Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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the birthright of subjects in England, and had taken two British brigantines
Nothing came of the Hints. as prizes. He landed at Nantes on Dec.

After the attack by Wedderburne 7. Europe was surprised, for no notice
when before the privy council, and his had been given of his coming. His fame
dismissal from the office of postmaster- was world-wide. The courts were filled
general for the colonies, Franklin was with conjectures. The story was spread
subjected to the danger of arrest, and pos- in England that he was a fugitive for
sibly a trial, for treason; for the minis- safety. Burke said, "I never will believe
try, angry because he had exposed Hutch- that he is going to conclude a long life,
inson s letters, made serious threats, which has brightened every hour it has
Conscious of rectitude, he neither left continued, with so foul and dishonorable
England then nor swerved a line from a flight." On the Continent it was right-
his course of duty. When, in February, ly concluded that he was on an important
1776, Lord North endeavored to find out mission. To the French people he spoke
from him what the Americans wanted, frankly, saying that twenty successful
" We desire nothing," said Franklin, campaigns could not subdue the Ameri-
: but what is necessary to our security cans; that their decision for independence
and well-being." After stating that some was irrevocable; and that they would be
of the obnoxious acts would probably be forever independent States. On the morn-
repealed, Lord North said the Massachu- ing of Dec. 28, Franklin, with the other
setts acts must be continued, both "as commissioners (Silas Deane and Arthur
real amendments" of the constitution of Lee), waited upon Vergennes, the French
that province, and " as a standing ex- minister for foreign affairs, when he pre-
ample of the power of Parliament." sented the plan of Congress for a treaty.
Franklin replied : " While Parliament Vergennes spoke of the attachment of the
claims the right of altering American French nation to the American cause; re-
constitutions at pleasure, there can be no quested a paper from Franklin on the con-
agreement, for we are rendered unsafe dition of America; and that, in future, in-
in every privilege." North answered: tercourse with the sage might be in secret,
" An agreement is necessary for Amer- without the intervention of a third per-
ica; it is so easy for Britain to burn all son. Personal friendship between these
your seaport towns." Franklin coolly an- two distinguished men became strong and
svvered: "My little property consists in abiding. He told Franklin that as Spain
houses in those towns; you may make and France were in perfect accord he
bonfires of them whenever you please; might communicate freely with the Span-
the fear of losing them will never alter ish minister, the Count de Aranda. With
my resolution to resist to the last the him the commissioners held secret but bar-
claim of Parliament." ren interviews as Aranda would only

Mr. Strahan, of London, had been a promise the freedom of Spanish ports to

sort of go-between through whom Dr. American vessels.

Franklin had communicated with Lord Vindication of the Colonies. On June,

North. On July 5, 1776, Franklin wrote 15, 1775, Franklin issued the following

to him: "You are a member of Parlia- address to the public:
ment, and one of that majority which has

doomed my country to destruction. You Forasmuch as the enemies of America in

have begun to burn our towns and murder the Parliament of Great Britain, to ren-




" suis corum propriis sumptibus et ex-
pensis," at their own cost and charges.

der us odious to the nation, and give an nies were settled at the expense of Britain,
ill impression of us in the minds of other it is a known fact that none of the twelve
European powers, having represented us as united colonies were settled, or even dis-
unjust and ungrateful in the highest de- covered, at the expense of England,
gree; asserting, on every occasion, that Henry VII., indeed, granted a commission
the colonies were settled at the expense to Sebastian Cabot, a Venetian, and his
of Britain; that they were, at the expense sons to sail into western seas for the dis-
of the same, protected in their infancy: covery of new countries; but it was to be
that they now ungratefully and unjustly
refuse to contribute to their own protec
tion, and the common defence of the na- They discovered, but soon slighted and
tion ; that they intend an abolition of the neglected these northern territories ;
navigation acts ; and that they are fraud- which were, after more than a hundred
ulent in their commercial dealings, and years dereliction, purchased of the natives,
propose to cheat their creditors in Brit- and settled at the charge and by the labor
a in, by avoiding the payment of their of private men and bodies of men, our an-
just debts ; cestors, who came over hither for that pur-

