Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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into four bodies, known as the Orthodox,
Hicksite, Wilburite, and Primitive. The
first mentioned greatly exceeds the others
in strength. In 1900 they reported 1,279
ministers, 820 meeting-houses, and 91,868
members. The last reports of the other
branches showed: Hicksites, 115 minis
ters, 201 meeting-houses, and 21,992 mem
bers; Wilburites, 38 ministers, 52 meet
ing-houses, and 4,329 members; and
Primitives, 11 ministers, 9 meeting-houses,
and 232 members. See QUAKERS.

Fries, JOHN, rioter; born in Bucks
county, Pa., in 1704. During the window-
tax riots in Northampton, Bucks, and
Montgomery counties, Pa., in 1798-99,
Fries headed the rioters, liberated several
prisoners whom the sheriff had arrested,
and in turn arrested the assessors. Fries
was arrested and tried on the charge of
high treason, pronounced guilty, and sen
tenced to be hanged in April, 1800. Presi
dent Adams issued a general amnesty
which covered all the offenders.

Frobisher, MARTIN, navigator; born
in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, about
153G; was a mariner by profession, and
yearned for an opportunity to go in search
of a northwest passage to India. For
fifteen years he tried in vain to get pecun
iary aid to fit out ships. At length the
Earl of Warwick and others privately
fitted out two small barks of 25 tons each
and a pinnace, with the approval of Queen
Elizabeth, and with these he sailed from
Deptford in June, 1576, declaring that he
would succeed or never come back alive.

As the flotilla passed the palace at Green
wich, the Queen, sitting at an open
window, waved her hand towards the com
mander in token of good-will and farewell.
Touching at Greenland, Frobisher crossed
over and coasted up the shores of Labra
dor to latitude 63, where he entered
what he supposed to be a strait, but which
was really a bay, which yet bears the
name of Frobisher s Inlet. He landed,
and promptly took possession of the
country around in the name of his Queen.
Trying to sail farther northward, he was
barred by pack-ice, when he turned and
sailed for England, bearing a heavy black
stone which he believed contained metal.
He gave the stone to a man whose wife,
in a passion, cast it into the fire. The
husband snatched the glowing mineral
from the flames and quenched it in some
vinegar, when it glittered like gold. On
fusing it, some particles of the precious
metal were found. When this fact became
known a gold fever was produced. Money


was freely offered for fitting-out vessels
to go for more of the mineral. The Queen
placed a ship of the royal navy at Fro
bisher s disposal, and he sailed, with two
other vessels of 30 tons each, from Har
wich in 1577. instructed to search for
gold, and not for the northwest passage.
The vessels were laden with the black ore
on the shores of Frobisher s Inlet, and on
the return of the expedition to England a
commission was appointed to determine
the value of the discovery.

Very little gold was found in the car-



goes, yet faith was not exhausted, and by Frontenac in 1673 at the foot of Lake
Frobisher sailed in May, 1578, with fifteen Ontario, at the present Kingston. After
ships in search of the precious metal, the repulse of the English at Ticonderoga
Storms dispersed the ileet. Some turned (July 8, 1758), Col. John Bradstreet
back, two of them went to the bottom of urged Abercrombie to send an expedition
the sea, and three or four of them re- against this fort. He detached 3,000 men
turned laden with the worthless stones, for the purpose, and gave Colonel Brad-
Frobisher had won the honor of a discov- street command of the expedition. He
erer, and as the first European who pene- went by the way of Oswogo, and crossed
trated towards the Arctic Circle to the 63d the lake in bateaux, having with him 300
degree. For these exploits, and for ser- bateau-men. His troops were chiefly pro-
vices in fighting the Spanish Armada, he vincials, and were furnished with eight
was knighted by Elizabeth, and in 1590-92 pieces of cannon and two mortars. They
he commanded a squadron sent against the landed within a mile of the fort on the
Spaniards. In 1594 he was sent with two evening of Aug. 25, constructed batteries,
ships to help Henry IV. of France, and in and opened them upon the fort at short
a battle at Brest (Nov. 7) he was mor- range two days afterwards Finding the
tally wounded. works untenable, the garrison surrendered

Froebel, JULIUS, author; born in (Aug. 27) without much resistance. The
Griesheim, Germany, July 16, 1805; edu- Indians having previously deserted, there
cated in his native country. He came were only 110 prisoners. The spoils were
to the United States in middle life and sixty cannon, sixteen mortars, a large
was nalurali/ed : lectured in New York, quantity of small arms, provisions and
and in 1850 went to Nicaragua, Chihuahua, military stores, and nine armed vessels,
and Santa F6 as a correspondent of the On his return, Bradstreet assisted in
New York Tribune. In 1857 he returned building Fort Stanwix, in the Mohawk
to Germany. He was the author of Seven Valley, on the site of Rome, Oneida
Years Travel in Central America, North- county.

