Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

. (page 71 of 76)
Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 71 of 76)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

of the United States to be a people who, viewed at large. There opens before the
like that race from which they are sprung, thinking mind when this supreme ques-
love plain speaking; and do not believe tion is propounded a vista so transcending
that to suppress opinions deliberately and all ordinary limitation as requires an al-
conscientiously held would be the way to most preterhum?,n force arid expansion of
win your respect. the mental eye in order to embrace it.

I urge, then, that all protection is Some things, and some weighty things,
morally as well as economically bad. This are clear so far as the future admits of
is a very different thing from saying that clearness. There is a vision of territory,
all protectionists are bad. Many of them, population, power, passing beyond all ex-
without doubt, are good, nay, excellent, perience. The exhibition to mankind, for
as were in this country many of the sup- the first time in history, of free institu-



tions on a gigantic scale, is momentous, teacher to us of the Old World in rejecting

and I have enough faith in freedom, and denouncing all the miserable degrad-

enough distrust of all that is alien from ing sophistries by which the arch-enemy,

freedom, to believe that it will work ever devising more and more subtle

powerfully for good. But together with schemes against us, seeks at one stroke

and behind these vast developments there perhaps to lower us beneath the brutes,

will come a corresponding opportunity of assuredly to cut us off from the hope and

social and moral influence to be exercised from the source of the final good? One

over the rest of the world. And the ques- thing is certain: his temptations will mul-

tion of questions for us, as trustees for tiply with his power; his responsibilities

our posterity, is, What will be the nature with his opportunities. Will the seed be

of this influence? Will it make us, the sown among the thorns? Will worldli-

children of the senior races, who will have ness overrun the ground and blight its

to come under its action, better or worse? flowers and its fruit? On the answers to

Not what manner of producer, but what these questions, and to such as these, it

manner of man, is the American of the will depend whether this new revelation

future to be? of power upon the earth is also to be a

I am, I trust, a lover of human advance- revelation of virtue; whether it shall

ment; but I know of no true progress ex- prove a blessing or a curse. May Heaven

cept upon the old lines. Our race has not avert every darker omen, and grant that

lived for nothing. Their pilgrimage the latest and largest growth of the great

through this deeply shadowed valley of Christian civilization shall also be the

life and death has not been all in vain, brightest and the best! See MORRILL,

They have made accumulations on our be- JUSTIN SMITH; PROTECTION.

half. I resent, and to the best of my Free-traders, COMPANY OF. When the

power I would resist, every attempt to de- province of Pennsylvania was granted to

prive us either in whole or in part of the William Penn, a number of settlements

benefit of those accumulations. The already existed there. A royal proclama-

American love of freedom will, beyond all tion confirming the grant to Penn, and

doubt, be to some extent qualified, per- another from Penn himself, were sent to

haps in some cases impaired, by the subtle these settlements by the hand of William

influence of gold, aggregated by many Markham in the summer of 1681. In his

hands in vaster masses than have yet been proclamation Penn assured the settlers

known. that they should live free under laws of

" Aurum per medios Ire satellites, their own making. Meanwhile adventur-

Et perrumpere amat saxa, potentius ers calling themselves the Company of

Ictu fulmineo." Free-traders made a contract with the

But, to rise higher still, how will the proprietor for the purchase of lands at
majestic figure, about to become the larg- the rate of about $10 the 100 acres, sub-
est and most powerful on the stage of the ject to a perpetual quit-rent of Is. for
world s history, make use of his power? every 100-acre grant; the purchasers also
Will it be instinct with moral life in pro- to have lots in a city to be laid out. Three
portion to its material strength? Will vessels filled with these emigrants soon
he uphold and propagate the Christian sailed for the Delaware, with three corn-
tradition with that surpassing energy missioners, who bore a plan of the city,
which marks him in all the ordinary pur- and a friendly letter from Penn to the
suits of life? Will he maintain with a Indians, whom he addressed as brethren,
high hand an unfaltering reverence for Freewill Baptists, a division of Bap-
that law of nature which is anterior to tists founded by Benjamin Randall in
the Gospel, and supplies the standard to New Durham, N. H., in 1780. They grad-
which it appeals, the very foundation on ually extended beyond New England into
which it is built up? Will he fully know, the West, but made no advance in the
and fully act upon the knowledge, that South, owing to their strong anti-slavery
both reverence and strictness are essen- opinions. The doctrine and practice of
tial conditions of all high and desirable the Freewill Baptists are embodied in a
well-being? And will he be a leader and Treatise written in 1832. The chapters,