And as by frequent repetitions these pose. But our adversaries have never

groundless assertions and malicious cal- been able to produce any record that ever

umnies may, if not contradicted and the Parliament or government of England

refuted, obtain further credit, and be was at the smallest expense on these ac-

injurious throughout Europe to the repu- counts; on the contrary, there exists on

tation and interest of the Confederate colo- the jpurnals of Parliament a solemn

nies, it seems proper and necessary to declaration in 1642 (only twenty-two

examine them in our own just vindication, years after the first settlement of the

With regard to the first, that the oolo- Massachusetts colony, when, if nuch ex-



pense had ever been incurred, some of the lected by the English government; which

members must have known and remem
bered it), "that these colonies had been
planted and established icithout any ex
pense to the state."

New York is the only colony in the
founding of which England can pretend
to have been at any expense, and that was
only the charge of a small armament to
take it from the Dutch, who planted it.
But to retain this colony at the peace, an
other at that time fully as valuable,
planted by private countrymen of ours,
was given up by the crown to the Dutch
ir exchange viz., Surinam, now a wealthy
sugar colony in Guiana, and which, but
for that cession, might still have remained
in our possession. Of late, indeed, Brit
ain has been at some expense in planting
two colonies, Georgia and Nova Scotia,
but those are not in our confederacy; and
ihe expense she has been at in their name
has chiefly been in grants of sums un
necessarily large, by way of salaries to
officers sent from England, and in jobs to
friends, whereby dependants might be pro
vided for; those excessive grants not
being requisite to the welfare and good
government of the colonies, which good
government (as experience in many in
stances of other colonies has taught us)
may be much more frugally, and full as
effectually, provided for and supported.

With regard to the second assertion,
that these colonies were protected in their
infant state by England, it is a notorious
fact, that, in none of the many wars with
the Indian natives, sustained by our in
fant settlements for a century after our
arrival, were ever any troops or forces
of any kind sent from England to assist
us; nor were any forts built at her ex
pense, to secure our seaports from for
eign invaders; ncu^any ships of war sent
to protect our trade till many years after
our first settlement, when our commerce
became an object of revenue, or of advan
tage to British merchants; and then it
was thought necessary to have a frigate
in some of our ports, during peace, to give
weight to the authority of custom-house
officers, who were to restrain that com
merce for iho benefit of England. Our
own arms, with our poverty, and the care
of a kind Providence, were all this time
our only protection; while we were neg-

either thought us not worth its care, or,
having no good will to some of us, on ac
count of our different sentiments in relig
ion and politics, was indifferent what be
came of us.

On the other hand, the colonies have
not been wanting to do what they could
in every war for annoying the enemies ot
Britain. They formerly assisted her in
the conquest of Nova Scotia. In the war
before last they took Louisburg, and put
it into her hands. She made her peace
with that strong fortress by restoring it
to France, greatly to their detriment. In
the last war, it is true, Britain sent a
fleet and army, who acted with an equal
army of ours, in the reduction of Canada,
and perhaps thereby did more for us,
than we in our preceding wars had done
for her. Let it be remembered, however,
that she rejected the plan we formed in
the Congress at Albany, in 1754, for our
own defence, by a union of the colonies;
a union she was jealous of, and there
fore chose to send her own forces; other
wise her aid to protect us was not wanted.
And from our first settlement to that
time, her military operations in our favor
were small, compared with the advantages
she drew from her exclusive commerce
with us. We are, however, willing to
give full weight to this obligation; and,
as we are daily growing stronger, and our
assistance to her becomes of more im
portance, we should with pleasure em
brace the first opportunity of showing our
gratitude by returning the favor in kind.

But, when Britain values herself as af
fording us protection, we desire it may
be considered that we have followed her
in all her wars, and joined with her at
our own expense against all she thought
fit to quarrel with. This she has required
of us; and would never permit us to
keep peace with any power she declared
her enemy; though by separate treaties
we might have done it. Under such cir
cumstances, when at her instance we
made nations our enemies, we submit it
to the common-sense of mankind, whether
her protection of us in those wars was
not our just due, and to be claimed of
rif/ht, instead of being received as a favor?
And whether, when all the parts exert
themselves to do the utmost in their com-



mon defence, and in annoying the common but we further declare it to be absolutely
enemy, it is not as well the parts that false; for it is well known, that we ever
protect the ivhole, as the whole that pro- held it as our duty to grant aids to the
tects the parts? The protection then has crown, upon requisition, towards carry-
been proportionately mutual. And when- ing on its wars; which duty we have
ever the time shall come that our abilities cheerfully complied with, to the utmost
may as far exceed hers as hers have ex- or our abilities, insomuch that prudent
ceeded ours, we hope we shall be reason- and grateful acknowledgments thereof by

