Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) online

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After his return to his native land, he
entered into the politics of his little island,
anxious to defend its constitution, laws, and
privileges; and in 1842 he was elected almost
unanimously to the office of Justice (or Jurat)
of the Royal Court, the Curia Reginffi of the
island, wherein he still sits with his colleagues
to administer justice, and to discharge the
other manifold duties of that unpaid tribunal,
on the principles of a constitution of 800 years 1
standing.

The De Havillands are an old family from
ancient Neustria, which, in the ninth cen-
tury, was settled near Cereport, now Bar-
fleur, where, according to Robert Wace,
the poet, the Northmen, before the era of
Rollo the Brave, in ravaging that coast,
destroyed, among other castles, that of
Abilant. The family then, retiring to the
interior, settled at their fief, in the neighbour-
hood of Valogeres, until the loss of Nor-
mandy by King John : which fief, among
other properties, was assigned to the Count
of Mortain. A Sieur de Havilland seems to
have followed Dnke William to the conquest
of England ; and in the twelfth century a
Robert Haverland was deputy to Gislebert
de la Hougue, the Governor of the Channel
Isles. From that time to the present day
this family has prospered in Guernsey, and
many of its members have from time to time
filled the most important offices in the island:
the present Col. De llavilland's father, Sir
Peter, having been appointed bailiff of the
island by George IV., in 1810. The name of
Havilland seems to have disappeared from



Normandy in the fifteenth century, but by
an emigration from Guernsey to England it
has extended itself in the latter country,
and thence to America.

At the accession of Edward IV. to the
throne of England he determined to dislodge
the French from Mont Orgueil Castle, in
Jersey, which they had possessed, with half
the island, for some years ; and Admiral Sir
Richard Harliston was sent about 1467 with
his fleet for that purpose, in co-operation
with Philip de Carteret, who commanded
the British land forces ; on his way thither,
the admiral stopped at Guernsey, and took
on board many volunteers, who accompa-
nied him to glory. These Guernsey men
did good work on the occasion ; and
their services were fully recognised and re-
warded. It is generally believed that to that
exploit is due the honourable augmentation
to the arms of Guernsey of a sprig of laurel
as a crest.

Among these volunteers was a Thomas de
Havilland, who, after his return to Guernsey,
was elected Jurat of the Royal Court ; and
this individual is considered to have been the
common ancestor of all the extant De Havil-
lands of Guernsey, and of the Havillands in
England and America.

His eldest son, Thomas, remained at home,
and became ancestor of the Guernsey stock.
The younger brother, James, emigrated, be-
tween 1450 and 1475, to Poole, in Dorset-
shire, where he settled himself, and acquired
honour, credit, and influence among his fellow-
citizens, who elected him several thnes to be
their mayor. He was of a generous mind,
and among other liberalities, rebuilt at his
own cost, a considerable part of St. Mary's,
the parish church.

From him sprang the Havilands spread
over England ; and a scion of this English
branch, a John Haviland, emigrated to Phila-
delphia, in America, where he died, after
having attained eminence as an architect.
He left a large family. The eldest son is
Colonel John Von Sountag, who has already
distinguished himself in the service of his
country as a military officer, and has lately
resumed the Guernsey orthography of the
name " De Havilland ;" his ancestor, the
emigrant James, or some of his descendants,
having in their time changed it to " Haviland"
simply.

In Guernsey, as elsewhere, population has
greatly increased ; and in the town the inha-
bitants, estimated at 16,000 or 17,000, are pro-
bably six or eightfold what they were when the
residence of Col. De Havilland's ancestors
was in the town parish. The present build-
ing stands on the west side of the valley
Vauxguiedor, anciently Vauwchieldor. The
front elevation is of the Grecian order, with
an Ionic portico, and presents a very pleasing
appearance amongst the adjoining grounds



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



65



ami gardens. Vegetation of every kind
thrives abundantly in this neighbourhood,
as in most other parts of the island, where
intense frost is very seldom known, and where
neither snake nor toad have yet been found.
It is a long time since game has disappeared.
Woodcocks, snipes, wild geese, ducks, and
other birds of passage, still haunt the shores
in winter ; but they, soon after alighting,
become the prey of the fowler. To make
amends, however, the surrounding rocky sea
supplies an ample provision of all kinds of
swimming and of shell-fish.

