Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) online

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£50,000, and of this '20,000 was left in mort-
gage on the estate, and continued unpaid at
the revolution. In 1701, therefore, the
demesne was conveyed back again to the
family of Howard ; and the fifth Earl of
Suffolk, on receiving it, relinquished his
claim upon the crown for the remainder of
the debt. His descendant, the tenth earl,
died without issue in 1733, when the earl-
dom devolved on his distant cousin, Henry
Bowes Howard, fourth Earl of Berkshire.

But the estates of Audley End were des-
tined to take a different direction. Their
possession was disputed between the second
Earl of Effingham, who claimed under a
settlement in his favour, executed after suf-
fering a recovery, by the seventh Earl of
Suffolk; and the heir of the two daughters
of the third Earl of Suffolk ; and as it turned
out that the seventh earl was only tenant
for life of the property, the courts of law
rejected the title of him whom he had nomi-
nated. The successful claimants on the
part of one of these daughters, the Lady
Essex Howard, wife of Lord Griffin, were
the Honourable Elizabeth Griffin, married
first to Henry Neville Grey, Esq., and
secondly to the Earl of Portsmouth; and her
sister Ann, wife of William Whitwell, Esq.
It is not here necessary to render the his-
tory more complicated, by noticing the heir
of the second daughter of Lord Suffolk.

Lady Portsmouth had no issue by either
of her husbands ; but Mrs. Whitwell had a
son, in whose favour the abeyance of the
barony of Howard of Walden was termi-
nated, and who acquired the inheritance of
his aunt and his mother. This Lord How-
ard had no children ; and, consequently, in
consideration that his mother was sprung,
through her maternal grandmother, from the
ancient and historic stock of Neville, he
successfully used his influence to procure
for himself another barony, that of Bray-
brooke, with a remainder to his relative,
Richard Neville, whose father, Richard Aid-
worth, Esq., maternally descended from the
house of Neville, and assumed its name.

On the death of Lord Howard, which
took place in 1797, Richard Neville, who
has just been mentioned, succeeded to his
kinsman's title, as second Lord Braybrooke,
and, under a previous arrangement with the
deceased peer's only surviving sister and
heir, the wife of the Rev. Dr. Parker, Rector
of St. James's, Westminster, obtained imme-



diate possession of the mansion, and unen-
tailed portion of the estate. The other part
his lordship succeeded to, at the decease, s.p.,
of the same lady, who had assumed the sur-
name of Griffin. Richard, second Lord Bray-
brooke, married Catherine, daughter of the
Right Hon. George Grenville, herself de-
ducing a maternal pedigree from Theophilus,
second Earl of Suffolk, one of the ancient
proprietors of her husband's seat. By this
lady he had issue, Richard, the present Lord
Braybrooke, who, by the composition of an
interesting and elegantly written quarto
volume, on the history of Audley End and
its ancient possessors, has evinced his deep
interest in all the ennobling associations con-
nected with the venerable mansion which
has so auspiciously devolved upon him.

The house, we have already mentioned,
was erected by the first Earl of Suffolk,
who on its construction is said to have ex-
pended about £190,000, a stupendous sum,
if we consider the scarcity of money in that
age. The names of Bernard Jansen and
John Thorpe are competitors for the fame
of its architect ; but those who have most
attentively investigated the matter, incline
towards the latter.

For the appearance it wore in 1654 we will
quote the high authority of John Evelyn : —
"It is," says the author of "Sylvse," "a mixed
fabric between ancient and modern, but
observable for its being completely finished,
and is one of the stateliest palaces in the
kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first
very large, winged with cloisters.
It has a bowling-alley, and a nobly well-
walled wooded park. The river (Granta)
glides before the palace, to which is an
avenue of lime trees ; but all this is much
diminished by its being placed in an obscure
bottom. For the rest, it is a perfectly
uniform structure, and shows without like a
diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas
and other ornaments on the pavilions."

The architecture of the time of James I.,
like the mind of the reigning monarch, allow-
ing some intrusion of classic decoration, still
retained much of the Gothic. Thence we
meet with the huge mullioned windows,
occupying a considerable proportion of the
sides of the house, and occasionally a profu-
sion of elaborate stone tracery, grotesque, yet
beautiful, like the wreathings of some ancient
illuminated manuscript ; while in the centre
of the building appear columns surmounted
with Grecian capitals.

This vast pile has, in the lapse of time,
been subjected to considerable alterations and
curtailments ; but it has for the most part
been treated with that taste and considera-
tion which seems to have been transmitted
to the present Lord Braybrooke, together
with the noble estate on which it is his for-
tune to be able to display it.