King and Parlia
ment appear on
the records. But,
as Britain has
enjoyed a most
gainful monopoly
of our commerce ;
the same, with
our maintaining
the dignity of the
King s represent
ative in each col
ony, and all our
own separate
establishments of
government, civil
and military; has
ever hitherto
been deemed an
equivalent for
such aids as
might otherwise
be expected from
us in time of
peace. And we
hereby declare
that on a recon-
ciliation with
Britain, we shall
not only continue
to grant aids in
time of war, as
aforesaid ; but
w lien ever she
shall think lit
to abolish her
monopoly, and
give us the same
privileges of
trade as Scotland

able enough to rest satisfied with her pro- received at the union, and allow us a free
portionable exertions, and not think we commerce with the rest of the world; we
do too much for a part of the empire, when shall willingly agree (and we doubt not it
that part does as much as it can for the will be ratified by our constituents) to give
whole. and pay into the sinking fund 100,000

To charge against us that we refuse sterling per annum for the term of 100
to contribute to our own protection, ap- years, which duly, faithfully, and invi-
pears from the above to be groundless; olably applied to that purpose, is demon-




strably more than sufficient to extinguish its capital, the fine city of Dresden! An

all her present national debt; since it will example we hope no provocation will in-

in that time amount, at legal British in- duce us to imitate,

terest, to more than 230,000,000. Franklin, SAMUEL RHOADS, naval offi-

But if Britain does not think fit to ac- cer; born in York, Pa., Aug. 25, 1825;
cept this proposition, we, in order to re- was appointed midshipman Feb. 18, 1841;
move her groundless jealousies, that we was promoted to passed midshipman, Aug.
aim at independence and an abolition of 10, 1847; master, April 18, 1855; lieuten-
the navigation act (which hath in truth ant, Sept. 4, 1855; lieutenant-commander,
never been our intention), and to avoid Sept. 26, 1866: captain, Aug. 13, 1872;
all future disputes about the right of commodore, Dec. 15, 1880; and rear-ad-
making that and other acts for regulating miral, Jan. 24, 1885; and was retired in
our commerce, do hereby declare ourselves 1887. Most of his forty-six years of ser-
ready and willing to enter into a covenant vice was spent at sea. During both the
with Britain, that she shall fully possess, Mexican and Civil wars he was active in
enjoy, and exercise the right, for 100 the most important operations. He was
years to come; the same being bona fide president of the international marine
used for the common benefit; and, in case Conference; is a member of the Washing-
of such agreement, that every Assembly ton National Monument Association; and
be advised by us to confirm it solemnly is author of Memories of a Rear-Admiral.
by laws of their own, which, once made, Franklin, WILLIAM, royal governor:
cannot be repealed without the assent of born in Philadelphia in 1729, only son of
the crown. Benjamin Franklin. It is not known who

The last charge, that we are dishonest his mother was. About a year after his

traders, and aim at defrauding our credit- birth Franklin was married, took his child

ors in Britain, is sufficiently and authen- into his own house, and brought him up as

tically refuted by the solemn declaration? his son. He held a captain s commission

of the British merchants to Parliament in the French War (1744-48). From 1754

(both at the time of the Stamp Act and to 1756 he was comptroller of the colonial

in the last session), who bore ample tes- post-office, and clerk to the Provincial

timony to the general good faith and fair Assembly. He went to London with his

dealing of the Americans, and declared father in 1757, and was admitted to the

their confidence in our integrity; for bar in 1758. In 1762 he was appointed

which we refer to their petitions on the governor of the province of New Jersey,

journals of the House of Commons. And remaining loyal to the crown when the

we presume we may safely call on the Revolution broke out, and in January,

body of the British tradesmen, who have 1776, a guard was put over him at his

had experience of both, to say, whether residence at Perth Amboy. He gave his

they have not received much more punct- parole that he would not leave the prov-

ual payment from us, than they generally ince. In June (1776) he called a meeting

have from the members of their own two of the legislature of New Jersey, for which

