott up the Apalachico-

Boston in 1740, where, from 1748 to 1750, la River, and killing thirty-four men and



a number of women. This event led Gen- Taken before Cromwell, in London, that
eral Jackson to take the field in person ruler not only released him, but declared
against the Indians early in January, his doctrines were salutary, and he after-
1818. wards protected him from persecution;

Fox, GEORGE, founder of the Society of but after the Restoration he and his fol-
Friends, or Quakers; born in Dray- lowers were dreadfully persecuted by the
ton, Leicestershire, England, in July, Stuarts. He married the widow of a
1624. His father, a Presbyterian, was Welsh judge in 1669, and in 1672 he came
too poor to give his son an education be- to America, and preached in Maryland,
yond reading and writing. The son, who Long Island, and New Jersey, visiting

Friends wherever the}^ were seated. Fox
afterwards visited Holland and parts of
Germany. His writings upon the subject
of his peculiar doctrine that the " light
of Christ within is given by God as a gift
of salvation " occupied, when first pub
lished, 3 folio volumes. He died in Lon
don, Jan. 13, 1691.

When the founder of the Society of
Friends visited New England in 1672, being
more discreet than others of his sect, he
went only to Rhode Island, avoiding Con
necticut and Massachusetts. Roger Will
iams, who denied the pretensions to spir
itual enlightenment, challenged Fox to
disputation. Before the challenge was re
ceived, Fox had departed, but three of
his disciples at Newport accepted it.
Williams went there in an open boat,
30 miles from Providence, and, though
over seventy years of age, rowed the vessel
himself. There was a three days dis
putation, which at times was a tumultu
ous quarrel. Williams published an ac-

was grave and contemplative in tempera- count of it, with the title of George Fox
ment. was apprenticed to a shoemaker, Digged out of his Burrowcs ; to which
and made the Scriptures his constant Fox replied in a pamphlet entitled, A
studv. The doctrines he afterwards New England Firebrand Quenched.
taught were gradually fashioned in his Neither was sparing in sharp epithets,
mind, and believing himself to be called to Fox, GUSTAVTJS VASA, naval officer ;
disseminate them, he abandoned his trade born in Saugus. Mass., June 13, 1821; ap-
at the age of nineteen, and began his pointed to the United States navy Jan.
spiritual work, leading a wandering life 12. 1838; resigned with the rank of lieu-
for some years, living in the woods, and tenant July 10, 1856; was sent to Fort
practising rigid self-denial. He first ap- Sumter for the purpose of opening commu-
peared as a preacher at Manchester, in nication with Major Anderson. Before the
1648, and he was imprisoned as a dis- expedition reached Charleston the Confed-
turber of the peace. Then he travelled crates had opened fire on Fort Sumter and
over England, meeting the same fate forced Major Anderson to surrender. He
everywhere, but gaining many followers, was subsequently appointed assistant Sec-
He warmly advocated all the Christian rotary of the Navy, and held this post
virtues, simplicity in worship, and in man- until the end of the war. He planned op-
ner of living. Brought before a justice orations of the navy, including the capt-
at Derby, in 1650, he told the magistrate ure of New Orleans. He was sent by the
to " quake before the Lord," and there- United States government on the monitor
after he and his sect were called Quakers. Miantonomoh to convey the c^ngratula*




tions of the United States Congress to their dominions, were to stand as one
Alexander II. on his escape from assassi- state towards foreign powers. This treaty
nation. This was the longest voyage that secured to the American colonies, in ad-
had ever been made by a monitor. His vance, the aid of Charles III. of Spain,
visit to Russia materially aided the ac- A special convention was concluded the
quisition of Alaska by the United States same day between France and Spain, by
government. He died in New York City, which the latter agreed to declare war
Oct. 29, 1883. against England unless peace between