This island, which scarcely covers twenty-
four square miles, contains more than as
many thousand souls ! With all this, the
people are content generally ; they are indus-
trious and frugal, and are thus able to main-
tain their families comfortably. The Unions,
or hospitals, as they are there called, are
well conducted, and mendicity is seldom met
with.

The De Havilland arms, cut in granite,
and placed in the pediment over the portico,
are argent, three triple turretted towers,
sable, the motto " Dominus fortissima tur-



ns.



HAEDWICK HALL, the seat of the
Duke of Devonshire. This is one of the
grandest of the old mansions of England ;
and it possesses the peculiar interest of being
now furnished with the actual objects with
which it was fitted up in the reign of Eliza-
beth.

Hardwick Hall has undergone no altera-
tion since its original erection ; and it exhi-
bits a most complete specimen of the domes-
tic architecture and internal arrangements
which prevailed among the higher ranks in
England at the end of the sixteenth century.
The very beds, and tables, and chairs, and
hangings, which were used by the memorable
Countess of Shrewsbury, are still equally
used by her descendant, the present proprie-
tor, when he makes this ancient mansion his
occasional residence.

The family of Hardwick is of considerable
antiquity in Derbyshire; and, although it
cannot boast of the same ancient standing
with the Fretchvilles or Foljambes, it had
gradually ascended to the position of first-
rate English gentry many years before the
birth of Elizabeth Hardwick, its heiress,
who transferred its wealth to the great
house of Cavendish, of which she may be
said to have been the foundress.

In the year 1203, the manor of Hardwick
was granted by King John to Andrew de
Beauchamp. In 1288, it was held by Wil-
liam de Steynsby, and in 1330 by John de
Steynsby his great-grandson. It afterwards
was possessed by the family of Hardwick,

VOL. II.



who already had held it for six generations
before the birth of the famous " Bess."

The Hardwicks must have been a very
opulent family, if we may judge from the
magnificent old mansion which now stands,
a picturesque ruin by the side of the Eliza-
bethan hall; and nothing can give us a
more exalted idea of the wealth and gran-
deur of the plain untitled English gentry of
the olden time, than the remains of such a
structure as this, which was erected in the
midst of their estates, by a family of mode-
rate importance and second-rate antiquity.

From its style of architecture, this more
ancient hall could not have been built any
great length of time before the erection of
the present mansion. It is now in a ruinous
state, but one of the rooms remains entire,
which is fifty-five feet in length, thirty in
breadth, and twenty-four in height. From
the colossal figures which adorn the sides of
the great stone chimney-piece, it is called
" the Giants' Chamber." Nothing can be
more picturesque than the situation of this
immense ruin, overhanging a steep, wooded
hill, and commanding an extensive view over
the undulations of Hardwick Park, and a
wide expanse of richly cultivated country.

John Hardwick was the sixth squire who
had possessed this estate. He lived in the
reign of Henry VIII. He had a son who
was his successor, and several daughters,
one of whom was the celebrated " Bess."
Another married Leech of Chatsworth ; and
a third wedded Leeke of Sutton, both families
of similar standing with those of Hardwick.
Bess of Hardwick had four husbands ; 1 — Bar-
low of Barlow, who bequeathed to her his
whole estate, which lay in the same part of the
country with her paternal domains of Hard-
wick ; 2 — Sir William Cavendish, the son of
Thomas Cavendish, who held an office in the
Exchequer Court, and himself an officer of
trust in the household of Cardinal Wolsey,
who, after holding several subordinate offices
under Henry VIII., and contributing to the
great work of Reformation, was at length
knighted, and admitted to be of the Privy
Council, by that monarch. Chatsworth
having been sold by the Leeches to the
family of Agard, was by them sold to Sir
William Cavendish, who had realized a con-
siderable fortune, a few years before his
death, which happened in 1557. The issue
of William Cavendish and Elizabeth Hard-
wick suddenly expanded into two of the
most illustrious houses in the English peer-
age — the Dukes of Devonshire and Newcas-
tle ; and, notwithstanding their recent and
homely origin, no two families have ever
better sustained the dignity of the high and
illustrious aristocracy of England.

