Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) online

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Dawson, Esq.,) the present owner of the pro-
perty.

There is a curious statement in Whittaker's
" Craven " in regard to an ancestor of the
Pudsey family, — curious as being a misstate-
ment of an author who in general is remark-
able for correctness. He tells us, " William
Pudsey, Esq., who held the estate from 1577
to 1629, is reported in the traditions of the
neighbourhood nearly to have forfeited his
life by a transaction which I shall relate in
the words of Webster, who in 1671 published
a work intituled, Metallograplua, or History
of Metals. In this work, under the title

VOL. II.



Silver, he says, ' the other place where silver
has been found, was within the township of
Rimmington, in Craven, in a field called
Skelhorn, belonging to one Mr. Pudsey, an
ancient esquire and owner of Bolton-Hall
juxta Bolland, who in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth did get good store of silver ore,
and convert it to his own use, or rather coined
it as many do believe, there being many shil-
lings marked with an escallop, which the
people of that country call Pudsey shillings
to tins day. But whether way soever it was,
he procured his pardon for it, and had it as
I am certified from the mouths of those who
had seen it.' "

Now Webster has three chapters — the
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth — which
treat of silver, but in none of them is there a
syllable to the purpose quoted by Whittaker.
There can be no doubt however of such a
tradition having existed, for there is afrightful
chasm still bearing the name of Pudsey 's Leap,
from the circumstance of his leaping it to
escape his pursuers, but in all probability one
part of the story is as fabulous as the other.
It is not known at what precise time, nor
by whom, Bolton Hall was built. Bishop
Pococke thought it the oldest house he had
ever seen, and certainly, to judge from the
architecture, the hall, which is the oldest
part about it, cannot be more recent than the
reign of Edward the Third. A room still
remains in which Sir Ralph Pudsey for
many weeks together sheltered Henry the
Sixth in 1 464, after the loss of the battle of
Hexham, so fatal to the Lancastrians in gene-
ral. A well in the garden still retains the
name of that monarch, who, according to
tradition, first caused it to be dug, and walled,
in its present shape for a bath. Upon quit-
ting his place of refuge Henry, left behind
him, either as tokens of regard, or from haste
and trepidation, a pair of boots, a pair of
gloves, and a spoon, which are preserved as
sacred relics in the family. The boots are
of fine brown Spanish leather, lined witli
deer's skin, tanned with the fur on, and about
the ancles is a kind of wadding to keep out
wet. They have been fastened by buttons
from the ancle to the knee ; the feet are re-
markably small — little more than eight inches
long — the toes round, and the soles, where
they join to the heel, contracted to less than
an inch diameter.

The gloves are also of Spanish leather, and
are lined in the same way. They reach up
to the elbow, like women's gloves, but have
been occasionally turned down with the deer's
skin outwards. The hands, like the feet,
are extremely small, not exceeding those of
a middle- sized female — an unfortunate cir-
cumstance for a king in those days when
kings were expected to assist in fighting their
own battles, and when the hand-to-hand

T



138



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



nature of their combats made the possession
of great bodily strength an indisputable re-
quisite in a soldier.

" Bolton Hall," says the antiquarian Dods-
worth, "standeth very pleasantly among
sweet woods and fruitful hills." To be more
precise, it is situated at the junction of the
Skirden with the Ribble, three quarters of a
mile south of the village of Bolton by Bew-
land. It is castellated, and remarkable for
its solidity even at a period when buildings
were most substantial. As an instance of
this may be quoted the rail in a gallery,
intended for the security of those passing
from one room to another, and which is
thicker than the principal timbers of a modern
mansion.

The country in the neighbourhood of the
Hall is exceedingly beautiful and romantic,
abounding in deep and woody dingles, some
of which would be no bad locality for Ben
Jonson's witch, Maudlin —

" Within a gloomy dimble she doth dwell
Down in a pit o'ergrown with brakes and briars."

LILBUBN TOWER, Northumberland, the seat
of Edward John Collingwood, Esq. The old
house was built in the year 1200, though it is
no longer known by whom. It was however
pulled down and rebuilt in 1828 by Henry
John William Collingwood, Esq., and is now
a handsome Elizabethan structure. The
private portion of the grounds was laid out
by the celebrated Gilpin, and comprise ap-
proaches from the east and west, with lodges,
gateways, gardens, and a terrace. The ruins
of an ancient tower and chapel still remain,
showing in part the origin whence the place
derived its name, while the rest is supplied
by the River Lil, which winds through the
grounds, haviug had its source in the Cheviot
Hills.