cm Mexico, and tJic Far West of the Frontenac, Louis DE BUADE, COUNT DE,
United States; TJie Ifcpublican, etc. He colonial governor ; born in France in 1620;
died in Zurich, Nov. 6, 1893. was made a colonel at seventeen years of

Frontenac, FORT, a fortification built age, and was an eminent lieutenant-gen-



eral at twenty-nine, covered with decora- tie in which he was severely wounded,
tions and scars. Selected by Marshal when 700 of his men, with a section of
Turenne to lead troops sent for the relief rifled 10-poimders and his whole supply
of Canada, he was made governor of that train, fell into the hands of the Con-
province in 1672, and built Fort Frontenac federates.

( now Kingston ) , at the foot of Lake On- Frost, CHARLES, pioneer ; born in Tiver-
tario, in 1673. He was recalled in 1682, ton, England, in 1632; came with his
but was reappointed in 1689, when the father to America, who settled on the Pis-
French dominions in America were on the cataqua River in 1636. Frost was a mem-
brink of ruin. With great energy he car- ber of the general court from 1658 to
ried on war against the English in New 1659, and a councillor from 1693 to 1697.
York and New England, and their allies, He was accused by the Indians of having
the Iroquois. Early in 1096 an expedition seized some of their race for the purpose
which he sent towards Albany desolated of enslavement and was killed in 1697.
Schenectady; and the same year he sue- Frost, JOHN, author; born in Kenne-
cessfully resisted a land and naval force bunk, Me., Jan. 26, 1800; graduated at
sent against Canada. He was in Montreal Harvard in 1822; was the author of
when an Indian runner told him of the ap- History of the World; Pictorial History
proach to the St. Lawrence of Colonel of the United States; Book of the Army;
Schuyler (see KING WILLIAM S WAR). Book of the Navy, etc. He died in Phila-
Frontenac, then seventy years of age, delphia, Pa., Dec. 28, 1859.
called out his Indian allies, and, taking a Frost, JOHN, soldier; born in Kittery,
tomahawk in his hand, he danced the war- Me., May 5, 1738; was a captain of colonial
dance, and chanted the war-song in their troops in the Canadian campaign of 1759,
presence and then led them successfully and lieutenant - colonel at the siege of
against the foe. He afterwards repulsed Boston in 1775. In 1776 he was promoted
Phipps at Quebec, having been informed to colonel and served under General Gates
of his expedition by an Indian runner until Burgoyne s surrender, when he was
from Pemaquid. So important was that ordered to Washington s army and par-
repulse considered that King Louis caused ticipated in the battle of Monmouth and
a medal to be struck with the legend, other engagements. After the close of
" France victorious in the New World. * the war he was appointed judge of the
This success was followed by an expedi- court of sessions for York county, Me.
lion sent by Frontenac against the Mo- He died in Kittery, Me., in July, 1810.
hawks in 1696; and he led forces in per- Frothingham, RICHARD, historian;
son against the Onondagas the same year, born in Charlestown, Mass., Jan. 31, 1812;
Frontenac was the terror of the Iroquois, was proprietor of the Boston Post, and
for his courage and activity were wonder- was several times elected to the legis-
ful. He restored the fallen fortunes of lature; mayor of Charlestown in 1851-53.
France in America, and died soon after- Among his publications are History of
wards, in Quebec, Nov. 28, 1698. Charlestown; History of the Siege of Bos-
Front Royal, BATTLE AT. On May 23, ton; The Command in the Battle of Bun-
1862, General Ewell fell with crushing Jeer Hill; Life of Joseph Warren; Rise of
force, almost without warning, upon the the Republic, etc. He died in Charles-
little garrison of 1,000 men, under Colo- town, Mass., Jan. 29, 1880.
nel Kenly, at Front Royal. Kenly was Fry, JAMES BARNET, military officer;
charged with the protection of the roads born in Carrollton, Green co., 111., Feb.
and bridges between Front Royal and 22, 1827; graduated at the United States
Strasburg. His troops were chiefly New Military Academy in 1847. After serv-
Yorkers and Pennsylvanians. Kenly made ing as assistant instructor of artillery
a gallant defence, but was driven from the at West Point, he was assigned to the 3d
town. He made another stand, but was Artillery, then in Mexico, where he re-
pushed across the Slienandoah. He at- mained till the close of the war. After
tempted to burn the bridge behind him, doing frontier duty at various posts, he
but failed, when Swell s cavalry in pur- was again instructor at West Point in
suit overtook him. Kenly again gave bat- 1853-54, and adjutant there in 1854-59.