Bess of Hardwick's third husband, William
St. Loe, made her heir to his large estate, to

K



CG



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



the exclusion of his own children. And thus
richly endowed with the spoils of matri-
mony, she at last attained to the gratifica-
tion of her highest ambition by becoming
the wife of the great and noble Earl of
Shrewsbury.

By Sir William Cavendish alone, had she
a family, and all that she obtained from her
other husbands, of wealth, rank, or influence,
was lavished upon them ; and she became
the foundress of two mighty ducal houses.
Towards the close of her life, the Countess
of Shrewsbury built the modern house of
Hardwick, which appears to have been
finished about the year 1597. It is an
excellent specimen of the later Elizabethan
style, and round the top there is a frieze of
freestone work with a profusion of coronets
and the countess's initial letters, E. S.

The state apartments are spacious and
lofty, with numerous large windows admit-
ting an immense quantity of light. The
hall is hung with very curious tapestry, and
the same may be said of the great stairs and
all the principal bed-rooms. The chapel is
very curious. In the dining-room and
drawing- room, there are singular chimney-
pieces, with armorial bearings, and the date
1597.

The most interesting apartment in this
curious mansion is the state room, or room
of audience, sixty-four feet in length by
thirty-two in breadth. At one end there is
a canopy of state, and in another, a state bed,
with very ancient hangings. This room is
hung with singular tapestry, and the upper
part of the walls is covered with figures
executed in plaster bas-relief, representing
hunting scenes. It is fitted up with a profu-
sion of rich and ancient chairs. Another
principal room is the gallery, 170 feet in
length and twenty-six in width, extending
the whole length of the eastern side of the
house, and partly covered with family por-
traits, and partly with ancient tapestry, on
a portion of which is the date 1478. This
as well as much of the other furniture, was
removed from the old hall at Hardwick.

In the vast entrance- hall stands a statue
of Mary, Queen of Scots, by Westmacott ;
and its existence here serves to encourage
the legend, that the unfortunate Queen was
confined at Hardwick during a portion of
her long captivity. This, however, is not
the case, as the modern house was not
erected until after her death. Nor is there
any evidence that she was confined in the
old mansion. It is true that one of the bed-
rooms in the hall is pointed out as her
apartment, and is furnished with hangings
said to be worked by her, with the cele-
brated MS. border ; and over the door is ;i
carving of the royal arms of Scotland. But
the furniture of this room was removed



many years ago from the old house of Chats-
worth, and there it had stood in the room
which Queen Mary occupied for a consider-
able period. It is highly improbable that
Mary was ever at Hardwick, even on a tem-
porary visit. On this subject we refer the
curious reader to Mr. Hunter's valuable
work on Hallamshire, and his essay on
Mary's reputed sojourn at Hardwick.

In the great gallery there is a vast collec-
tion of family portraits, not only of the
Cavendishes themselves, but of the ances-
tors of the wives of their respective genera-
tions, Boyles, Itussells, Cecils, &c, &c.,
without end. Few of them possess artistic
merit ; but they are interesting from their
subjects and position. Among the most
curious of the portraits we may mention a
small full-length of James VI. of Scotland,
when eight years of age, said -to have been
sent to Mary to cheer her captivity ; a curi-
ous portrait of Queen Elizabeth ; Arabella
Stuart when a little child, with a doll ; Mary,
Queen of Scots, when very young, and also
at an advanced period; Henry VIII., by
Holbein ; the Countess of Shrewsbury when
young, and also when old ; three of her hus -
bands; the first Duke of Devonshire; Hobbes
the Philosopher ; Lucy Harrington, Countess
of Bedford, &c, &c.

