Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) online

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south-west of the bridge, and passed into the
possession of Mr. Wailes, one of the re-
ceivers of Greenwich Hospital.



SUTTON SCARSDALE, in the county of
Derby, the seat of Robert Arkwright, Esq.

In the Doomsday Survey, Sutton appears
as being held by Roger de Poictou, one of
the Norman barons that came over with the
Conqueror, and contributed to the victory at
Hastings. In 1255 it was granted to Peter
de Harestan. The daughter and heiress of
his descendant, Robert de Harestan brought
this estate to Richard de Grey, and subse-
quently a coheiress of Grey conveyed it to
the Lekes.

Francis Leke of Sutton was created
Earl of Scarsdale in 1645 ; and upon the
death of the fourth earl in 1796, Sutton
was sold to Godfrey Clarke, Esq., from whose
family it came to Walter, first Marquess of Or-
mond, on his marriage with the daughter and
heiress of J. H. Price Clarke, Esq , After
the decease of the marqress, Sutton was
sold to Richard Arkwright, Esq., in the year
1825, from whom it has descended to his
son, the present owner.

The mansion of Sutton Scarsdale, as it
now appears, was partially erected in 1725
by Nicholas Leke, Earl of Scarsdale. Put
a dwelling of considerable antiquity existed
here before that time, Sutton having been
the principal residence of the Lekes so far
back as the reign of King Henry the Fourth.
A portion of this ancient edifice still remains,
a venerable memorial of the olden times.

The present House is a large and handsome
stone-building, overlooking an extensive
park. The style of architecture is imposing,
the massive stone-work being relieved upon
the north and east fronts by elegant fluted



columns, supporting elaborately carved Co-
rinthian capitals.

PARK HOUSE, Panffshire, the seat of Tho-
mas Gordon, Esq. It is supposed to have
been built in the fourteenth century by
Lord Ochiltree. In the House is a charter of
Alexander II., dated 1242, granting the lands
to Charles de Normanville, a name still
attached to certain boundaries.

The building is of the composite order of
architecture, but it has been added to at
various times by the different possessors.
Some of the walls are as much as thirteen
feet thick, and luop-holed, so as to form
a very tolerable place of refuge against the
ordinary modes of assaidt at a time when
the full powers of camion had not as yet
been brought into play.

The grounds comprise fifty acres, on
which are many fine trees. One old beech
is eighteen feet in circumference.

CLIPPESBY HOUSE, Norfolk, the seat of
the Rev. Henry Joseph Muskett.

In early days this estate belonged to the
family of De Clippesby, and their ancient
residence, called Clippesby Hall, still remains,
although it has been converted into a farm-
house. Their arms, carved in oak, and
painted upon the windows, have been left,
the undisturbed memorials of those by whom
it was formerly tenanted, while in the church
a very fine brass of the family remains in high
preservation.

Clippesby House, which was built in
1832 by Henry Muskett, Esq., is a hand-
some modern mansion of white brick, with
stone quoins and pilasters. It is pleasantly
situated upon a fine lawn, sheltered by plan-
tations, disposed with taste and kept in
excellent order.

STOBERRY HOUSE, Somersetshire, in the
parish of St. Cuthbert, Wells, the seat of Cap-
tain Sherston.

This estate has been possessed time out of
mind by the family of the present owner,
having been derived by inheritance from
Peter Davis, Esq., Recorder of Wells. The
House, which was built in the year 1796 by
Peter Sherston, Esq., stands about a mile to
the north of the city of Wells, which it over-
looks, its site being upon an eminence. Here
too it commands a fine prospect over the vale
below, extending as far as the Dorsetshire
hills.

It has a park appended to it of mode-
rate size, and tolerably well timbered.

PYE NEST, Yorkshire, near Halifax, the
seat of Henry Edwards, Esq., a magistrate
of the peace, and Deputy-Lieutenant for the



244



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



West Riding, and late Member of Parlia-
ment fur Halifax.

This property originally belonged to the
Lees' of Willow Hall, near Halifax, but
passed to the Edwards's by marriage with a
daughter of that family. The present man-
sion was built nearly a hundred years ago
by John Edwards, Esq., who left Warwick-
shire, and settled in the county of York in
1749. He was the grandfather of the pre-
sent owner.