twenty-one in all, declare that man can as a captain in the army. Afterwards he
be rescued from his fallen state and made filled various State and county offices, and
a child of God by redemption and regen- in 1790 was appointed by Washington to
eration, which have been freely provided, lead an expedition against the western
The " call of the Gospel is co-extensive Indians, with the rank of major-general,
with the atonement, to all men," so that In 1793 he was chosen United States
salvation is " equally possible to all." Senator, and served three years. He died
The " truly regenerate " are " through in- April 13, 1804.

firmity and manifold temptations, in Freliiighuysen, FREDERICK THEODORE,
danger of falling," and "ought therefore statesman; born in Millstone, N. J., Aug.
to watch and pray lest they make ship- 4, 1817; grandson of the preceding; grad-
wreck of faith." They practise immer- uated at Rutgers College in 1836; be-
sion, and hold that every Christian, what- came an eminent lawyer, and was attor-
ever his belief regarding the mode of bap- ney-general of New Jersey, 1861-66. He
tism, is eligible to partake of the Lord s was chosen United States Senator in 1868,
Supper. In 1900 they reported 1,619 min- and was re-elected for a full term in 1871.
isters, 1,486 churches, and 85,109 mem- He was a prominent member of the Repub-
bers. lican party. In July, 1870, President

Frelinghuysen, FREDERICK, lawyer; Grant appointed him minister to England,
born in Somerset county, N. J., April 13, but he declined the position. On Dec. 12,
1753; graduated at the College of New 1881, he entered the cabinet of President
Jersey in 1770, and became an emi- Arthur as Secretary of State, on the
nent lawyer. He was a member of the resignation of Secretary Blaine, and
Continental Congress much of the time served to the end of that administration,
during the Revolutionary War, and served March 4, 1885. He died in Newark, N.

J., May 20, 1885.

yer; born in Mill
stone, N. J., March
28, 1787; son of
Gen. Frederick
graduated at
the College of
New Jersey in
1804, and was ad
mitted to the bar
in 1808. In the
War of 1812-15
he commanded a
company of volun
teers, and in 1817
became attorney-
general of New
Jersey, which

post he held until
1829, when he was
elected United

States Senator. In
1838 he was
chosen chancellor
of the University
of New York, and
made his residence
in that city; and


in 1844 he was nominated for Vice-Presi- Fremin, JACQUES. See JESUIT MISSIONS.

dent of the United States, with Henry Clay Fremont, JESSIE BENTON, author; born

for President. Mr. Frelinghuysen left the in Virginia in 1824; was the daughter of

University of New York in 1850 to be- Senator Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri;

came president of RUTGERS COLLEGE (q. married John C. Fremont in 1841. She

v.), in his native State, which place he published The Ktory of the Guard: Mc-

held until his death in New Brunswick, moir of Thomas H. Benton; Souvenirs of

N. J., April 12, 1862. Mi/ Time; A Year of American Travel; etc.


Fremont, JOHN CHARLES, explorer; against 174 given for Buchanan. Return-
born in Savannah, Ga., Jan. 21, 1813; ing from Europe in May, 1861, and be-
graduated at Charleston College in 1830. ing appointed a major-general in the
His father was a Frenchman, and his United States army, he was assigned to
mother a Virginian. He was instruc- command the Western Department; but,
tor in mathematics in the United States
navy from 1833 to 1835. Engaged in
surveying the Cherokee country in the
winter of 1837-38, he began his famous
explorations, first in the country between
the Missouri River and the British pos
sessions. He had been appointed second
lieutenant of topographical engineers in
July. In 1841 he married a daughter of
Senator Thomas H. Benton, and in May,
1842, he began, under the authority of
the government, the exploration of an
overland route to the Pacific Ocean. He
ascended the highest peak of the Wind
River Mountains, which was afterwards
named Fremont s Peak. He explored
the Great Salt Lake region in 1843, and
penetrated to the Pacific near the mouth
of the Columbia River. In 1845 he ex
plored the Sierra Nevada in California,
and in 1846 became involved in hostilities

