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the American Republic. See FRANCE, RE

French Domain in America. On Oct.
7, 1703, the King of England (George

touched at any English possession.

ince stvled Grenada. East Florida was

French Depredations. On

Feb. 27, bounded on the north by the St. Mary s


River, the intervening region thence to
the Altamaha being annexed to Georgia.
The boundaries of west Florida were the
Apalachicola, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mis
sissippi, and lakes Pontchartrain and
Maurepas: and on the north by a line
due east from the mouth of the Yazoo
River, so as to include the French settle
ments near Natchez. The boundaries of
the province of Quebec were in accord
ance with the claims of New York and
Massachusetts, being a line from the
southern end of Lake Nepissing, striking
the St. Lawrence at lat. 45 N., and fol
lowing that parallel across the foot of
Lake Champlain to the head-waters of
the Connecticut River, and thence along
the highlands which form the water-shed
between the St. Lawrence and the sea.
Grenada was composed of the islands of
St. Vincent, Dominica, and Tobago. See

French Forts in America. The
French, for the security of the interior
territory of America, built a fort in the
Illinois country, in lat. 41 30 , as a check
upon the several tribes of the Sioux who
were not in alliance with them. They also
built a fort at the junction of the Illinois
and a large tributary, and five other forts
from the junction of the Missouri and

Mississippi rivers to Kaskaskia. The fort
at the latter place was regarded as of
great importance, because it was " the
pass and outlet of the convoys of Louisi
ana and of the traders and hunters of the
post at Detroit, and that of the greater
part of the savage nations." Another,
on the banks of the Ohio, opposite the
mouth of the Tennessee River, was consid
ered " the key of the colony of Louisiana,"
and would obstruct the designs of the Kng-
lish in alienating the Indians of the Ohio.
It would also, Vaudreuil thought, restrain
the incursions of the Cherokees on the
Wabash and Mississippi rivers, check the
Chickasaws, and by this means secure the
navigation of the Mississippi and a free
communication between Louisiana and
Canada. There were at that time about
sixty forts in Canada, most of which had
around them fine self-supporting settle
ments; and the establishments, posts, and
settlements in Louisiana at that time
(1756) employed about 2,000 soldiers.

French Mills. After the battle at
CHRYSLER S FIELD (q. v.) the American
army went into winter-quarters at French
Mills, on the Salmon River. The waters
of that stream were freezing, for it was
late in November (1813). General Brown
proceeded to make the troops as comfort-




able as possible. Huts were constructed, sympathized with the French people avow-
yet, as the winter came on very severe, edly struggling to obtain political free-
the soldiers suffered much; for many of dom ; and the influence of that sympathy
them had lost their blankets and extra was speedily seen in the rapid development
clothing in the disasters near Grenadier of the Republican party in the United
Island, at the beginning of their voyage States. The supposed advent of liberty
down the St. Lawrence, and in the battle in France had been hailed with enthu-
at Chrysler s Field. Until the huts were siasm in America, but common-sense and
built, even the sick had no shelter but a wise prudence caused many thinking
tents. Provisions
were scarce, and
the surrounding
country was a wil
derness. They were
in the midst of the
cold of a Canadian
winter, for they
were in lat. 45
N. In their dis
tress they were
tempted by Brit
ish emissaries, who
circulated placards
among the soldiers
containing the fol
lowing words :
American soldiers
who may wish to
quit the unnatural
war in which they
are at present en
gaged will receive
the arrears due

them by the American government, to the Americans to doubt the genuineness of
extent of five months pay, on their ar- French democracy. This tended to a
rival at the British outposts. No man more distinct defining of party lines be-
shall be required to serve against his own tween the Federalists and Republicans,
country." It is believed that not a single This enthusiasm was shown by public fes-
soldier of American birth \vas enticed away tivals in honor of the French revolution-
by this allurement. In February, 1814, ists. At a celebration in honor of the
the army began to move away from their temporary conquest of the Austrian
winter encampment. The flotilla was de- Netherland by Dumouriez (1702), held in
stroyed and the barracks burned. Brown, Boston, Jan. 24, 1703, a select party of
with a larger portion of the troops, march- 300 sat down to a feast in Faneuil Hall,
ed for Sackett s Harbor, and the remainder over which Samuel Adams, then lieu-
accompanied Wilkinson, the commander- tenant-governor of Massachusetts, pre-
in-chief, to Plattsburg. sided. Speeches, toasts, music all were