88



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



Scattered through the rooms are many-
interesting portraits; some of them like-
nesses of the ancient possessoi-s of the do-
main. Amongst these will be viewed with
interest that of Lord Chancellor Audley, by
Holbein, and of his daughter, the Duchess of
Norfolk, who, if Lucas de Heere were no
flatterer, had other attractions besides her
broad lands.

CAESTAISS, Lanarkshire, about five
miles from the town of Lanark, twenty-seven
from Edinburgh, and twenty-nine from Glas-
gow, the seat of Robert Monteith, Esq.

In the 12th century the manor ofCarstairs
belonged to the Bishops of Glasgow, one of
whom, Robert Wishert, built in 1292 a stone
castle, near the present parish church. Of
this castle very interesting remains have
lately been dug up by the present proprietor.
The manor and parish continued to be held
by the See of Glasgow till the Reformation.
When, in 1588, all the church lands were
annexed to the crown, James VI. bestowed
tliis barony upon Sir William Stewart of
Monckton, third son of Lord Ochiltree, and
in 1589, Sir William conveyed thewholetoSir
James Hamilton, of Avondale. In 1603, upon
the temporary re -establishment of episco-
pacy, the king gave the superiority of the
barony to the Bishop of Glasgow. We next
find Carstairs in the possession of Sir James
Lockhart, of Lee, who assigned it to his eldest
son by a second marriage, from whose family
it passed to William Fullerton, Esq. From
his heirs it was bought by the late Henry
Monteith, Esq., whose second marriage was
with one of the Misses Fullerton. He re-
presented for many years in Parliament the
Lanark district of Burghs. His son, by his
first wife, a lady of the Clan Cameron, re-
markable for wit and beauty, is Robert
Monteith, Esq., now ofCarstairs.

The prosperity of this family is recent, and
founded on trade. About the middle of the
seventeenth century, James, the great great
grandfather of the present Robert Monteith,
lived on his small estate in the district of
Aberfoyle, in Perthshire. Towards its close
he drew upon himself the determined hos-
tility of Rob Roy by a steady refusal to pay
to the predatory hero Black Mail, or the
annual tribute which he levied upon all within
his reach, and which none but men much
more powerful than the small Aberfoyle
laird ever succeeded in resisting. Three
several times in revenge for this resistance to
what he almost considered his established
right, Rob severely pillaged and plundered
Mr. Monteith's property. Determined not
to yield, and yet unable to face a continua-
tion of such loss, Mr. Monteith withdrew to
Glasgow, just then rising into the focus of
energy and enterprise. The emigrant from
the Highland hills, his one son and three



daughters, are still, after the lapse of about
150 years, commemorated in Glasgow by a
rhyming description, in which a few preten-
sions, perhaps inconsistent with their pecu-
niary difficulties, may be alluded to, and in
which the latter figure as —



" Jenny with the ruffles,
Moggie with the buckles,
Anrl Nannie with the cork-heeled shune."



James Monteith died without realising his
design, and only gradually though quickly
were matured under his successors those vast
concerns with which, throughout Scotland,
the name of the family is associated. His
grandson James was early in such a position
as to enable him to master the first openings
of the Cotton Trade, and he is in fact
justly considered its founder in Scotland.

In various old documents the name of this
place is written Castle-terres,or Castle-tares;
but this conveys precisely the same meaning
as Carstairs ; Car or Caer in the old British
language, meaning a " walled place," a " for-
tress," and Stairs or Stair -signifying a pro-
perty or estate.

The former mansion, which was of great
extent, had existed for about 200 years, with
one tower of much older date, when, from its
having fallen to decay, the present house was
erected nearly on the same site in the years
1822, 1823, and 1824. The style of architec-
ture is that which is commonly called Tudor.
The designs were selected from the best ex-
amples of that school, and the combined
effect of house and stable offices renders this
one of the most successful of the many mo-
dern revivals of domestic Gothic.

A carriage porch extends before the outer
hall, and this again opens into a corridor or gal-
lery about eighty-five feet long, which, with
the main staircase, forms a vista of 110 feet,
terminated at each end by large mullioned
windows of stained glass. The principal
drawing-room and dining-room are each
about thirty-six feet in length, with bay win-
dows at the sides. Externally, the principal
features are one lofty tower, with several
others subordinate in height and size, yet
large enough for small dressing-rooms,
&c. The richly decorated bay windows,
the arched carriage porch, and the carving
in the upper parts of the turrets, complete
the fine effect of this building.