Houses of Parliament. offence, defiance of public opinion, he was

On the whole of the above it appears arrested and sent to Connecticut, where

tl at the charge of ingratitude towards the for more than two years he was strictly

mother - country, brought with so much guarded, when, in November, 1778. he

confidence against the colonies, is totally was exchanged. He remained in New

without foundation; and that there is York, and was active as president of the

iruch more reason for retorting that Board of Associated Loyalists until 1782,

charge on Britain, who, not only never when he sailed for England, where he was

contributes any aid, nor affords, by an allowed by the government $9,000 and a

exclusive commerce, any advantages to pension of $4,000 a year. His father

Saxony, Jirr mother - country ; but no willed him lands in Nova Scotia and for-

longer since than in the last war, without gave him all his debts, nothing more. In

the least provocation, subsidized the King his will, Dr. Franklin observed concerning

of Prussia while he ravaged that mother- this son. from whom he was estranged:

c(>imtn/, and carried fire and sword into "The part he acted against me in the



late war, which is of public notoriety,
will account for my leaving him no more
of an estate he endeavored to deprive me
of." He died in England Nov. 17, 1813.

Franklin, WILLIAM BUEL, military of
ficer; born in York, Pa., Feb. 27, 1823,
graduated at West Point in 1843. In the


engineer service, he was actively engaged
when the war with Mexico broke out. He
served on the staff of General Taylor at
the battle of Buena Vista, and was bre-
vetted first lieutenant. Serving as Profess
or of Natural and Experimental Philos
ophy at West Poiiu for four years, he
occupied the same chair, and that of Civil
Engineering, in the New York City Free
Academy, in 1852. In May, 1861, he was
appointed colonel of the 12th Infantry,
and in July was assigned the command
of a brigade in Heintzelman s division.

He was in the hottest of the fight at Bull
Run; was promoted brigadier-general of
volunteers in September, antl appointed
to the command of a division of the Army
of the Potomac. Franklin did excellent
service in the campaign of the Virginia
Peninsula, and on July 4, 1862, was pro
moted to major - general. He served un
der McClelland in Maryland, and un
der Burnside at Fredericksburg, and in
1863 was assigned to the Department
of the Gulf, under Banks. In March,

1865, he was brevetted major-general in
the regular army, and, resigning in March,

1866, engaged in manufacturing and en
gineering. In 1889 he was United States
commissioner-general for the Paris Ex

Franklin, BATTLE OF. General Thomas
had sent General Schofield southward to
confront Hood s invasion of Tennessee in
1864, and he took post south of Duck
River, hoping to fight the invaders there.
But two divisions under A. J. Smith, com
ing from Missouri, had not arrived, and
Schofield fell back, first to Columbia, and
then to Franklin, not far below Nashville,
Genera] Stanley saving his train from
seizure by Forrest after a sharp fight with
the guerilla chief. At Franklin, Schofield
disposed his troops in a curved line south
and west of the town, his flanks resting
on the Harpeth River. He cast up a line
of light intrenchments along his entire
front. His cavalry, with Wood s division,
were posted on the north bank of the river,
and Fort Granger, on a bluff, commanded
the gently rolling plain over which Hood
must advance in a direct attack. Scho
field had about 18,000 men. At four




ward and ordered Opdykc
to advance with his brigade.
Swiftly they charged the Con
federate columns and drove
them back. Conrad, close by,
gave assistance. The works
and the guns were recovered ;
300 prisoners and ten battle-
flags were captured; and the
Union line was restored, and
not again broken, though Hood
hurled strong bodies of men
against it. The struggle con
tinued until long after dark;
it was almost midnight when
the last shot was fired. The
advantage was with the Na
tionals. The result was disas
trous to Hood. His men were
dispirited, and he lost 6,253
soldiers, of whom 1,750 were
killed and 702 made prisoners.
Schofield s loss was 2,326, of
whom 180 were killed and
1,104 missing. The Nationals
withdrew from Franklin a lit
tle after midnight, and fell
back to Nashville.