French Neutrals. See ACADIA. indicative of sympathy for the French

French Politics in America. The cause. The children of the Boston
progress of the French Revolution, de- schools were paraded in the streets, and
cisively begun at the meeting of the to each one was given a cake imprinted
States-General (May 5, 1780), was con- with the words "Liberty and Equality."
temporaneous with the organization of Similar celebrations were held in other
the American Republic under the new places; and the public feeling in favor of
Constitution. The Americans naturally the French was intensified by the arrival




of M. Genet as representative of the
French Republic. That was on April 9,
1793. He brought with him news of the
declaration of war against England. It
had reached New York five days before.
More fiercely than ever the two parties
were arrayed against each other ; and now
the Federalists were first called the
" British party," and the Republicans the
French party." So long as the French
Republic, so miscalled, lasted, the poli
tics of France exerted marked influence in
the United States. See GENET, EDMOND

French Privateers. On the arrival of
Citizen Genet at Charleston, S. C., he
fitted out privateers to depredate on Brit
ish commerce, issued commissions for their
commanders, and conferred authority
upon French consuls each to create him
self into an admiralty court to decide
upon the disposition of prizes brought
into port by French cruisers. Genet had
commissioned two, when the United States
government interfered. He persisted, in
defiance of the government, and very soon
quite a number were afloat namely,
Sans Culotte, Citizen Genet, Cincinnatus,
Vainqueur de la Bastille, L Embuscade,
Anti - George, Carmagnole, Roland, and
Concord. L Embuscade, the frigate that
brought Genet to America, and the Genet,
were both fitted out as privateers at
Charleston. The others went out of the
ports of Savannah, Boston, and Phila
delphia. These captured more than fifty
English vessels, quite a number of them
within American waters. After Genet
had been warned that the fitting-out of
privateers in American ports was a viola
tion of the law, he had the Little Sarah
(a vessel captured by one of the privateers
and sent to Philadelphia) made into a
letter-of -marque under the very eyes of
the government, and called the vessel The
Little Democrat. Governor Mifflin pre
pared to seize the vessel before it should
leave port, when Jefferson, tender towards
the French minister, waited on Genet in
person to persuade him not to send the
vessel to sea. Genet stormed, and declared
his crew would resist. He finally prom
ised that the vessel should only drop down
the river a little way. That little way "
was far out of the reach of militia or
other forces. Very soon afterwards, in

violation of his solemn assurance, Genet
ordered The Little Democrat to go to sea,
and others followed. In the last year of
John Adams s administration, and before
there was a final settlement of difficulties
with France, quite a large number of
French privateers yet at sea fell into the
hands of American cruisers. These, with
others previously taken, made the number
captured about fifty. There were also re
captures of numerous merchant vessels
which had been previously taken by the

French Refugees in America. The
colony of Huguenots planted in America
by Coligni disappeared, but the revoca
tion of the EDICT OF NANTES (q. v.) in
1685 caused another and larger emigration
to America. The refugees in England
had been kindly assisted there, and after
the accession of William and Mary Parlia
ment voted $75,000 to be distributed
" among persons of quality and all such
as, through age or infirmity, were unable
to support themselves." The King sent a
large body of them to Virginia, and lands
were allotted them on the James River;
others purchased lands of the proprie
taries of Carolina, and settled on the
Santee River; while others merchants
and artisans settled in Charleston.
These Huguenots were a valuable acquisi
tion to the colonies. In the South they
planted vineyards and made wine. A large
number of them settled in the province of
New York, chiefly in Westchester and
Ulster counties, and in the city of New