Every part of Hardwick Hall is filled
with ancient and beautiful tapestry ; and in
no house in the kingdom is to be found so
large a collection of genuine Elizabethan fur-
niture, originally designed for the mansion,
and never having been subsequently re-
moved from it. It is, hi truth, a grand old
hall, and well worthy of the splendid histo-
rical associations which are connected with
it.

The hall stands on a high eminence in a
very large, well-wooded and beautifully un-
dulating park, ornamented with considerable
pieces of water and ponds. Nothing can be
so beautiful as a drive round the park on a
summer evening, when the setting sun illu-
mines the massive groups of ruins crowning
the woody steep, with the graceful Elizabe-'
than hall rising proudly by their side.

The Duke of Devonshire makes Hardwick
Hall an occasional residence for a few days
at a time. At the corner of the park stands
the parish church of Ault Hucknal, where
there are a few monuments of the Cavendish
family, and a stone marks the spot be-
neath which Thomas Hobbes was buried.
He had been tutor to the second and third
Earls of Devonshire, and resided at Hard-
wick Hall until his death.

In the muniment chamber of Hardwick,
there is a most remarkable series of house-
hold books in the handwriting of the Countess
of Shrewsbury.



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN*.



67



BETTISFIELD PARK, Flintshire, between
the villages of Hanmer and Bettis-
fiehl, the seat of Sir John Hanmer, Bart.
The name of Bettisfield appears in Doomsday
Book. In more ancient times it was called
Llys Bedith, which name occasionally oc-
curs in deeds as late as the sixteenth century.
This appellation arising out of the remote
period when Christianity was introduced in
Britain, is, in its literal translation Llys the
Tower, Bedith of Baptism ; and a small lake
about a mile distant from the house still
preserves the name of Llyn Bedith, the
Baptismal Pool.

This place has, from the twelfth century,
belonged to the Hanmer family, and since
the Restoration, has been principally their
residence. Sir Thomas Hanmer, cup-bearer
to Charles I., on his return from exile in
France, passed much of his time in the pur-
suit of gardening here, and became known
as one of the most considerable improvers of
the art in this country. Many kinds of trees
first brought over by his means, are men-
tioned in " Ilea's Flora."

The house is of various dates, and a por-
tion is very old. A high tower recently
added, with a sloping roof, gives its chief
feature to the building. . A very extensive
view may be contemplated from its summit,
reaching over the plains of Cheshire and
Shropshire, the hills of Denbigh and Mont-
gomeryshire, and all the country from the
Wrekin to the estuary of the Dee.

White cattle of the wild breed were for-
merly in the park, but were destroyed about
the middle of the last century.

Many line trees grow here ; and the
county generally is remarkable for the
luxuriance of its timber.

There are some curiosities in the house,
among which are many frescoes of Paul
Veronese, detached from the walls by Count
Balbi's process, and brought from Venice by
the present Sir John Hanmer a few years ago.

HAMS HALL, in the county of Warwick,
the seat of Charles Bowyer Adderley, Esq.,
M.P. for North Staffordshire. At one time
it formed a part of the Marmion possessions,
but in the reign of Charles the First it was
bought by Sir Charles Adderley, one of the
royal equerries, and head of a branch of the
Staffordshire Adderleys. The word ham is of
Anglo-Saxon origin, and literally signifies a
covering : hence by a very natural mataphor
it came to denote a house, and in time by a
further extension of its meaning it was used
as a term for a collection of houses. Thus
it is that we so frequently find it employed
,in compound words, both as a prefix and a
suffix ; for instance, hamlet, Buckingham,
Nottingham, Newnham, Framlingham, &c.