There is also an astronomical observatory
built by the present proprietor.

NABTJEN'HALL, near York, the seat of
the Rev. William Lindsay Palmes, son of the
late George Palmes, Esq., a Deputy-Lieute-
nant and magistrate for Yorkshire. Prior to
the year 1224 Naburn was at one time pos-
sessed by the Waterfields, from whom it
passed, by marriage, into the family of the
Palmes', and with them it has remained ever
since.

There are no means of showing when the
Hall was built, but it has been so completely
altered, that since the old gateway was re-
moved, there remains not a vestige of anti-
quity about it. It is now a modern-looking
edifice, standing by the Paver Ouse, on an
eminence, with neat pleasure-grounds sloping
on two sides to the river. There is a fine
old rookery, and the parish -church stands
within the demesne, very near the mansion.



GABTHYNGHARED, Merionethshire, North
Wales, the seat of Edward Owen, Esq. The
present mansion was built about forty-six
years ago by the late Edward Owen, Esq., a
magistrate and Deputy-Lieutenant for Merio-
nethshire, and its high sheriff in 1819,
father of the gentleman now in possession;
but there is another and smaller house upon
the estate, the former abode of the family
which has held this estate from time imme-
morial. The new building is a plain, yet
very commodious dwelling, situated amongst
the romantic scenery upon the banks of the
River Mawddach, or Barmouth estuary — in
Welsh Aber Man, from its being the point of
confluence betwen the River Mau and the
sea, Aber (here corrupted into Bar) signify-
ing the junction of waters. From the house
is a beautiful view of wild hills and wood-
lands down to the open sea.

NASH COURT, Shropshire, the seat of Geo.
Pardoe, Esq., a magistrate and Deputy Lieu-
tenant for the county. The estate has be-
longed to the family of the Pardoes for many
generations, but the exact time of their first
settling here is unknown. Cleeton, in the
same county, was the old family residence,
but it has fallen into neglect as a mansion,
and is now occupied by the tenant farmer.

Nash Court, which is a substantial brick
building, was erected about eighty or ninety
years ago by George Pardoe, of Cleeton,
great-grandfather of the gentleman now pos-
sessing the estate. It is situated at no
great distance from Tenbury, a market-
town in Worcestershire, from which county
Salop is divided by the River Teme.

WEENBTJEY HALL, Cheshire, about five
miles from Nantwich, the seat of John Cross
Starkey, Esq.

In the reign of Edward III. John de
Wrenbury held in demesne, as of fee, the
manor of Wrenbury, from Sir Ralph de Ver-
non, and would seem to have had his name
from it. He had issue three daughters, co-
heiresses, the eldest of whom in the division
of his propei-ty, subsequent to his death, ob-
tained Wrenbury, which she conveyed, by
marriage, to Raiidle de Odinton, or Olton.
His son had also three daughters, and the
manorial rights of the Oltons passed to
Eleanor, the eldest of these co -heiresses, who,
in the reign of Richard II., conveyed it by
marriage to Thomas Starkey, Esq., of the
Stretton branch of the family. It then con-
tinued in the direct line till the death of the
late Thomas Starkey in 1802, when it devolved
to h widow, who in 1811 bequeathed it to
her nephew, John Cross, Esq., the son of
her sister Mary, married to William Cross,
Esq. In compliance with his aunt's will,
this gentleman, the present owner of the



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



139



property, assumed the surname of Starkey,
and quartered the arms of Starkey with
those of Cross, by grant obtained for that
purpose from the Heralds' College.

It is uncertain at what time the house was
built, though, to judge from appearances, it
must be at least four hundred years old, and
perhaps even much older. The style of
architecture is Anglo-Norman, the front be-
ing one hundred feet wide, withUarge peaks
in the form of a capital A. It is two storeys
high, each storey comprising ten windows,
and has a handsome portico, surrounded by
extensive shrubberies and pleasure-grounds.
The present owner, upon coming into pos-
session of the house, had it thoroughly re-
paired, and covered the front with stucco, so
as to make a considerable change in the
character of its appearance, though it remains
substantially the same.

BARNARD CASTLE, co. Durham. The
grumbling ruins of the feudal fortress — that
mighty effort of human power — illustrate
the instability of the works of man. Time,
in his relentless course, spares not the lofty
tower or the embattled fort ; and under his
withering touch, the pride and pageantry
of kings are but as nothing. Of all the
massive structures of the age of chivalry,
how few vestiges remain ! and these, mould-
ering day by day, attest, more forcibly
than even utter destruction, the insignifi-
cance of earthly objects.