French Settlements in America.
Callieres, who succeeded Frontenac as gov
ernor of Canada in 1699, sent messages to
the Five Nations with the alternative of
peace or an exterminating war, against
which, it is alleged, the English could not
render them assistance. Their jealousy
had been excited against the latter by a
claim of Bellomont to build forts on their
territory, and they were induced to send a
deputation to a grand assembly at Mon
treal of all the Indian allies of the French.
There a treaty of friendship was con
cluded; and so the .French, who had been
restrained by the hostility of the Iroquois
Confederacy, secured a free passage tow
ards the Mississippi. Almost imme
diately 100 settlers, with a Jesuit leader,



were sent to take possession of the strait there was no changing the French position

between lakes Erie and St. Clair. They on the subject.

built a fort, and called the spot Detroit, The change in the government of France
the French name for a strait or sound. It by the Revolution of 1830 was a favorable
soon became the favorite settlement of time for Mr. Rives, the American minister
western Canada. Villages of French set- to France, to again propose a settlement,
tiers soon grew up around the Jesuit The French, as before stated, had set up a
missionary stations at Kaskaskia and counter-claim of the non-fulfilment of the
Cahokia, on the eastern bank of the treaty of 1778; but the American govern-
Mississippi, between the mouths of the ment argued that subsequent events had
Illinois and Ohio. These movements oc- exonerated the United States from all de-
casioned no little alarm to the English mands under that treaty. Mr. Rives sue-
in New York and New England. ceeded in negotiating a treaty by which
French Spoliation Claims. For more the long-pending controversy was closed,
than a century what are known as the By it the French government agreed to
French spoliation claims have been vainly pay to the United States, in complete sat-
urged on the attention of Congress. These isfaction of all claims of American citizens
claims originated as follows: In the year for spoliations, nearly $5,000,000, in six
1778, France and the United States en- annual instalments, $300,000 to be allowed
tered upon a treaty of " commerce and by the American government to France for
amity," by which each government pledged French citizens for ancient supplies, ac-
itself to exempt from search or seizure all counts, or other claims. The United
vessels belonging to the other, even though States Senate ratified the treaty, but the
such vessels were carrying the goods of its French Chamber of Deputies refused to
enemies ; that is, each agreed to permit its make the appropriation lo carry it out,
commercial ally to carry on trade with an *nd an unpleasant dispute arose between
enemy, unless such trade dealt in goods the two governments. The matter was
that were known as contraband of war. finally settled, as between the two govern-
At that time these two countries were al- ments, on the basis of the treaty in 1836.
lied in war against Great Britain, but Those American merchants, however,
when, some time after tha close of the who had claims against the French gov-
Revolutionary War, France was again in- eminent, objected to yielding up these
volved in hostilities with that country, claims to settle a debt of the government,
the United States refused to join her and and accordingly petitioned Congress to
proclaimed strict neutrality. France now indemnify their losses. They argued,
found her American trade interfered with and justly, that France had admitted the
by Great Britain, while she was bound by fairness of these claims in yielding her
treaty not to interfere with Great Brit- own claims to satisfy them, and that the
ain s trade wiih the United States. Con- United States, in accepting this relin-
sidering this injustice, she broke her quishment, received a consideration fully
treaty with this country, and confiscated worth the sum of the private claims,
the cargoes of American vessels trading and thus bound herself in honor to pay
with Great Britain. This country was in them. However, this petition failed of
no mood or condition then to go to war its effect, and though repeated again and
with France, so the government overlooked again, the claimants have not yet suc-
these hostile acts, and, in 1797, and again ceeded in securing the settlement of the
in 1799, made overtures for a peaceful set- claims. Committees of both Houses, it is
tlement. The claims of these American true, have several times reported in favor
vessel-owners and merchants who had been of the claims, and an act appropriating
despoiled of their property were presented money for them has twice passed Con-
by our commissioners, but the French gov- gress. This was vetoed the first time by
ernment refused to take any account of President Polk, and the second time by
them unless we would allow a counter- President Pierce, and, but for the lack of
claim against the United States for a one vote in the Senate, the first of these
breach of the treaty of alliance. Much would have passed over the President s
diplomatic fencing was resorted to, but veto. Many of our greatest statemen