with the Mexicans on the Pacific coast, through the intrigues of ambitious poli-
He assisted in the conquest of California ; ticians, was removed from the com-
v/as appointed its military governor ; and, mand in the course of six months, while
after its admission as a State, became successfully prosecuting a campaign he
one of its first United States Senators, had planned. He was in command of an-
He continued his explorations after the other department, but resigned in 1862,
war. For his scientific researches, Fr6- declining to serve under an officer in-
mont received, in 1850, a gold medal from ferior to him in rank. Radical Repub-
the King of Prussia, and another from the licans nominated him for the Presidency
Royal Geographical Society of London, in 1864, after which he took leave of
He had already received from his country- political life; but he became active in
men the significant title of "The Path- promoting the construction of a trans-
finder." At his own expense he made a continental railway. He died in New
fifth exploration, in 1853, and found a York, July 13, 1890.
new route to the Pacific. In 1856, the In the spring of 1845 Captain Fremont


newly formed Republican party

was sent by his government to explore

nated him for the Presidency of the United the great basin and the maritime region
States, and he received 114 electoral votes of Oregon and California. He crossed the



Sierra Nevada, in the dead of winter, from on Feb. 8, 1847, assuming that office him-
Great Salt Lake into California, with self, he declared the annexation of Cali-
between sixty and seventy men, to obtain fornia to the United States. Fremont re-
supplies. Leaving them in the valley of fused to obey General Kearny, his
the San Joaquin, he went to Monterey, superior officer, who sent him to Wash-
then the capital of the province of Cali- ington under arrest, where he was tried
fornia, to obtain permission from the Mex- by a court-martial, which sentenced him
ican authorities to continue his explora- to be dismissed from the service, but
tions. It was given, but was almost recommended him to the clemency of the
immediately withdrawn, and he was per- President. The penalty was remitted,
emptorily ordered to leave the country and in October, 1848, Fremont entered
without delay. He refused, when General upon his fourth exploration among the far
de Castro, the Mexican governor, mus- western mountains. See KEARNY, STEPHEN
tered the forces of the province to expel WATTS; STOCKTON, EGBERT FIELD.
him. At length he was permitted to go Fremont was in Europe when the Civil
on with his explorations without hin- War broke out, and, leaving on receiving
derance. On May 9, 184G, he received de- notice of his appointment to the army,
spatches from his government, directing he returned home, bringing with him
him to watch the movements of the Mexi- arms for the government. He arrived
cans in California, who seemed disposed in Boston on June 27, and July 6 he was
to hand the province over to the British appointed to the command of the Western
government. It was also rumored that Department, just created. He arrived at
General de Castro intended to destroy all St. Louis July 26, where he made his
the American settlements on the Sacra- headquarters. He found disorder every-
mento .River. Fremont hurried back to where. The terms of enlistment of home
California, and found De Castro on the guards, or three-months men, were ex-
march against the settlements. The P ring, and they were unwilling to re-
settlers flew to arms, and joined Fre- enlist. He had very little money or arms
mont s camp, and, under his leadership, at his disposal, and was unable to send
these settlements were not only saved, but aid to General Lyon, in the southwestern
the Mexican authorities were driven out portion of the State, battling with the
of California. Fremont and his followers Confederates. He resolved to assume
met General de Castro and his forces, grave responsibilities. He applied to the
strong in numbers, when Fremont retired United States Treasurer at St. Louis for
about 30 miles, to a mountain position, a portion of $300,000 in his hands, but
where he called around him the American was refused. He was about to seize
settlers in that region. With these he $100,000 of it when the officer yielded;
captured a Mexican post at Sonoma Pass and, with the money, Fremont secured the
(June 15, 184G), with nine cannon and re-enlistment of many of the home guards.
250 muskets. De Castro was routed, and He strongly fortified St. Louis, and pre-
on July 5 the Americans in California pared to place the important post at
declared themselves independent, and Cairo in a position of absolute security,
elected Fremont governor of the province. With nearly 4,000 troops on steamers, he
He then proceeded to join the American proceeded to Cairo with such a display
naval forces at Monterey, under Commo- that the impression was general that he
dore Stockton, who had lately arrived, had 12,000. Although large bodies of
with authority from Washington to con- Confederate troops in Kentucky and Mis-
quer California. Fremont appeared there souri were gathered for the purpose of
with 160 mounted riflemen. On Aug. 17, seizing Cairo and Bird s Point, Fremont
1846, Stockton and Fremont took posses- was not molested in his mission, and
sion of the city of Los Angeles; and at Prentiss, at the former place, was amply
that place General Kearny, who had just strengthened. Pillow and Thompson and
taken possession of New Mexico, joined Hardee, who had advanced in that di-
Stockton and Fremont, Dec. 27, 1846. rection, fell back, and became very dis-
Kearny would not sanction the election of creet. Fremont returned to St. Louis on
Fr6mont as governor of California, and Aug. 4, having accomplished his wishes