The mansion is of the Italian style of
architecture, and consists of a central build-
ing, with extensive attached wings. The
entire front extends seventy-three yards.
The depth from north to south is forty
yards. The park around the House, within
a ring fence, includes an area of one hun-
dred and thirty acres.

DANBY HALL, Richmondshire, co. York,
the seat of Simon Thomas Scrope, Esq.,
whose family succeeded the Conyers in the
possession of this estate ; Simon Scrope, in
the year 1500, having married the daughter
and heiress of that house.

Danby Hall is a large and respectable
mansion, with an air of antiquity about it, well
becoming the ancient name and illustrious
lineage of its inhabitants. The present
front was built by the Simon Scrope men-
tioned above, and the whole, as Whitaker
happily expresses it, " has that aspect of
present stability, united with long continu-
ance past, which is lost in decayed aban-
doned residences, and cannot be exhibited
for a century hence in those of modern
date."

The grounds are to a considerable extent
covered witli well grown woods of an
ancient date, the domain being washed by the
picturesque little River Ure or Yore. The
present possessor of Danby, Simon Thomas
Scrope, Esq., is heir male of the great his-
toric house of Scrope, so celebrated and in-
fluential in the baronial times of England.

"Though some of their titles are now
dormant, and others extinct, few persons
were more distinguished in the fourteenth,
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries ; and
Shakspeare has given immortality to no
less than three individuals of that name.
The house of Scrope was ennobled in two
branches, Scrope of Bolton and Scrope
of Masiiam and Upsal, and its members
shared the glory of all the great victories of
the middle ages. An unbroken male de-
scent from the Conquest, if not from the
time of Edward the Confessor, and the
emphatic declaration of the Earl of Arundel,
given in 1386, as a witness in the celebrated
controversy between Sir Richard Pc ope and
Sir Robert Grosvenor for the right of bear-
ing the coat, azure, a bend or., as well



as of numerous other deponents in that
cause, that the representative of this family
' was descended from noble and generous
blood of gentry and ancient ancestry, who
had always preserved their name and estate
in dignity and honour,' as well as their
alliances and property, sufficiently attest
their antiquity and importance ; whilst the
mere enumeration of the dignities which
they attained between the reigns of Ed-
ward II. and Charles I. proves the high
rank they enjoyed. In this period of three
hundred years, the house of Scrope produced
two earls and twenty barons, one chancellor,
four treasurers, and two chief-justices of
England, one archbishop, and two bishops,
five Knights of the Garter, and numerous
bannerets, the highest military order in the
days of chivalry."*

BKANDON LODGE, Warwickshire, near
Coventry, the seat of James Beech, Esq.

Brandon Lodge was built about eighty
years ago, by Lord Grey de Ruthyn, and is
in the villa style of architecture, present-
ing a somewhat picturesque appearance. The
name of it is derived from the village, and is
thus explained by Dugdale : — "This being a
part of Wolston parish, lying on the other
side of Avon, and situate at the foot of a hill,
the soil whereof is sandy and dry, makes me
conjecture that it might originally have its
name from the effect that the sun doth by
heat ofttimes produce upon such high
ground ; or otherwise, because being anciently
woody, it was first made fit for tillage by
burning the thickets that naturally grew
thereon." If we accept either of these in-
terpretations, Brandon — or Brandune, as it
was anciently spelt — would signify the brent,
or burnt down.

Mr. Beech is also possessed of

THE SHAWE, in the county of Stafford, near
Cheadle. This estate came into the Beech
family through the eldest of three co-heir-
esses — sisters of the name of Stubbs — who
married the uncle of the grandfather of the
present owner. The mansion belongs to the
Grecian style of architecture, and is a hand-
some edifice, with pleasant grounds attached
to it. It was built by the late James Beech,
Esq., about sixty years since, near the site
of an old house that had been erected be-
tween three and four centuries ago.

SLATE HOUSE, Slaugham, Sussex, the seat
of Edward Stanford, Esq,, is situate near the
village of Warninglid. It consists of a
family mansion, plainly but substantially
built of stone, placed in an undulating park
of about thirty -six acres ; the south and east

* Burke's "Landed Gentry."



SEATS OF GREAT ERITAIN.