" Stern sons of war '.-



Behold the boast of feudal pride !
What now of all your toils are known ?
A grassy trench, a broken stone ! "

Grand is the contrasted, the undying
beauty of the works of God ! The same
azure sky, whose sunbeams fell on Barnard's

" Battled tower and portal grey"

six centuries ago, still enlivens, with its
bright reflection, the lovely landscape of the
Tees, the river itself flows on as of old,
through its deep trench of solid rock, and
the eye can yet dwell on the same impressive
scenery that first attracted to the spot the
Norman founder of Barnard Castle. Next to
this enduring pre-eminence of nature, that
which has the most lasting existence in con-
nection with the feudal castle, is the halo
that the achievements of successive possess-
ors shed around its tottering ruins ; and in
this respect few memorials of the past can
vie with that we are about to describe.

Guy Baliol came into England with the
Conqueror, and received from William Rufus
a grant of the barony of Bywell in Northum-
berland, and the forests of Teesdale and Mar-
wood, with the lordships of Middleton and



Gainford, in Durham, all of which extensive
possessions descended to his son, Barnard de
Baliol, a potent baron and brave soldier.
This feudal lord, attracted by the commanding
situation, reared his castle on the lofty cliff
which overhangs the Tees, gave to it his own
name of Barnard, and there fixed his Caput
Baronise. Retainers soon gathered for pro-
tection and favour around the walls of their
chieftain's fortress, and a borough and market
town, endowed with immunities and privi-
leges, arose under its shelter. To the founder
of the castle succeeded his son, Barnard II.,
a warrior like his father, and an inheritor of
his gallant spirit. In 1174, he joined the
northern barons in their march to the relief
of Alnwick Castle, then beleaguered by "Wil-
liam of Scotland, and to his undaunted energy
the success of the expedition is mainly attri-
butable. Towards morning, when the baro-
nial forces had proceeded about twenty -five
miles from Newcastle, a dense fog arose, so
thick as to render the advance dubious and
dangerous, but, sensible of the necessity of
expedition, " Stay or turn who will," said
Baliol, " if I go alone, yet will I onward."
Fortune favoured the enterprise ; the mist
suddenly dispersed, and the towers of Aln-
wick glittered before them in the morning
sun. The siege was raised, and the Scottish
monarch led captive to King Henry at North-
ampton. The next possessor of Barnard
Castle, the son and heir of the former pro-
prietor, was Eustace de Baliol, whose name
occurs only in territorial grants and monastic
endowments. But the martial glory of the
race slept for a brief space only. Eustace's
son, Hugh de Baliol, who answered for thirty
knights' fees, stands prominently forward
among the bold barons who adhered to King
John, and is celebrated for his defence of
Barnard Castle against Alexander of Scot-
land ; but he confined not his efforts to
honourable warfare. As a predatory soldier,
he was long the terror of the north. His
death occurred before 1228, for in that year,
his son, John Baliol, paid one hundred and
fifty pounds relief. This feudal lord married
Devorguil, one of the three daughters and
co-heirs of Alan, of Galloway, a great baron
of Scotland, by Margaret, his wife, eldest
daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon,
grandson of David, King of Scotland ; and
from this alliance arose the claim of the Ba-
liols to the crown of that kingdom. John
de Baliol, distinguished for the martial fame
so long hereditary in his family, was illus-
trious also as the munificent founder of the
college at Oxford that still bears his name.
He died in 1268, leaving a son, Alexander de
Baliol, father of John de Baliol, the celebrated
competitor for the crown of Scotland, who
was declared king by the decision of Edward
I. of England. His rule however endured



140



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



for a brief period only, and he was compelled
to retire to his estate in Normandy, where
he died.

His son and successor, Edward Baliol, was
crowned King of Scotland after the battle of
Duplin, in 1332, and taking on himself the
feudal fetters, which even his father had
found it too degrading to endure, became
bound, under an enormous penalty, to serve
the English monarch in his wars. The proud
spirit of the Scots could ill brook this degra-
dation, and so strenuous were their efforts to
deliver their country, that three months had
barely elapsed before Edward Baliol fled,
defeated, across the border, to seek the aid
of the English monarch, by the assistance of
whom he recovered a temporary restoration.
At length, in 1355, weary of acting the part
of a phantom king, he made an absolute
resignation to Edward of England, of his
realm of Scotland, "by delivering a portion
of the soil and his golden crown." He also
surrendered his private estates, the county of
Galloway, and lands in Annandale ; and
received from Edward, in ready payment,
five thousand marks, and a pension for life
of two thousand pounds sterling. Of Edward
Baliol, little more is known than that his
death, according to Knighton, occurred at
Doncaster.