The old house of Hams Hall was an Eliza-



bethan structure, standing upon the banks of
the Thame, to which the fourth side opened
and commanded an extensive reach of that
river as well as of the adjacent country. To
each of the other three sides was a noble
avenue of tine old oaks, which seem to flourish
here in great luxuriance. The new house was
built in 1764, from the plans of Wyattville ;
it is of the Italian style of architecture, and
occupies the same eligible site standing upon a
bold terrace. The principal apartments are
a hall, thirty-five feet long, twenty-four
wide, and more than sixteen high ; a saloon
thirty-eight feet by twenty-four ; a dining-
room, thirty-four feet by twenty- two ; a
library, twenty-four feet by twenty-two ;
and a drawing-room, thirty-two feet by
twenty-two. Many valuable pictures may
be seen here, amongst which are an Ignatius
Loyola by Titian ; Henry the Eighth by Hol-
bein ; Catherine Parr, by the same artist ;
Charles the Second, by Sir Peter Lely ; a
Christ, by Guido; and a Calm, by Vandervelt.
The park consists of about a hundred and
twenty acres, abounding in noble forest trees,
particularly oaks. This indeed is the general
character of the surrounding country, re-
lieved in some measure by the picturesque
beauties of the Tame or Thame—



'■ How lively tripping Rhea



T' attend the lustier Thame is from her fountain sent ;
So little Cole and Blyth go. on with him to Trent.
His Tamworth at the last he in his way doth win,
There playing him awhile 'till Ansor should come in,
Which tri'rleth 'twixt her banks, observing state so slow,
As though into his arms she scorned herself to throw ;
Yet Arden will'd her Thame to serve her on his knee,
For by that nymph alone thev both should honoured
he."

It should also be noticed that the ash, the
prince, as it has been called, of English tim-
ber, abounds in these parts. Though in-
ferior in toughness to the Spanish ash, yet as
Fuller observes with his usual charac-
teristic quaintness, " a stand of pikes made
of English ash, and managed with English
arms will do very well." Upon the same
authority we may add that the ash has " the
peculiar privilege of burning clear and bright
though cut down quite green, '' as if the sappe
thereof had a fire -feeding unctuousness there-
in."

THE GRANGE, Hampshire, the seat of
Lord Ashburton. The manor of Swaraton,
now included in the Grange demesne, be-
longed for sevei-al generations to the family
of Cobbe, who obtained possession of it
shortly after the dissolution of monasteries,
that starting point from which so many pro-
perties have taken their commencement.
In the reign, however, of .lames I., the
Cobbe of that day parted with it to the
Ilenleys, as appears by the Register of
"Winchester College, and certain of the Har-



68



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



leian manuscripts (Nos. 760, 1473, 1139, and
1544), which contain the accompanying
pedigree.

Even after the sale of the manor of
Swaraton, the Cobbes continued to have in-
terest in the county ; for we find Richard
Cobbe representing it in the Cromwellian



parliament of 1656 ; and his grandson, Ri-
chard Chaloner Cobbe, was Colonel of the
Hampshire Militia. A younger brother of
the latter, Charles, afterwards Archbishop of
Dublin, went to Ireland as Chaplain to his
relative, the Duke of Bolton, Lord-Lieu-
tenant in 1717. The archbishop * founded



» Newbridge House, erected by Archbishop Cobbe about 1737, is a handsome specimen of the architecture of the
period, and situated in an extensive and -well-wooded park, containing the ruins of Lanistown Castle. The house con-
tains a line collection of paintings by the old masters, purchased for Thomas Cobbe by Pilkington, and frequently re-
ferred to in his dictionary. Among others, are a portrait of Sir Kenelm Digby, by Vandyke ; Cromwell, by
Walker, a St. John, and a Helen, by Guido ; and landscapes by Bergham, Rontbont, Orizzonte, Ruvsdahl, &c. ; also
a portrait of Thomas Cobbe (father of the archbishop), by Lely, and one on a panel of Thomas Bilson, Bishop of
Winchester, with other family pictures. There are also preserved at Newbridge the original letters of Fairfax, the
Parliamentary General, to his cousin, James Chaloner (the maternal grandfather of Archbishop Cobbe), with many
other interesting inedited MSS. of the Commonwealth.