Some good paintings are to be seen here,
among which are a large and fine Hagar in
the Desert, by Du Jardin ; a Magdalen,
said to be by Guido ; a beautiful landscape,
by Wilson, and two first-rate Raeburns.
There is also an excellent copy of an Ecce
Homo, by Guido, and another of a remarka-
ble head of our Saviour, by Morales.

The house, which has a southern aspect,
stands upon a terraced bank, adorned with
vases, and sloping towards the Clyde. Be-



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SEATS OF GRKAT BRITAIN.



80



tween the river and the house, stretches a
fine, straight avenue of old trees, chiefly
beech, and nearly a mile and a quarter long.
Its eastern extremity is terminated by a
mausoleum, standing on rising ground, and
in the form of a small Doric temple, sur-
mounted by a stone dome. It contains the
remains of the father-in-law of the late pro-
prietor, and forms an admirable termination
to the vista.

The park and demesne grounds contain
more than 700 acres, which abound in noble
trees. The estate itself is between 5 and
(iOOO acres, past which for some miles flows
the Clyde, and through another portion, the
picturesque River Mouse. There is conside-
rable variety of game, roe-deer, grouse, phea-
sants, partridge, &c. Wild fowl and herons
are plentiful, and an ancient and extensive
rookery asserts its triumph over repeated
efforts made to destroy it almost half a cen-
tury ago.

Many Roman remains have been found in
the vicinity of Carstairs. About three
quarters of a mile from the house is a
Roman camp, containing nearly twelve acres
of land, and now part of the pleasure grounds.
Near the parish church a Roman bath has
come to light, with pots, dishes, and instru-
ments of war, sacrificial implements of va-
rious kinds, and coins bearing the names of
various emperors. In another direction, a
tumulus has been opened, in which were
several urns. Thirty-six silver coins of the
English Edwards have also been lately
found. These and other antiquities are in
the hands of Mr. Monteith.

Mr. Monteith married in 1844, one of the
illustrious German family, the Barons Von
Stein — Reich's Freiherrn, or holders direct
from the Emperor. Among Mrs. Monteith's
lineal ancestors was the celebrated Goetz Von
Berlichingen, and among her near relations
are the Von Egloffsteins, the Von Sydows,
Von Tanns, the Counts Marschall, and many
other names of note in Bavaria, Saxony,
Prussia, Weimar, Alsace, &c, &c. By her
he has three daughters and two sons. Mr.
Monteith is M.A., of Trinity College, Cam-
bridge, and formerly stood on several occa-
sions, but without success, as candidate for
Glasgow on the Conservative interest.

NORMS CASTLE, in the Isle of Wight, the
seat of Robert Bell, Esq., a magnificent
structure, originally built for Lord Henry
Seymour, by the late Mr. James Wyatt,
in the castellated Gothic style, present-
ing a close imitation of the defensive
architecture that prevailed in former ages.
So admirably has the architect adopted the
tone and manner of other days, that those
unacquainted with the minute details of the
ancient English castle, would assuredly be-

VOL. II.



lieve they were looking on some antique pile,
more especially when first beheld from the
sea. The stables, gardens, &c, are on a
princely scale, and the present proprietor
has completed the whole by the erection of a
splendid sea wall, built in solid masonry of
Swanage stone, nearly a mile in length, and
at a cost of upwards of £20,000. The castle
commands from its lovely situation on the
descent to the Solent Sea the most charming
views in that part of the island. To the
south-east, the Palace of Osborne, lately built
for her Majesty, and the rich line of the
woody coast from Barton to Nettlestone, ap-
pear in long and varied perspective. The
beautiful town of Ryde with its pier, and the
recently erected Royal Victoria Yacht Club-
house, are seen to great advantage. To the
east, Spithead and Portsmouth, crowded with
shipping, are in full view. To the north, the
Southampton River is seen in its whole ex-
tent, as well as the town of Southampton and
the Royal Southern Yacht Club-house. The
woods of the New Forest clothe the view to
the west, while Calshot Castle stands boldly
out amidst the waves, and marks the separa-
tion between the Solent Sea and the South-
ampton River. Norris Castle immediately ad-
joins the grounds of Osborne.