In him expired the chief male line of Ba-
liol, but some younger branches survived the
blight of the parent stem. The Baliols,
Lords of Cavers, still existed in 1368, but
before the close of the fourteenth century,
every trace of the name had passed away.
On the forfeiture of John Baliol's English
estates in 1296, Anthony Beke, Bishop of
Durham, seized Barnard Castle and its
dependencies in right of his royal franchise,
but, after a short tenure by the see, the ho-
nour and castle of Barnard were granted, by
the crown, to Guy Beauchamp, Earl of War-
wick, " the black dog of Arden," one of the
most powerful of the English nobles ; and
thenceforward, for a series of years, it formed
part of the magnificent heritage of the
princely house of Warwick. No race in
English history carries with it a stream of
more splendid associations, from the Con-
quest to the Tudor era, than that of the
warlike Beauchamps. Their story has been
twice told by Dugdale, and yet it is so inte-
resting, so fraught with romantic adventure,
and so brilliant in martial renown, that much
do we grieve that our narrow limits preclude
more than a passing mention of these illus-
trious Lords of Barnard Castle. After Guy
de Beauchamp followed in succession the two
brave earls Thomas, Richard Earl of War-
wick, the very plume and pride of chivalry,
and his son Henry, created at nineteen, Duke
of Warwick, and crowned the next year
King of Wight : but transcendent as were



their achievements, their name but rarely
occurs hi connexion with the castle of Bar-
nard. The towers of Warwick and the
forest of Arden had too many charms to
permit more than a casual visit to their
northern demesnes : and brief must have
been the residence of the Beauchamps there.
In the wars of the Roses, the strong fortress
of Barnard Castle is not even once men-
tioned.

In Henry, Duke of Warwick, the house of
Beauchamp reached the acme of its glory,
and with him the male line expired. His
sister and heiress, the Lady Anne, wedded
Richard, Earl of Salisbury, who in her right
became Earl of Warwick, and succeeded
to Barnard Castle. This — the " proud
setter up and puller down of kings "—fell at
Barnet Field in 1471, and though he left two
daughters, Isabel, wife of George, Duke of
Clarence, and Anne, married successively to
Edward, Prince of Wales, and Richard, Duke
of Gloucester, the latter appears to have
obtained undivided possession of the exten-
sive lands which the earl held in the bishopric
of Durham. Barnard Castle seems indeed
to have been the frequent residence of Glou-
cester, and to owe to him much of repair and
restoration. His highness is also said to
have endowed a college within the lordship,
for a dean and twelve secular priests — but
the design was left incomplete or perished
with its founder. Richard ascended the
throne in 1483, and fell at Bosworth in little
more than two years after. At his death,
the fee of Barnard Castle, vested in Henry
VII., who restored the estate to the heiress
of the Beauchamps, Anne, Countess of War-
wick, though probably only for the purpose
of acquiring it, more legitimately, himself;
as ha 1488, she passed it to him by feoffment.
Hutchinson, in his History of Durham,
asserts that Barnard Castle was afterwards
enjoyed by the Staffords, Dukes of Bucking -
ham, and the Nevills, Earls of Westmoreland ;
but Sir Cuthbert Sharp, in examining the
Bowes Papers, found nothing in the slightest
degree to confirm the statement. That
learned writer thus refers to the subject in
his " Memorials of the Rebellion of 1569."
" From the death of Richard III. the castle
appears to have remained in the possession
of the crown ; and though occasionally
claimed by the Prince Palatine, there is no
evidence to show that it ever belonged to
the Earls of Westmoreland."

Dubious, however, though this point may
be, certain it is that, on the outbreak of
" the Rising of the North," which involved
in ruin the great houses of Percy and
Nevill, Sir George Bowes of Streatlam, the
main prop of Elizabeth's government in
Durham, threw himself into Barnard Castle,
as a royal fortress, and after a gallant de-



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



HI



fence of eleven days against the forces of
the rebel earls, -which afforded time to the
Lords Warwick and Sussex to advance and
suppress the rising, surrendered on honour-
able terms.