and spread alarm among the Confederates. 5,000 troops immediately to Washington,
Polk, at Memphis, ordered Pillow to D. C., notwithstanding McClellan nunv
evacuate New Madrid, with his men and bered 75,000 within easy call of the
heavy guns, and hasten to Randolph and capital. Fremont s force, never exceeding
Fort Pillow, on the Tennessee shore. 56,000, was scattered over his department.
When news of the battle at Wilson s Chafing under unjust complaints, he pro-
Creek, and the death of Lyon, reached St. ceeded to put into execution his plan of
Louis, the Confederates were jubilant, ridding the Mississippi Valley of Confed-
Fremont immediately proclaimed martial crates. His plan contemplated the capt-
law, and appointed a provost-marshal, ure or dispersion of troops under General
Some of the most active Confederates were Price in Missouri, and the seizure of Lit-
arrested, and the publication of news- tie Rock, Ark. By so doing, he expected
papers charged with disloyalty was sus- to turn the position of Pillow and others
pended. But the condition of public af- in the vicinity of New Madrid, cut off the
fairs in Missouri was becoming more and supplies from the southwest, and compel
more alarming. The provisional govern- them to retreat, at which time a flotilla
ment was almost powerless. Fremont of gunboats, then building near St. Louis,
took all authority into his own hands, might descend the Mississippi, and assist
Confederates were arrested and impris- in military operations against the bat-
soned, and disloyalty of every kind felt teries at Memphis. In the event of this
the force of his power. He proclaimed movement being successful, he proposed
that the property, real and personal, of to push on towards the Gulf of Mexico
all persons in Missouri who should be with his army, and take possession of New
proven to have taken an active part with Orleans. More than 20,000 soldiers were
the enemies of the government in the set in motion (Sept. 27, 1861) southward
field should be confiscated to the public (o.OOO of them cavalry), under the re
use, and their slaves, if they had any, spective commands of Generals Hunter,
should thereafter be free men (see Pope, Sigel, McKinstry, and Asboth, ac-
EMANCIFATTOX PROCLAMATIONS). As he companied by eighty - six heavy guns.
acted promptly in accordance with his These were moving southward early in
proclamation, great consternation began October; and on the llth, when his army
to prevail. At that moment his hand was was 30,000 strong, he wrote to the gov-
stayed. Because of his avowed deter- ernment: "My plan is, New Orleans
mination to confiscate the property and straight; I would precipitate the war
free the slaves of the disloyalists, a foiward, a-nd end it soon victoriously."
storm of indignation suddenly arose in He was marching with confidence of suc-
the border slave States, which alarmed cess, and his troops were winning little
the national government, and the Presi- victories here and there, when, through
dent, wishing to placate the rebellious the influence of men jealous of him and
spirit of those States, requested Fremont his political enemies, Fremont s career
to modify his proclamation on these was suddenly checked. False accusers,
points. He declined to do so, when the public and private, caused General Scott
President, at Fremont s request, issued to send an order for him to turn over his
an order for such a modification. Fre- command to General Hunter, then some
mont could not, for it would imply that distance in the rear. Hunter arrived just
he thought the measure wrong, which he as the troops were about to attack Price,
did no t. He took the command, and countermanded
Fremont was censured for his failure Fremont s orders for battle; and nine
to reinforce Colonel Mulligan at Lexing- days afterwards Gen. H. W. Halleck was
ton. The public knew very little of his placed in command of the Department of
embarrassments at that time. Pressing Missouri. The disappointed and disheart-
demands came for reinforcements from ened army wore turned back, and marched
General Grant at Paducah. At various to St. Louis in sullen sadness. Soon af-
points in his department were heard cries terwards an elegant sword was presented
for help, and a peremptory order came to Fremont, inscribed, " To the Path-
from General Scott for him to forward finder, by the Men of the West."