GLANTON PYKE, Northumberland, the seat
of Frederick John Woodley Collingwood,
Esq., a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of
the county, second son of the late Henry Col-
lingwood, Esq., of Lilburn Tower, who ac-
quired Glanton Pyke from the family of
Mills. The house takes its name from
Glanton Pyke, a mount of conic form, on
which was formerly a beacon to alarm the
country by fire in case of danger. In a field
upon the estate called Deer Street, a stone
chest was discovered (in 1716) upwards of
three feet in length and two in breadth, with
a stone cover ; three others were afterwards
found containing fine earth and two urns in
each, with some charcoal and human bones
bearing the marks of fire. To the north of
the house a British Securis or Celt was sub-
sequently discovered in turning up a clod : it
was in good preservation. The house, which
is of modern architecture, stands upon a
lawn, with flower garden, &c, in front, com-
manding a beautiful and extensive view of
the Vale of Whittingham, Thrunton Crag,
Simonside, Brislee Tower (in the Duke of
Northumberland's Park, near Alnwick,) &c.

NYTON, in the county of Sussex, and
parish of Aldingbourne, the seat of Charles
Peckham Peckham, Esq., a magistrate for
Sussex.

Nyton was formerly a grange belonging to
Boxgrove Priory, but upon the suppression of
monasteries in 1548, it was granted by the

N



90



SEATS OF GREAT HKITAIN".



crown to Robert Thornlrill, whose son alien-
ated it to John Moor. By the heirs of the
last-named possessor, the estate was sold in
1561 to John Tronnell, and he dying in 1585,
it was bought by Thomas Peckham, Esq.
Subsequently it devolved to Charles H. Smith,
Esq., by his marriage with Mary, daughter
and heiress of John Peckham, Esq. Their
only son and heir, Charles, dropped the
patronymic of Smith, and assumed the sur-
name and arms of Peckham only.

The house was rebuilt about the year 1650
by Thomas Peckham, Esq. It was a hand-
some brick edifice, but it has of late years
been much modernized. The most striking
remains of the old building is a cedar staircase.

This mansion is surrounded by a park of no
great dimensions, but enough to stamp the
whole with the character of an English
country seat. The land of the neighbourhood
is for the most part arable, and is considered
extremely fertile, the only fault hi a pictu-
resque point of view, being the want of
inequalities in the surface.

DUNKIRK HOUSE, Gloucestershire, near
Kailsworth, the seat of Edward Dalton, Esq.,
LL.I).. F.S.A., twice nominated for the office
of Sheriff for the county. This property has
been successively held by Lord Windsor, and
the families of Sheppard, Small, and Peach,
most of whom have monuments in the church
at Minchinhampton, where they lie buried.

The building is an old manor-house,
which was thoroughly repaired at a great
expense in the last century, and much im-
proved in its outward appearance by the
addition of a stone front. It stands on the
side of a hill facing Wordchester Park —
lately belonging to the Right Hon Earl
Ducie — and is sheltered on the north and
east by the woods and rising ground of
Minchinhampton Down, or Common, where
are very extensive ancient earthworks.
About the house is much tine timber, parti-
cularly cedar, cypress, oak, and tulip-
trees.

ACTON BURNELL, Shropshire, about eight
miles from Shrewsbury, the seat of Sir Joseph
Edward Smythe, Bart., who in 1831 was high
sheriff of Salop.

This mansion was erected by the present
owner of the estate in 1814, and is a building
in the Grecian style of architecture. The
north front exhibits a noble elevation, con-
structed of white stone, in the centre of which
is a boldly projecting Ionic portico of four
large columns surmounted by a pediment ;
beneath this is the carriage entrance, with
niches for statues and vases. On the left are
the domestic offices, and on the right is seen
the tower of a little old church. The south
side faces a most beautiful and picturesque



park, about four miles in circumference
containing live hundred acres of land. The
ground here rises by a gentle elevation to the
height of five hundred feet, the whole way
being covered with luxuriant fern, and
belted with fine plantations. On two sides
the park is bounded by shrubberies and gar-
dens, and on a third by rich woods. To the Avest
extend two mountains, the Caradoc and the
Lawley, the former of which possesses an his-
torical celebrity ; still further on is the range
of the Welsh hills, while to the right, from
the flat ground, rises the Wrekin.