Fox Indians, a tribe of Algonquian France and England should "be concluded
Indians first found by the whites in Wis- before May, 17G2. Choiseul covenanted
consin. They were driven south of the with Spain that Portugal should be corn-
Wisconsin River by the Ojibwas and the pel led, and Savoy, Holland, and Denmark
French, and there incorporated with the should be invited, to join in a federative
Sac Indians. In 1900 there were 521 union " for the common advantage of all
Sac and Fox of Mississippi at the Fox maritime powers." Pitt proposed to de-
agency in Oklahoma; 77 Sac and Fox of clare war against Spain, but was out-
Missouri at the Pottawatomie agency in voted, and resigned (Oct. 5, 1761).
Kansas, and 388 of the Sac and Fox of The French government was pleased
Mississippi at the Sac and Fox agency in when the breach between Great Britain
Iowa. and her colonies began, and sought to
France, EARLY RELATIONS WITH. The widen it. England had stripped France
serious quarrel between the English and of her possessions in America, and France
French colonists in America, which was sought to dismember the British Empire,
begun in 1754 and continued by collisions and cause it a greater loss, by the achieve-
of armed men, was taken up by the home ment of the independence of the colonies,
governments in 1755. The French had Arthur Lee, of Virginia, being in London
offered to treat for reconciliation, but the soon after the breaking out of hostilities,
terms were not acceptable to the English ; made such representations to the French
and when the offer was refused, the ambassador there that the Count de Ver-
French fitted out privateers and threat- gennes, the French minister of foreign
ened to invade England with a fleet and affairs, sent PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE
army collected at Brest. To confront BEAUMARCTIAIS (q. t\), a well-known po-
this menace, a body of German troops litical intriguer and courtier, to concert
were introduced into England; and, to measures with Lee for sending to the
induce the colonies to make fresh efforts Americans arms and military stores to the,
against the French in America, the Par-^/ amount of $200,000. An open breach
liament voted a reimbursement of $775,000 with the English was not then desirable,
to those involved on account of Dieskau s and the French minister, to cover up the
invasion. Provision was also made for transaction, gave it a mercantile feature,
enlisting a royal American regiment, by having Beaumarchais transmit the sup-
composed of four battalions of 1,000 men plies under the fictitious firm-name of
each. All hopes of reconciliation being Rodrique Hortales & Co. Before the mat-
past, England formally declared war ter was completed, SILAS DEANE (q. v.) ,
against France (May, 18, 1756), to which sent by the committee of secret corre-
the latter shortly after responded. spondence, arrived in Paris (May, 1776),

On Aug. 15, 1761, Choiseul, the able in the disguise of a private merchant. He
French minister, brought about, by treaty, was received kindly by Ver^ennes, and in-
a firm alliance between France and troduced to Beaumarchais. It was agreed
Spain, a family compact that eventually that Hortales & Co. should send the sup-
proved beneficial to the English-American plies by way of the West Indies, and that
colonies. It was designed to unite all the Congress should pay for them in tobacco
branches of the House of Bourbon as a and other American products. When the
counterpoise to the maritime ascendency arrangement was completed. Beaumarchais
of England. It was agreed that at the despatched vessels from time to time,
conclusion of the then existing war with valuable cargoes, including 200 can-
France and Spain, in the whole extent of non and mortars, and a supply of small



arms from the French arsenals; also, stores as a present from the Court of
4,000 tents, and clothing for 30,000 men. France. Then Beaumarchais claimed pay-
Deane was suspected of some secret con- merit from the Congress for every arti-
nection with the French government, and cle he had forwarded. This claim caused
was closely watched by British agents; a lawsuit that lasted about fifty years,
and the French Court would trust none of It was settled in 1835, by the payment by
its secrets to the Congress, for its most the United States government to the heirs
private deliberations (the sessions were of Beaumarchais of over $200,000.
always private) leaked out, and became On May 4, 1778, the Continental Con-
known to the British ministry. The busi- gress unanimously ratified the treaties
ness was done by the secret committee, with France, and expressed their grate-
Soon after the Declaration of Indepen- ful acknowledgments to its King for his
dence, a plan of treaties with foreign na- " magnanimous and disinterested con-
tions had been reported by a committee duct." This treaty and this ratification
and accepted by Congress, and Franklin, " buried the hatchet Vthat had so long
Deane, and Jefferson were appointed been active between the French and the
(Sept. 28, 1770) commissioners to the English colonies in America. The latter
Court of France. Jefferson declined the regarded all Frenchmen as their friends,
appointment, and Arthur Lee was substi- and proclaimed Louis XVI. the " pro-
tuted. They were directed to live in a tector of the rights of mankind."
style " to support the dignity of their pub- On the evening of April 12, 1779, the
lie character," and prevision was made representatives of France and Spain
for their maintenance. Franklin arrived signed a convention for an invasion of
at Paris, and was joined by Deane and Lee England, in which the Americans were
in December. The commissioners were considered and concerned.) By its terms
courteously received by Vergennes, pri- France bound herself to undertake the
vately, but without any recognition of their invasion of Great Britain and Ireland;
diplomatic character. France was secret- and, if the British could be driven from
]y strengthening her navy, and preparing Newfoundland, the fisheries were to be
for the inevitable war which her aid to shared with Spain. France promised to
the revolted colonies would produce. The use every effort to recover for Spain
commissioners received from the French Minorca, Pensacola, and Mobile, the Bay
government a quarterly allowance of $400,- of Honduras, and the coast of Cam-
000, to be repaid by the Congress, with peachy; and the two courts agreed not to
which they purchased arms and supplies grant peace nor truce, nor suspension of
for troops, and fitted out o.rmed vessels hostilities, until Gibraltar should be re-
a business chiefly performed by Deane, stored to Spain. Spain was left free to
who had been a merchant, and managed exact from the United States, as the
the transactions with Beaumarchais. Out price of her friendship, a renunciation
of these transactions grew much embar- of every part of the basin of the St.
rnssment, chiefly on account of the mis- Lawrence and the Lakes, of the naviga-
representations of Arthur Lee, which led tion of the Mississippi, and of all the
Congress to believe that the supplies for- territory between that river and the Alle-
warded by Beaumarchais were gratui- ghany Mountains. This modification of
ties of the French monarch. This belief the treaty of France with the United
prevailed until the close oi 1778, when States gave the latter the right to make
Franklin, on inquiry of Vergennes about J peace whenever Great Britain should rec-
the matter, was informed that the King ognize their independence. (So these two
had furnished nothing; he simply per- Bourbon dynasties plotted to exclude the
mitted Beaumarchais to be provided with Americans from a region essential to
articles from the arsenals upon condition tberiTas members of~"an independent re-
of replacing them. The matter becoming a public. "\ But a new power "appeared in
public question, the startled Congress, un- tKe~ West to frustrate their designs,
willing to compromise the French Court, which was prefigured by an expedition
declared (January, 1779) that they "had under a hardy son of Virginia. See
never received any species of military CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS.