Pedigeee from MSS. G. 16, and C. 19, Coll. of Arms and Harl. MSS., 760, 1473, 1139, and 1544.
William Cobbe, of Steventon, co. Hants _



John Cobbe, of Swaraton, co. Hants = Amy, dau. of Barnes of Baruesvale.



Thomas Cobbe, of Swaraton = Margaret, dau. Edward Beronsaw. _ Secondly, Agnes, dau. John Hunt.



Michael Cobbe, of Swaraton, b. 1547, d. 1598. = Joan, dau. and co-
heiress of George
Welborne, of Al-
lington.



Richard, B.D., Vice-
President Corpus C.
College, Oxon.



Peter. William, of
Northing-
ton.



Thomas Cobbe, of Swaraton, b. 1575, Captain, 1634. _ Catherine, dau. of Owen Owen, Rector of Burton

Latymer, sister of John, Bishop of St. Asaph.



Michael Cobbe, of Swaraton. = Anne, dau. of A. Broom-
field, of Tiehfield, M.P.



Richard Cobbe, b. 1607, = Honor, second dau. and



M.P. for Hants, 1656.



Arthur.



Lucy.



co-heiress of Sir Richard
Norton, of Rotherfield,
Bart.



Thomas Cobbe, _ Vere, dau. of James Chaloner, M.P., Governor of the Isle
b. 164S, d. 1703. I of Man; one of the Judges of Charles I.



RicbardChaloner Cobbe,
Colonel of Militia.



Charles Cobbe, Arch- _ Dorothea, dau. of Right Honourable Chief Justice Sir



bishop of Dublin, b.
16S(i, d. 1765.



Richard Levinge, Bart., widow of Sir John Rawdon,
Bart., of Moira.



Richard, D.D., Rector
of Finglas.



Thomas Cobbe, of _ Lady Eliza Beresford, sister of George, first Marquis of
Newbridge, M. P., " Waterford.

Colonel of Militia.



Richard, D.D.,
Rector of Maxlow .



Charles Cobbe, _ Anne, sister of Catherine _ Hon. H. Eliz. Dor. = Sir H



M.P., of New-
bridge.



William, first
Earl Clancarty.



Pelham.



Tuite,
Bart.



Catherine. Frances. = Captain Murray.



Frances. _ Hans Francis, Charles Cobbe, _ Frances, dau. George, Col. Henry, Rev., Thomas Alex- William



11th Earl of of Newbridge,
Huntingdon. D.L.



of Thomas Royal Ar- died s.p. ander, Colonel Power,

Conwav, Esq., tillerv, has E.I.C., »»,and Capt.RN.,

of Morden issue. has issue. ?«.and has

Park. issue.



Francis, 12th Earl. Charles Cobbe, = Louisa, dau. of G. Thomas,Bar- William. Henry, Rev. Frances Power.
D.L. Brooke, Esq. rister-at-Law.



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



69



the Irish branch of the family, the only
one now remaining, and represented by
Charles Cobbe, Esq., of Newbridge, D.L.

The Henleys, who, as we have just seen,
became the owners of Grange Park by pur-
chase from the Cobbes, were a family of
good reputation. Robert Henley, having
much distinguished himself at the bar, was
knighted and made Attorney-General in
1756. The year following he was appointed
Keeper of the Great Seal. In 1760 he was
advanced to the peerage by the title of
Baron Henley, of Grange, in the county of



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