Daniel Webster, Thomas Benton, Silas and, with few exceptions, their children
Wright, and others have championed the are also dead, but grandchildren and
cause of these claims in Congress with great-grandchildren may at least reap the
much eloquence. In 1883 a bill passed benefit of tardy justice,
the Senate authorizing the court of claims Frenchtown, MASSACRE AT. In the
to investigate these long-standing cases middle of December, 1812, General Harri-
and report upon them. This bill passed son wrote the War Department that, if
the House in January, 1885, and was ap- no political or other necessity existed
proved by the President. The original for the recovery of Michigan and the in-
claimants have long since passed away, vasion of Canada, the enormous expense

of transportation, and
the sufferings of men
and beasts in the task,
pleaded for a remission
of efforts to attain that
recovery until spring.
He was directed to use
his own judgment in the
matter, and was as
sured that immediate
measures would be taken
for recovering the con
trol of Lake Erie to the
Americans. He was in
structed, in case he
should penetrate Canada,
not to offer the inhabi
tants anything but pro
tection ; and, secondly,
not to make temporary
acquisitions, but to pro
ceed so surely that he
might hold fast any ter
ritory he should acquire.
Other troops having ar
rived, Harrison resolved
to attempt the capture
of Fort Maiden. His
whole effective force did
not exceed 0,300 men.
He designated the bri
gades from Pennsylvania
and Virginia, and one
from Ohio, under Gen.
Simon Perkins, as the
right wing of the army;
and the Kentuckians,
under Gen. James Wil
kinson, as the left wing.
So arranged, the army
pressed forward towards
the rapids of the Man-
mee, the designated gen
eral rendezvous. Win
chester, with 800 young
Kentuckians, reached


there on -Ian. 10, JSl. J, and established ately succeeded in a shower upon the

a fortified camp, when he learned that camp. The Americans, seizing their arms,

a party of British and Indians were tried to defend themselves. Very soon

occupying Frcnchtown, on the Raisin the soldiers fled to the woods, when


River (now Monroe, Mich.), 20 miles the savages, who swarmed there, smote
south of Detroit. He sent a detachment, them fearfully, with gleaming hatchets,
under Colonels Allen and Lewis, to pro- The British and their dusky allies made
tect the inhabitants in that region, it a war of extermination. Winchester
who drove the enemy out of the hamlet was captured, and he concluded an ar-
of about thirty families, and held it rangement with Proctor to surrender his
until the arrival of Winchester, on the troops on condition that ample provision
20th, with about 300 men. General Proc- should be made for their protection
tor was then at Fort Maiden, 18 miles against the Indians. The promise was
distant, with a considerable body of Brit- given and immediately violated,
ish and Indians. With 1,500 of these he Proctor, knowing Harrison (who had
crossed the Detroit River, and marched advanced to the Maumee) to be near, hast-
stealthily at night to destroy the Ameri- ened towards Maiden with his captives,
cans. Winchester was informed late in leaving the sick and wounded prisoners
the evening of the 21st that a foe was ap- behind. The Indians followed awhile,
preaching. He did not believe it, and at when they turned back, murdered and
midnight was in perfect repose. The scalped those who were unable to travel as
sentinels were posted, but, the weather captives, set fire to the houses, and took
being intensely cold, pickets were sent out many prisoners to Detroit to procure ex-
upon roads leading to the town. Just oibitant prices for their ransom. Proc-
as the drummer-boy was beating the tor s indifference to this outrage, and the
reveille, in the gray twilight of the 22d, dreadful suspicion, which his character
the sharp crack of a -rifle, followed by the warranted, that he encouraged the butch-
rattle of musketry, awoke the sleepers, ery of the defenceless people, was keenly
Bomb-shells and canister-shot immedi- felt all through the West, particularly in



Kentucky, for most of the victims were 1865. His poetry was highly commended

of the flower of society in that State; and by Scotch and English literary critics,

for a long time afterwards the most in- He died near Freehold, N. J., Dec. 18,

spiriting war-cry of the Kentucky soldiers 1832.