245



fronts have pleasing home views. The lawns
around are well laid out with terrace walks
and shrubberies. This estate, which con-
tains about four hundred acres of strong land
well stocked with thriving oak and beech
timber, came into the possession of the
present possessor in the year 1841, at the
death of his father, William Stanford, Esq.,
of Preston Place, in the county of Sussex,
whose property it had been since the year
1827, when he purchased it of Mr. Cooke.
At that time there was only a small farm-
house on the estate ; but on the present Mr.
Stanford's succeeding to it, he built the
existing mansion.

Mr. Stanford is second surviving son of
the late William Stanford, Esq., of Preston
Place, by his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas
Tourle, Esq., of Landport, near Lewes,
Sussex.

His elder and only surviving brother suc-
ceeded at his father's death in 1841, to the
estates of Preston Place.

Mr. Stanford, of Slate House, lately pur-
ehased an adjoining estate, called " Rocking-
h'un Hall," which is an ancient castellated
building. Heretofore it has been principally
occupied by Roman Catholic families, and
the east wing used as a chapel, sacristy, &c.
It is beautifully placed on an eminence com-
manding most extensive views of the Weald
and South Downs, and surrounded by park-
like meadows and rich woods. It is at
present uninhabited. Both estates are prin-
cipally freehold.

The estates of William Peters, Esq., (Ash-
fold), Major Beauclerck (St. Leonards), and
Warden Serjison, Esq., surround Mr. Stan-
ford's.

WEST BRADENHAM HALL, co. Norfolk,
the seat of William Meybohm Rider Haggard,
Esq., Barrister at Law, is a commodious
mansion, built in the substantial style of the
last century, with a greater regard to comfort
and convenience than to architectural beauty,
The Saxon interpretation of Bradenham is a
village (or town) in a broad woody vale ; not
an unjust description of it in the present day.
This manor is not without some historical
interest in the feudal ages. At the Conquest,
the lands of Godric in this part were granted
to the great Earl Warren, who infeoffed
therewith Osmond de Cailly, a Norman
knight, one of his bold retainers, who took
his name from a town in Normandy. From
this origin sprang the ancient family of
Cayley in Yorkshire. In 11G3 John de
Cailly was lord. He built (the history of
the manor records) a noble mansion, sur-
rounded by a deep moat. Some part of
the ruins of the foundations were dug
out of the land where it stood in 1760.
The moat still remains, a feature of interest



in the grounds of the present residence; and
near it another and smaller one, which tra-
dition says was the site of an ancient church.
The present church was built by Sir Osbert
de Cailly, about 1280. Thomas, his brother,
was presented to the rectory.

The manor of Bradenham passed through
the hands of the Caillys, Cliftons, Knyvetts,
&c. : in the last century the present mansion
was built by Thus. Smith, Esq., the then owner,
and was purchased in 1817 by W. Henry
Haggard, Esq., Barrister at Law, the grand-
father of the present possessor, so far
connected with the ancient owners of the
manor, as claiming descent from Sir Andrew
Ogard, a Danish knight, who, having gained
renown in France under the banners of
Henry VI., married the heiress of Clifton,
the then possessor.

CRQXTON PARK, near St, Neots, co. Cam-
bridge, the seat of George Onslow Newton,
Esq. This estate was originally possessed
by the Leeds family ; the old house having
been built in the year 15G0, by Edward
Leeds, Esq. The mansion, as it now ap-
pears, is a modern structure, of ample size,
both handsome and convenient. It is sur-
rounded by pleasure-grounds, and a prettily
wooded park, while at about eighty yards'
distance is a rustic old church, of a very
picturesque appearance, which is supposed
to have been, at one time, a Roman Catholic
chapel.

WHITEFIELD HOUSE, Ireby, Cumberland,
the seat of Joseph Gillbanks, Esq. This
property has successively been held by Sir
William Dalston, of Dalston Hall, in the
same county, and by the family of Guff.

The remains of an older mansion may still
be seen upon the premises, but they afford
no sufficient data for fixing the time of its
erection. The new House was built in 1805,
by John Guff, Esq., the first of that name
who possessed the estate, and it has since
then been considerably enlarged by the pre-
sent owner. It is now a comfortable dwelling,
of good size, but belonging to no particular
style of architecture, and stands on a rising
knoll. From the east it looks upon the lake
of Overwater, and from the south it com-
mands a fine view of the majestic Skiddaw.
The ground about the House is well wooded,
and by no means deficient in picturesque
beauty.