Franklin Stove. The first
iron fireplace for heating
rooms was invented by Dr. Ben
jamin Franklin about 1740, and

o clock on the afternoon of Nov. 30, 1864, is known as the " Franklin Stove" to this
Hood advanced to the attack with all his day. It is an open fireplace constructed
force. A greater part of his cavalry, of iron, and portable, so that it may be
under Forrest, was on his right, and the used in any room with a chimney. It
remainder were on his left. The Confed- was made for the purpose of better
erates fell fiercely upon Schofield s centre, warming and for sav-
composed of the divisions of linger and ing fuel. He refused
Cox, about 10,000 strong. Their sudden the offer of a patent
appearance was almost a surprise 1 . Scho- for it by the governor
field was at Fort Granger, and the battle, of Pennsylvania, as he
on the part of the Nationals, was con- held that, as we profit
ducted by General Stanley. By a furious by the inventions of
charge Hood hurled back the Union ad- others, so we should
vance vn utter confusion upon the main freely give what we T HK FRANKLIN STOVE.
line, when that, too, began to crumble, may for the comfort
A strong position on a hill was carried by of our fellow-men. He gave his models
the Confederates, where they seized eight to Robert Grace, one of his early friends
guns. They forced their way within the in London, who had an iron-foundry, and
second line and planted a Confederate flag he made much money by casting these
upon the intrenchments. stoves. They were in general use in all

All now seemed lost to the Nationals, the rural districts of the country for
who, as their antagonists were preparing many years, or until anthracite coal began
to follow up their victory, seemed about to take the place of wood as fuel and
to break and fly, when Stanley rode for- required a different kind of stove.


^m$$y <



Fraser, SIMON, military officer; born in Frederick, FOUT, a protective work on

Scotland, in 1729; served with distinction the north bank of the Potomac River in

in Germany, and was appointed a brig- Maryland, 50 miles below Fort Cumber-

adier-general in the British army by land; erected in 1755-56.

Governor Carleton, Sept. 6, 1776. He Fredericksburg, BATTLE AT. Lee s

gained a victory over the Americans at evacuation of Maryland after the battle on

Hubbardton in July, 1777, and was shot Autietam Creek occurred on Sept. 19-20,

by one of Morgan s riflemen in the first 1862. Lee rested a few days on the Vir-

battle on Bemis s Heights, Sept. 19, 1777, ginia side of the Potomac, and then

and died on Oct. 7, following. marched leisurely up the Shenandoah Val-

Fraternal Organizations. According ley. McClellan did not pursue, but, after

to reports of the supreme bodies of these twice calling for reinforcements, he de-

organizations the membership of the prin- clared his intention to stand where he was,

cipal fraternal organizations in the on the defensive, and " attack the enemy

United States and Canada in 1900 was should he attempt to recross into Mary-

about as follows: land." The government and the loyal peo

ple, impatient of delay, demanded an im-

* *. o oct the p^-

Modern Woodmen of America ____ 547,625 d(jn t instructed McClellan to "cross the

Knights of Pythias .............. 492,506 Potomac and give battle to the enemy, or

Ancient Order of United Workmen. 410,000 drive him South< Y our army must now

Improved Order of Red Men. . 236,702 ,, , , ., ,, ", n ,,

Knights of the Maccabees ....... 2271936 move," he said, " while the roads are good."

Royal Arcanum ................. 205,628 Twenty-four days were spent in correspond-

ence before the order was obeyed, Me-
e11an complaining of a lack of men and

Junior Order of United American


o merca . . . . . .

Independent Order of Foresters.. 170,000 supplies to make it prudent to move for-

Woodmen of the World ..........

Ancient Order of Hibernians of

America .....................

Benevolent and Protective Order

of Elks ......................


National Union


Order of United American Me-


Catholic Knights of America....

United Order of Pilgrim Fathers.
Royal Templars of Temperance...
B rith Abraham Order ...........

* Order of Chosen Friends .......

United Ancient Order of Druids.. .
Irish Catholic Benevolent Union. .

114,643 ward. At length, when October had nearly

passed by and Lee s army was thoroughly
l J , , J to . J

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 66 of 76)