On March 16, 1861, he was appointed as
sistant adjutant-general, and later in the
same year became chief of staff to Gen.
Irwin McDowell. In 1861-62 he was on
the staff of Gen. Don Carlos Buell. He
was appointed provost-marshal-general of
the United States, March 17, 1863, and
was given the rank of brigadier-general,
April 21, 1864. General Fry registered
1,120,621 recruits, arrested 76,562 de
serters, collected $26,366,316, and made an
exact enrolment of the National forces.
He was brevetted major-general in the
regular army, March 13, 1865, for " faith
ful, meritorious, and distinguished ser
vices." After the war he served as ad
jutant-general, with the rank of colonel,
of the divisions of the Pacific, the South,
the Missouri, and the Atlantic, till 1881,
when he was retired from active service
at his own request. He was the author
of Final Report of the Operations of the
Bureau of the Provost- Marshal-General in
1863-66; Sketch of the Adjutant-General s
Department of the United States Army
from 1775 to 1875; History and Legal
Effects of Brevets in the Armies of Great
Britain and the United States, from their
origin in 1692 to the Present Time; Army
Sacrifices; McDowell and Tyler in the
Campaign of Bull Run; Operations of the
Army under Buell; and New York and
Conscription. He died in Newport, R. I.,
July 11, 1894.

Fry, JOSEPH, military officer; born in
Andover, Mass., in April, 1711; was an en
sign in the army that captured Louisburg
in 1745, and a colonel in the British army
at the capture of Fort William Henry by
Montcalm in 1757. He escaped and
reached Fort Edward. In 1775 Congress
appointed him brigadier-general, but in
the spring of 1776 he resigned on account
cf infirmity. He died in Fryeburg, Me.,
in 1794.

Fry, JOSEPH, naval officer ; born in
Louisiana, about 1828: joined the navy in
1841 ; was promoted lieutenant in Septem
ber, 1855; resigned when Louisiana se
ceded ; was unable to secure a command in
the Confederate navy, but was commis
sioned an officer in the army. In 1873
he became captain of the Virginius, known
as a Cuban war steamer. His ship was
captured by a Spanish war vessel, and he,
with many of hi* crew, was shot as a

pirate in Santiago de Cuba, Nov. 7, 1873.

Fry, JOSHUA, military officer; born in
Somersetshire, England; educated at Ox
ford, and was professor of mathematics
in the College of William and Mary, in
Virginia. He served in public civil life
in Virginia, and in 1754 was intrusted
with the command of an expedition
against the French on the head-waters of
the Ohio. He died at a place at the
mouth of Will s Creek (now Cumberland),
Md., while conducting the expedition,
May 31, 1754. He had been colonel
of the militia (1750) and a member of the
governor s council. When Frye died, the
command of the expedition to the Ohio
was assumed by George Washington, who
had been second in command.

Frye, JAMES, military officer; born in
Andover, Mass., in 1709; served in several
local offices, and in the army at the capt
ure of Louisburg in 1755. At the opening
of the Revolution he commanded the Essex
Regiment (Massachusetts), taking an ac
tive part in the battle of Bunker Hill.
He afterwards commanded a brigade of
the army investing Boston. He died Jan.
8, 1776.

Frye, \VILLIAM PIERCE, lawyer; born


in Lewiston, Me., Sept. 12, 1831 ; gradu
ated at Bowdoin College in 1850; and
became a lawyer. He served as a mem-



ber of the Maine legislature in 1861- magistrate, on being satisfied that the

62 and in 1867; was mayor of Lewiston charges against the fugitive were true,

in 1866-67 ; attorney-general of Maine in should give a certificate to that effect,

1867-61); Representative in Congress in which was a sufficient warrant for re-

1871-81 ; and was elected to the United manding the person seized back to sla-

States Senate in 1881, 1883, 1888, 1895, very. Any person in any way obstructing

and 1900. For a number of years he was such seizure or removal, or harboring or

chairman of the Senate committee on concealing such fugitive, was liable to a

commerce. In 1898 he was appointed one penalty of $500. For some time the law

of the commissioners to negotiate a> treaty attracted very little attention, but finally

with Spain, under the terms of the pro- this summary violation of the right of

tocol, and afterwards ably defended the personal liberty without a trial by jury,

treaty in committee and on the floor of or any appeal on points of law, was de-

the Senate. In recognition of his ser- nounced as dangerous and unconstitu-

vices in behalf of peace the legislature of tional; and most of the free-labor States