MIMWO0D, in the county of Herts, lies at
the eastern extremity of the parish of North
Mimms, where it joins that of Hatfield, on one
side, and Northaw on the other. The land,
now included in the Mimwood estate, then wild
and uncultivated, belonged, in the reign of
Henry VIII. , to the family of Sir Thomas



246



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



More, which had their residence in the
neighbouring mansion of Grobions, pulled
down within the last few years.

Mimwood is now the property of William
John Lysley, of the Inner Temple, Esq., late
high sheriff, a magistrate and deputy-lieu-
tenant of the county. The residence, which
stands on an eminence sloping towards the
south and west, in a pleasant, salubrious, and
sheltered situation, overlooking richly wooded
and undulating country, was built on some
earlier foundations, shortly after the en-
closure of the land, and has since been en-
larged and beautified, somewhat in the
Italian style.

ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT, Mounts Bay, Corn-
wall, the property of the St. Aubyn family.
Some places derive all their celebrity from
their possessors, whilst others convey it to
their owners. In this instance, although the
St. Aubyns are of sufficient standing to do
honour to most places, here their fame arises
from their property. St. Michael's Mount

" That beauteous gem, set in the silver sea,"

has been celebrated for ages. It is supposed
to have been the Ictis visited by the Phoeni-
cians for the purchase of Tin from the
Britons. The Archangel St. Michael con-
descended to honour it with his presence,
and hence it became invested with a holy
character, and was visited by many pilgrims.
A monastery arose as a necessary con-
sequence,* and daily and nightly were
offered up the prayers of the monk and
stranger devotee. No doubt in the calm
evenings of summer the sound of the vesper
hymn, coming over the waters, was often
heard by the inhabitants of the neighbouring
town, and tended to keep up the sanctity of
this holy spot. Here also lived

" That valiante Cornishman
Whoslewe ye Giante Cormoran."

Other warriors also lived and died here,
and often instead of peaceful prayer, the
shouts of fighting soldiers were heard, when
the besieged and the besieger were striving
for mastery; the mount partaking the
double character of a monastery and a
stronghold from the time of Richard I.
to that of Henry VIII. f The first war-
like possessor was Henry de la Pomeray,
who perceiving its capabilities, took it by
stratagem from the monks and fortified it ;

* It existed in the time of Edward the Confessor, who
endowed it with certain privileges ; it was further en-
riched by a grant from Robert, Earl of Moreton,
A.D. 1085, but he annexed it to the Abbey of Mount St.
Michael in Normandy.

t It appears there was no regular establishment of
monks after the time of Henry V., the last prior being
William Lambert, who was admitted Oct. 1, 1410. After
that, it was for a time held by King's College, Cam-
bridge, then by Sion Abbey, Middlesex; to which body
it appertained till the general dissolution of religious
houses by Henry VIII.



he afterwards held it for John against his
brother Richard I., and it was only sur-
rendered on the appearance of a large
force to compel him to do so. Pomeray
died soon after from fright, dreading the
consequences of his rebellion.

As time rolled on, we find it again sur-
prised hi the reign of Edward IV., by the
Earl of Oxford, after the battle of Barnet
Heath 1471. Oxford boldly held the Castle
against Edward's forces, till after a severe
battle, in which the besieging general Sir
John Arundell, of Trerice, was slain on the
sands at the foot of the Mount. Of this Sir
John Arundell, the following is recorded in
Hals' History of Cornwall. " He had long
before been told by some fortune tellers, that
he should be slain on the sands ; wherefore,
to avoid that destiny, he removed from
Efford, near Stratton on the Sands, where
he dwelt, to Trerice, far off from the sea
sands, yet by this misfortune fulfilled the
prediction in another place." Oxford was
afterwards slain at Bosworth, fighting on the
side of Henry VIT. The Mount also
afforded refuge to the celebrated Lady
Catherine Gordon, wife of Perkin Warbeck,
during his futile attempt to wrest the crown
from Henry VII., and here she remained
until the entire ruin of his fortunes.