was, "Remember the River Raisin!" Friendly Association. In the middle

French West Indies, THE. Canada of the eighteenth century the descendants
conquered, the British turned their arms of William Penn, who succeeded to the
against the French West India Islands, in proprietorship of Pennsylvania, departed
which the colonies participated. Gaude- from the just course pursued by the great
loupe had already been taken. General founder of the commonwealth towards the
Monckton, after submitting his commis- Indians and the white people, and exas-
sion as governor to the council of New perated both by their greed and covetous-
York, sailed from that port (January, ness. The Indians were made thoroughly
1762), with two line-of-battle ships, 100 discontented by the frauds practised on
transports, and 1,200 regulars and colo- them in the purchase of lands and the
nial troops. Major Gates (afterwards depredations of banditti called traders,
adjutant-general of the Continental army) So much had they become alienated from
went with Monckton as aide-de-camp, and the English that in 1755 the Delawares
carried to England the news of the capture and others joined the French in making
of Martinique. Richard Montgomery (af- war. For some time the Friends, or
terwards a- general in the Continental Quakers, had observed with sorrow the
army) held the rank of captain in this ex- treatment of the Indians by Thomas and
pedition. The colonial troops were led by John Penn and the traders, and, impelled
Gen. Phineas Lyman. Grenada, St. Lucia, by their uniform sympathy with the op-
and St. Vincent s indeed, every island pressed, they formed a society in 1756
in the Caribbean group possessed by the called the Friendly Association for Re-
French fell into the hands of the Eng- gaining and Preserving Peace with the
lish. The French fleet was ruined, and Indians by Pacific Measures. The so-
French merchantmen were driven from ciety was a continual thorn in the sides
the seas. British vessels, including those of the proprietors and Indian traders, for
of New York and New England, now ob- the active members of the association
tnined the carrying-trade of those islands; watched the interests of the red men with
also, under safe conducts and flags of keen vigilance, attended every treaty, and
truce, that of Santo Domingo. prevented a vast amount of fraud and

Freneau, PHILIP, " the Poet of the cheating in the dealings of the white

Revolution;" born in New York City, Jan. people with the natives. Charles Thom-

2, 1752; graduated at the College of son, afterwards secretary of the Conti-

New Jersey in 1771. He was of Hugue- nental Congress, was a very efficient

not descent, and evinced a talent for rhym- co-worker with them, making truthful

ing as early as the age of seventeen years, reports of the proceedings at treaties, and

when he wrote a poetical History of the preventing false or garbled statements.

Prophet Jonah. He was in the West Ind- The Friendly Association continued until

ies during a part of the Revolutionary 1764.

War, and while on a voyage in 1780 was Friends, SOCIETY OF, otherwise known

captured by a British cruiser. After his as Quakers, claim as their founder GEORGE

release he wrote many patriotic songs, Fox (q. v.) , an Englishman; born in

and was engaged in editorial duties, no- Drayton, Leicestershire, in 1624. The

tably on the Democratic National Gazette, first general meeting of Friends was held

of Philadelphia, the organ of Jefferson in 1668, and the second in 1672. Owing

and his party. He continued to edit and to the severe persecution which they suf-

publish newspapers. His productions con- fered in England, a number of them came

tributed largely to animate his country- to America in 1656, and landed at Boston,

men while struggling for independence, whence they were later scattered by per-

An edition of his Revolutionary Poems, secution. The first annual meeting in

icith a Memoir and Notes, by Evert A. America is said to have been held in

Duyckinck, was published in New York in Rhode Island in 1661. It was separated



from the London annual meeting in 1(583. Me. Annual meetings were founded in

This meeting was held regularly at New- Maryland in 1(572, in Pennsylvania and

port till 1878, since when it has al- New Jersey in 1(581, in North Carolina

ternated between Newport and Portland, in 1708, and in Ohio in 1812. The

in. 2 H


Friends have no creed, and no sacraments.
They claim that a spiritual baptism and
a spiritual communion without outward
signs are all that are necessary for men.
They believe in the Old and New Testa
ments as the Word of God, and, therefore,
accept the atonement and sanctification.
Belief in the " immediate influence of the
Holy Spirit " is said to be the most promi
nent feature of their faith. They have
monthly meetings, embracing a number of
local meetings. They also have quarterly
meetings, to which they send delegates,
and these latter may deal with cases of
discipline and accept or dissolve local or
monthly meetings. The highest body,
however, is the yearly meeting, to which
all other meetings are subordinate. The
Friends in the United States are divided

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 74 of 76)