In an ancient ballad, the siege is thus
commemorated : —

" Then Sir George Bowes he straight way rose,
After them some spoyle to make ;
These noble earles turned back againe,
And aye they vowed that knight to take.

That Baron he to his castle fled ;

To Barnard Castle then fled he ;
The uttermost walles were eathe to won,

The erles have won them presentlie.

The uttermost walles were lime and brick ;

But though they won them soon anone,
Long ere they won the innermost walles,

For they were cut in rock and stone."

Immediately after the suppression of the
insurrection, Barnard Castle was leased for
twenty-one years to Sir George Bowes, in
requital of his faithful and important ser-
vices; and in the reign of James I. was
assigned to the monarch's favourite, Robert
Carr, Viscount Rochester, afterwards Earl
of Somerset, on whose disgrace and con-
demnation, the lordship was resumed by
the crown, and continued thus vested until
the beginning of the seventeenth century,
when it passed by sale from the royal
trustees to Sir Henry Vane, the elder. The
grandson of this distinguished personage,
Christopher Vane, son of the famours Sir
Harry Vane, on being raised to the peerage
adopted the title of Baron Barnard, of Bar-
nard Castle, and that honour together with
the great Durham estates, has descended to
his lordship's representative, Henry, present
Duke of Cleveland.

" Barnard Castle," saith old Belaud,
" standeth stately upon Tees." It is founded
upon a very high bank, and its ruins impend
over the river, including within the area a
circuit of six acres and upwards. The for-
tress stood probably in all its princely
strength when Sir George Bowes held it
against the insurgent earls, and it remained
in some tolerable degree of repair till after
its sale to Sir Henry Vane. In 1630, it was
unroofed and totally dismantled, and from
that period the sumptuous edifice has been
gradually mouldering into decay.

" Nothing but the vast strength of its
walls," says Surtees, " has preserved the
shell of this noble fortress from the attacks
of time, neglect, and constant dilapidation."
Entering the gateway leading from the main
street or market (behind the two principal
inns) the outer area, where Leland places the
chapel, presents the appearance of an open
and nearly level close of pasturage, included
by three sides of the castle wall, and divided
on the north from the inner areas, by a deep



moat and wall. A portion of this outer area
on the east and south-east, has been enclosed
for plots of garden-ground, which it is neces-
sary to enter to trace the sweep of the walls
running along the edge of the crag above
Briggate, and after forming an obtuse angle
at the southern point, turning westward,
still commanding the low suburb and the
passage to the bridge. In this portion of the
walls, as Hutchinson observes, there is no
appearance of tower or bastion, nor, it may
be added, any but the most indistinct traces
of building in the interior. A portion of this
plot perhaps always lay open in pasturage.
The inner area, or rather the two inner
areas, lying north of the moat, have been
surrounded by defences of a much loftier
description. The chief strength or dungeon
tower of the fortress (that portion perhaps,
which baffled the rebel earls after they had
won the outer walls), has evidently occupied
the north-western area. The site is more
elevated than any other within the walls, and
encompassed on the south and east by a deep
inner moat, which, with a strong wall of good
masonry, divides it from the northern or
orchard area. This spot, where the prin-
cipal buildings both for defence and habitation
seem to have stood, is now converted into
garden-ground. The large area to the north-
east is still more completely covered by a
thick intricate orchard, which precludes all
attempt at ascertaining the interior disposi-
tions of the site. A large pond nearly in the
middle of the orchard, is never dry. The
walls of these two inner areas are still most
magnificent. To the west of the sally-port,
leading to the bridge, a huge rifted fragment
is nodding to its fall. Then a wall of excel-
lent masonry rims northward, with full but-
tresses and two pointed lights. Further
northward, a beautiful mullioned window
hung on projecting corbeils, still exhibits
within-side, on the soffit of its arch, the boar
of Richard with some elegant tracery, plainly
marking the latest portion of the castle to be
the work of Gloucester. A little further,
the great circular tower, of admirable and
perfect Ashler work, guards the north-
western angle of the fortress. The view of
the whole of this range of wall and tower
from the bridge, or from the narrow terrace
betwixt the castle crag and the river, is most
magnificent. From the round tower, whose
flight of steps and vaulted roofs are still per-
fect, the walls turn eastward ; in the centre
of this northern line, a gateway leads to the



Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) → online text (page 31 of 73)