Maine set apart a day for him to become passed acts forbidding their magistrates,

a guest of the State. under severe penalties, to take any part

Fryer, JOHN, Orientalist; born in in carrying this law into effect. It be-
Hythe, England, Aug. 6, 1839; grad- came a dead letter until revived in 1850.
uated at Highbury College in I860; Pro- The domestic slave-trade increased the
fessor in Alfred University, Hong-Kong, liability of free persons of color being
in 1861 ; Professor of English Literature kidnapped, under the provisions of the
in T ung- Wen College, Peking, in 1863-65; fugitive slave act of 1793. A petition
for many years connected with the Chi- was presented to Congress in 1818 from
nese government in an official capacity the yearly meeting of Friends at Balti-
for the purpose of translating modern more, praying for further provisions for
scientific books into Chinese. Professor protecting free persons of color. This had
Fryer has published a large number of followed a bill brought in by a committee
books, essays, and reports in the Chinese at the instigation of Pindall, a member
language, and was appointed Professor of from Virginia, for giving new stringency
Oriental Languages and Literature in the to the fugitive slave act. While this
University of California in 1896. In 1902 bill was pending, a member from Rhode
the Chinese government appointed him Island (Burritt) moved to instruct the
president of the Wuchang University. He committee on the Quaker memorial to in-
published a full account of the Buddhist quire into the expediency of additional pro-
missions in America, under the title The visions for the suppression of the foreign
Buddhist Discovery of America 1,000 slave-trade. PindalPs bill was warmly
Years before Columbus. See Hui SITEN. opposed by members from the free-labor

Fteley, ALPIIONSE, engineer; born in States as going entirely beyond the con-
France in 1837; came to the United States stitutional provision on the subject of
in 1865; was appointed chief engineer fugitives from labor. They contended that
of the Aqueduct Commission of New York the personal rights of one class of citizens
in 1888. He was identified with the con- were not to be trampled upon to secure
struction of many engineering projects, the rights of property of other citizens,
including the Croton Aqueduct, the tunnel The bill was supported by the Southern
under the East River, New York, etc. He members and a few Northern ones; also
died in Yonkers, June 11, 1903. by Speaker Henry Clay; and it passed

Fugitive Slave Laws. In 1793 an act the House of Representatives by a vote
was passed by Congress for the rendition of 84 to 69. Among the yeas were ten
of fugitive slaves. It provided that the from New York, five from Massachusetts,
owner of the slave, or " servant," as it was four from Pennsylvania, and one from
termed in the act, his agent or attorney, New Jersey. It passed the Senate, after
might seize the fugitive and carry him several important amendments, by a vote
before any United States judge, or before of 17 to 13. Meanwhile some of its North-
any magistrate of the city, town, or coun- ern supporters seem to have been alarmed
ty in which the arrest was made; such by thunders of indignation from their con-



stituents, and when it reached the House of the right to defence allowed to the
it was laid on the table, and was there al- vilest criminal, be carried away into
lowed to die. hopeless slavery, beyond the reach of pity,

One of the acts contemplated by Mr. mercy, or law. This perception of pos-
Clay s "OMNIBUS BILL" (q. v.) was for sible wrong that would follow the execu-
thc rendition of fugitive slaves to their tion of the fugitive slave law caused
owners, under the provision of clause 3, several free-labor States to pass laws for
section 2, article 4, of the national Con- protecting their colored population. See
stitution. In September, 1850, a bill to PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS; SLAVERY.
that effect was passed, and became a Fuller, MELVILLE WESTON, jurist; born
law by the signature of President Fill- in Augusta, Me., Feb. 11, 1833; grad-
more. The bill was drawn up by Senator uated at Bowdoin College, in 1853; be-
James M. Mason, of Virginia, and in came a lawyer in his native city; and
some of its features was made very offen- soon afterwards removed to Chicago,
sive to the sentiments and feelings of the
people of the free-labor States. It pro
vided that the master of a fugitive slave,
or his agent, might go into any State or
Territory of the republic, and, with or
without legal warrant there obtained,
seize such fugitive, and take him forth
with before any judge or commissioner,
whose duty it should be to hear and de
termine the case. On satisfactory proof IWMIW8Ss2RMK8Bia&^^ (/ . r^T* .
being furnished the judge or commis
sioner, such as the affidavit, in writing,
or other acceptable testimony, by the
pursuing owner or agent, that the ar
rested person " owes labor " to the party
that arrested him, or his principal, it was
made the duty of such judge or commis
sioner to use the power of his office to
assist the claimant to take the fugitive
back into bondage. It was further pro- MELVILIE WESTOX FUILER
vided that in no hearing or trial under the