Acton Burnell Park has one object within
its limits of peculiar interest. This is the
remains of an old castle, in which, when King
Edward I. held his parliament in 1283, the
nobles were assembled, while the Commons
sate in a large barn hard by. Two gable ends
of the latter are still preserved as curiosities.
The memory of this event still lives in the
statutes passed here, properly called Statutum
de Mercatoribus, but more particularly known
as the statute of Acton Bur in- U. It provided,
that debtors in London, York, and Bristol,
should appear before the different mayors,
and agree upon a certain day of payment,
otherwise an execution might be issued against
their goods. The castle is quadrangular, with
a square tower at each corner, and the walls,
which are exceedingly strong, are adorned
with tine battlements and rows of windows,
with curious carved work. Its founder, or,
as is much more likely, its restorer, was
Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells,
treasurer, and afterwards Chancellor of Eng-
land, who died in 1292. His eminent abilities
occasioned his being much employed in Welsh
affairs by Edward I., who despatched him to
the Marches of Scotland the same year in
which he deceased. The purpose of the
mission was to demand what the Scots could
object to Edward's claim of supremacy over
them, and to receive their acknowledgment of
his sovereignty. He was succeeded at Acton
Burnell Castle by Sir Edward Burnell, Knt.,
who distinguished himself in arms against the
Scotch as his predecessor in the more peace-
ful, but scarcely less dangerous, arts of diplo-
macy. He seems to have affected great
splendour in his warfare, being always at-
tended by a chariot decked with banners, on
which his arms were painted — argent, a lion
rampant, sable, crowned, or. He died with-
out issue, leaving his sister Maud, wife of
John de Handlo, his heir. That lady's son,
Nicholas de Handlo, assumed the surname of
Burnell, and was shimmoned to Parliament as
a baron in 1350. He died in 1382, and lies
buried in Acton Burnell church, under an
altar tomb inlaid with his effigy in brass.

In the reign of Henry VI. the property
came into the hands of the Lovells ; it was,
however, forfeited by Francis, Lord Lovell,



PEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



91



on account of his attachment to the cause of
Richard III., and granted soon afterwards by
the conqueror, Richmond, to Jasper Tudor,
Earl of Bedford, in requital of his services.
He dying without issue, this estate reverted to
the crown, when King Henry VHI. granted
it to Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, so
distinguished for his skill and valour at the
battleof Flodden Field.

The ancestors of the present owner of Acton
Burnellcame into possession of it during the
reign of Charles II., whenSir Edward Smythe,
of Eshe Hall, in the co. of Durham — the
youngest son of John Smythe, of the same
county — married Mary, daughter and co-
heiress of the stanch Royalist, Sir Richard
Lee, Bart., of Acton Burnell and Langley,
representative of one of the oldest families in
England. Sir Edward Smythe was created a
baronet in 16G0, and from him Sir Edward
Joseph Smythe, Bart., now of Eshe Hall and
Acton Burnell, is fourth in descent.

GLASSERTON, Wigtownshire, the seat of
Stair Hathorn Stewart, Esq., of Physgill, a
magistrate, deputy-lieutenant, and convener
of the county, representative of the Stewarts
of Physgill and Glenturk, who were de-
scended from John Stewart, Parson of Kirk-
mahoe, second son of Sir Alexander Stewart,
Garlics.

The mansion of Glasserton was erected
about the year 1770, by Admiral the Hon.
Keith Stewart (second son of Alexander,
sixth Earl of Galloway), and passed from his
son, James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie,
Esq., of Seaforth, to Stair Hathorn Stewart,
Esq., of Physgill. It is built principally of
granite, in the Grecian style of architecture,
with a handsome porch at the west front.
On the east side the space has recently been
laid out hi grass terraces by the present Mr.
Stewart. The house is well sheltered by
fine old trees ; and the grounds around it, the
roads and walks are most tastefully arranged.
The whole demesne, indeed, the parish
church and its elegant Gothic tower by Pep-
worth forming part of the park, immediately
adjoining the gardens, combine to render
Glasserton a most attractive and pleasant
residence. At no great distance from the
present house there formerly stood a man-
sion occupied by the Earls of Galloway,
which was accidentally burnt down about
a century ago, and no trace of it now re-
mains.

TTSSINGTON HALL, Derbyshire, about four
miles from Ashbourn, the seat of Sir Henry
FitzHerbert, Bart., derived from one of the
companions of William the Conqueror, since
which time various branches of the family
have continued to flourish in this county.
At the period of the conquest, Tizinitum be-



longed to Henry de Ferrers ; afterwards the
Herthulls and Meynells held estates there.
The manor next devolved — the intermediate
links being no longer traceable — to one of
the Fitzlierberts, by his marriage, in 1440,
with the daughter and co-heir of Robert
Frauncis, Esq., of Foremark, from whom the
present possessor is lineally descended.

The mansion, which is of stone, was built
about 1580 by Francis FitzHerbert, Esq. It



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