Ascent of Fremont s Peak. In the Jour- of granite. Winding our way up a long
nal of his first expedition (1842), Fre- ravine, we came unexpectedly in view of a
mont gives a modest yet thrilling account most beautiful lake, set like a gem in the
of the ascent of the highest peak of the mountains. The sheet of water lay trans-
Rocky Mountains and of the planting of versely across the direction we had been
"Old Glory" on the extreme summit, pursuing; and, descending the steep, rocky
The altitude of this peak is given by Prof, ridge, where it was necessary to lead our
F. V. Hayden as 13,790 feet. The Journal horses, we followed its banks to the south-
reads as follows: era extremity. Here a view of the utmost

magnificence and grandeur burst upon our

August 10. The air at sunrise is clear eyes. With nothing between us and their
and pure, and the morning extremely cold, feet to lessen the effect of the whole height,
but beautiful. A lofty snow-peak of the a grand bed of snow-capped mountains
mountain is glittering in the first rays of rose before us, pile upon pile, glowing in
the sun, which has not yet reached us. the bright light of an August day. Imme-
The long mountain wall to the east, diately below them lay the lake, between
rising 2,000 feet abruptly from the two ridges, covered with dark pines, which
plain, behind which we see the peaks, is swept down from the main chain to the
still dark, and cuts clear against the glow- spot where we stood. Here, where the
ing sky. A fog, just risen from the river, lake glittered in the open sunlight, its
lies along the base of the mountain. A banks of yellow sand and the light foliage
little before sunrise, the thermometer was of aspen groves contrasted well with the
at 35, and at sunrise 33. Water froze gloomy pines. " Never before," said Mr.
last night, and fires are very comfortable. Preuss, in this country or in Europe,
The scenery becomes hourly more interest- "nave I seen such magnificent, grand
ing and grand, and the view here is truly rocks." I was so much pleased with the
magnificent; but, indeed, it needs some- beauty of the place that I determined to
thing to repay the long prairie journey make the main camp here, where our ani-
of 1,000 miles. Th e sun has just shot mals would find good pasturage, and ex-
above the wall, and makes a magical plore the mountains with a small party of
change. The whole valley is glowing and men. Proceeding a little i ? urther, we came
bright, and all the mountain-peaks are suddenly upon the outlet of the lake,
gleaming like silver. Though these snow- where it found its way through a narrow
mountains are not the Alps, they have passage between low hills. Dark pines,
their own character of grandeur and mag- which overhung the stream, and masses of
nificence, and will doubtless find pens and rock, where the water foamed along, gave
pencils to do them justice. In the scene it much romantic beauty. W 7 here we
before us, we feel how much wood im- crossed, which was immediately at the
proves a view. The pines on the moun- outlet, it is two hundred and fifty feet
tain seemed to give it much additional wide, and so deep that with difficulty we
beauty. I was agreeably disappointed in were able to ford it. Its bed was an ac-
the character of the streams on this side cumulation of rocks, boulders, and broad
the ridge. Instead of the creeks, which slabs, and large angular fragments, among
description had led me to expect, I find which the animals fell repeatedly,
bold, broad streams, with three or four The current was very swift, and the wa-
feet of water, and a rapid current. The ter cold and of a crystal purity. In cross-
fork on which we are encamped is up- ing this stream, I met with a great mis-
ward of 100 feet wide, timbered with fortune in having my barometer broken,
groves or thickets of the low willow. We It was the only one. A great part of
were now approaching the loftiest part the interest of the journey for me was in
of the Wind River chain; and I left the the exploration of these mountains, of
valley a few miles from our encampment, which so much had been said that was
intending to penetrate the mountains, as doubtful and contradictory; and now
far as possible, with the whole party. We their snowy peaks rose majestically be-
were soon involved in very broken ground, fore me, and the only means of giving
l,,ii<r rj<lMr,. K rmcvr.l with fniriiicMls ilicin n ill lu-ni ic;i 1 1 y in SCH-IIPO, 1lu-




Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 71 of 76)