act should the testimony of such alleged where he built up an important practice,
fugitive be admitted in evidence; and He was a member of the legislature, and a
that the parties claiming the fugitive delegate to several Democratic national
should not be molested in their work of conventions. In 1888 he was appointed
carrying the person back " by any process by President Cleveland chief - justice of
issued by any court, judge, or magistrate, the Supreme Court of the United States,
or any person whomsoever " ; and any citi- Fuller, SARAH MARGARET, MARCHIONESS
zen might be compelled to assist in the D OSSOLI, author; born in Cambridge,
capture and rendition of a slave. This Mass., May 23, 1810; at the age of seven-
last clause of the act was so offensive to teen read French, Italian, Spanish, and
every sentiment of humanity and justice, German fluently; became a teacher in Bos-
so repugnant to the feelings of the people ton in 1835; and, two years later, in Provi-
of the free-labor States, and so contrary dence, R. I. She formed classes for young
to the Anglo-Saxon principle of fair-play, ladies in Boston for training in conversa-
that, while the habitual respect for law tion, and the next year (1840) became
\>y the, American people caused a general editor of the Dial, the organ of the
acquiescence in the requirements of the TRANSCENDENTALISTS (q. v.) , to which she
fugitive slave law, there was rebellion contributed articles on the social condi-
against it in every Christian heart. It tion of women. In 1844 she became
was seen that free negroes might, by literary editor of the New York Tribune.
the perjury of kidnappers and the denial Miss Fuller travelled in Europe, and,




visiting Italy in 1847, she married tho Little Britain, Lancaster co., Pa., in 1765;
Marquis d Ossoli. In 1850, returning to received a common-school education ; be-
her native country with her husband and came a miniature painter; and, at the
child, the vessel was wrecked on the age of twenty, was practising that pro-
southern coast of Long Island, and all fession in Philadelphia, by which he made
three were drowned, July 16, 1850. Her
writings are held in the highest esti
mation, and have made a deep impres
sion upon features of social life in

Fulton, JUSTIN DEWEY, clergyman;
born in Earlville, N. Y., March 1, 1828;
graduated at the University of Roches
ter in 1851, and then studied at the
theological seminary there. In 1863-
73 he was pastor of Tremont Temple, Bos
ton; in 1873-75 of the Hanson Place Bap
tist Church, in Brooklyn; later he founded
the Centennial Baptist Church in Brook- enough money to buy a small farm in
lyn, and was its pastor for several years. Washington county, on which he placed
He then gave up church work and de- his mother. Then he went to England;
voted himself to writing and speaking studied painting under Benjamin West;
against the Roman Catholic Church. His became a civil engineer; and made him-
publications include The Roman Catholic self familiar with the steam engine, then
Element in American History ; Woman as just improved by Watt. He devised vari-
God made Her; Show Your Colors; Rome ous machines, among them an excavator
in America; Charles H. Spurgcon our for scooping out the channels of aque-
Ally, etc. He died in Somerville, Mass., ducts. He wrote and published essays on
April 16, 1901. canals and canal navigation in 1795-96.

Fulton, ROBERT, inventor; born in He went to Paris in 1797, and remained

there seven years with Joel Barlow,
studying languages and sciences, and
invented a torpedo. This he offered
to the French and English govern
ments, but both rejected the inven
tion, and in December, 1806, he ar
rived in New York. He went to
Washington, where the models and
drawings of his torpedo made a fa
vorable impression. In 1807 he per
fected his steamboat for navigating
the Hudson, having been aided by
Robert R. Livingston, with whom
he had been acquainted in Paris.
Livingston had made experiments in
steamboating as early as 1798, when
he was granted the exclusive privi
lege of navigating the waters of the
State by steam. Fulton was finally
included in the provisions of the act,
and in September, 1807, the Cler-
mont, the first steamboat that navi
gated the Hudson, made a successful
voyage from New York to Albany and
back. She travelled at the rate of 5
miles an hour. See LIVINGSTON, R. R.


At this time, Fulton regarded his tor- an aristocratic government, in feudal
pedo as the greater and more beneficial form, employed the Karl of Shaftesbury
invention, as he believed it would estab- and John Locke to frame one. They

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