in 171)7 the consul-general of the
United States in France complained of
the condemnation of American vessels
unjustly. Merlin, the French minister of
justice, made a reply in which he openly
avowed the intention to humble the
Americans and compel Congress to con
form to the wishes of France by depre
dations upon American commerce. " Let
your government," wrote this minister of
justice (who was also a speculator in
privateers ) , " return to a sense of what
is due to itself and its true friends, be
come just and grateful, and let it break
the incomprehensible treaty which it has
concluded with our most implacable
enemies, and then the French Republic
will cease to take advantage of this
treaty, which favors England at its ex
pense, and no appeals will then, I can
assure you, be made to any tribunal
against injustice."

In March, 1798, President Adams, in a
special message, asked Congress to make
provision for the war with France that
seemed impending. It was promptly com
plied with. A provisional army of 20,000
regular soldiers was voted, and provision
was made for the employment of volun
teers as well as militia. Provision was
also made for a national navy, and the
office of Secretary of the Navy was cre
and the incumbent was made a member of
the cabinet. Party spirit disappeared in
the national legislature in a degree, and
a war spirit everywhere prevailed. There
were a few members of Congress who
made the honor of the nation subservient
to their partisanship. They opposed a
war with France on any account; and so
unpopular did they become that some of
the most obnoxious, particularly from
Virginia, sought personal safety in flight,
under the pretext of needed attention to
private affairs.

Ever since Minister Adet s proclamation
the Democrats, or friends of the French,
had worn the tricolored cockade. When,
in the spring of 1798, President Adams
took strong ground against France, a de
cided war spirit was aroused throughout
the country: addresses poured in on the
President; and everywhere were seen evi
dences of a reflex of opinion which sus
tained the President. In Philadelphia, an

" Address to the President," signed by
5,000 citizens, was presented to Adams;
and this was followed by an address by the
young men of the city, who went in a body
to deliver it, many of them wearing black
cockades, the same which were worn in
the American army during the Revolution.
This was done in the way of defiance to
the tricolored cockades. From this cir
cumstance was derived the term, so fa
miliar to politicians of that period, of
" Black Cockade Federalists." It became,
in time, a term of reproach, and the wear
ers were exposed to personal attacks.

In July, 1798, the American Congress
declared the treaties made between the
United States and France (Feb. 6, 1778)
at an end, and authorized American ves
sels of war to capture French cruisers. A
marine corps was organized, and thirty
cruisers were provided for. The frigates
United States, Constitution, and Constel
lation, already built, were soon made
ready for sea under such commanders as
Dale, Barry, Decatur the elder, Truxton,
Nicholson, and Phillips. Decatur soon
captured a French corsair (April, 1798).
So many American armed vessels in West
India waters, in the summer and autumn
of 1798, astonished the British and French
authorities there. At the close of that
year the American navy consisted of
twenty-three vessels, with a total of 446
gims. It was much strengthened during
the year 1799 by the launching and put
ting into commission several new ships,
and victories over the French on the ocean
were gained. In February, 1799, Com
modore Truxton, in the Constellation,
captured the French frigate L Insurgente;
and in February, 1800, he gained a. victory
over the French frigate La Vengeance.
The convention at Paris brought about
peace between the two nations, and the
navy of the United States was called to
another field of action.

While war with France seemed inevi
table, and was actually occurring on the
ocean, a change in the government of
that country occurred, which averted
from the United States the calamity of
war. For a long time the quarrels of po
litical factions had distracted France.
THE DIRECTORY (q, v.) had become very
unpopular, and the excitable people were
ripe for another revolution. Nnpo oon




Bonaparte was then at the head of an
army in the East. His brothers informed
him of the state of affairs at home, and
he suddenly appeared in Paris with a few
followers, where he was hailed as the good
genius of the republic. With his brother
Lucien, then president of the Council of
Five Hundred, and the Abbe Sieyes, one of
the Directory, and of great influence in
the Council of the Ancients, he conspired
for the overthrow of the government and
the establishment of a new one. Sieye~s
induced the Council of the Ancients to
place Bonaparte in command of the mili-
tary of Paris, Nov. 9, 1799. Then Siey6s

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 64 of 76)