During the Cornish rebellion in the reign
of Edward VI., the Mount was held by
Humphrey Arundell, of Lanherne ; after a
time, Humphrey joined the rebels, and be-
came their general, leaving this place to
take the command. Some of the neighbour-
ing gentry seized the Castle as a place of
safety for their wives and families, but they
were soon dislodged, escaping with life, but
not without being plundered. From that
period till the wars between Charles and
the Parliament, the Mount was held by
different persons under grants from the
crown, but pending this struggle Sir Francis
Bassett placed a garrison here on behalf of
the king. For this and other services it was
granted to the Bassett family hi fee ; but so
much were they impoverished by their efforts
during the war, and by compositions after -
wards, that they were obliged to sell it about
the year 1660, to Sir John St. Aubyn, in
whose descendants it now remains.

Seven John St. Aubyns in succession
possessed the Mount, and each having
" proved himself desirous of supporting, of
maintaining, and of beautifying one of the
most extraordinary spots in the whole
world," it now attracts almost, if not as many
visitors as there were pilgrims during the
times gone by.

Having given a slight sketch of its history,
a few words may be added as to the ap-
pearance of this interesting site. The
present building is of various dates ; some



SEATS OP GREAT BRITAIN.



247



portions are said to be as far back as the
reign of Edward the Confessor, * others of
modern times ; but as a whole, general har-
mony prevails, and the effect is very striking.
The most interesting portions within are the
guard room, refectory or Chevy Chase room,
and the chapel. The refectory remains in
nearly the same condition as when used by
the monks ; the only material alteration
being the addition of a splendidly carved
roof of English oak. It is truly a noble
room, and is moreover remarkable for the or-
namented frieze which runs round it. This
represents various hunting scenes, and thence
the appellation " the Chevy Chase room."
The chapel is of good proportions and neatly
fitted up, it also contains a tine-toned organ ;
the Church service was usually given here
on the Sabbath during the residence of the
last proprietor. From the tower of this
chapel are remarkably fine views both in-
land and seaward. One of the pinnacles
is the famous St. Michael's Chair ; whoever
sits therein before marriage, rules either
wife or husband, as the case may be. Of
this there can hardly exist a doubt, for strong
must be the nerves of the person who
attempts such a perilous adventure, and yet
some one or other is frequently performing
the feat.

Enough has been said, to show that St.
Michael's Mount has a claim on the his-
torian, from the circumstances connected
with it in former times ; that it attracts
the mere tourist, from the singularity and
beauty of its situation, and the antiquarian
by the remains of bye-gone ages ; but there
is still another point from which to view
it ; that is, its geological position. Granite
hills protrude themselves at intervals
from Dartmoor, in Devonshire, throughout
Cornwall, even to the Scilly Islands. St.
Michael's Mount is one of those hills, rising
up clear and well dehned above the surround-
ing country. .But it is not entirely granite,
for its base is of killas, a slate formation, and
hence its great interest to the geologist, the
junction of these rocks. This junction may
be clearly seen on the south-eastern and
north-western sides. On the south-eastern
portion the two rocks are most curiously
intermixed, the slate being traversed in all
directions by veins of granite, and the granite
in its turns enclosing masses of slate ; at
other times they are so passed one into the
other, that you can scarcely tell where
granite terminates or slate commences. On
the northwest the junction is much less
confused, each rock showing its own distinct
character. The granite veins at the point
of junction abound with various minerals,
amongst others crystalized oxide of tin,
beryl, phosphate of lime or apatite, fluor

* Davies Gilbert's History of Cornwall, vol. ii. p. 214.



spar, tungsted of iron, topaz and mica.
In fact the Mount forms within a small
space, as large a held for geological inquiry
as may be well conceived.

THE GRANGE, Devonshire, about six miles
from Honiton, the seat of Edward Simcoe
Drewe, Esq., a magistrate and deputy-lieu-
tenant for the county. The House was
begun in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and
completed in the commencement of James
the First's reign, by Sir Thomas Drewe, who
was knighted at the latter monarch's coro-
nation. He was the son of Edward Drewe,
Esq., of Killerton, Serjeant-at-law to Queen
Elizabeth, who purchased the estates in
Broadhembury from the grandson of Thomas
Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, upon
whom they had been conferred at the disso-
lution of monasteries. They had formed a
part of the property belonging to the Abbey
of Dunkeswell, which had its grange here.

The ancient and knightly family of DreAve,
originally of Dre wescliffe, co. Devon, descends
in a direct line from Droge or Dru, a noble
Norman (son of Walter de Ponz and brother
of Richard, ancestor of the Cliffords), who
accompanied his kinsman William the Con-
queror to England. The senior line is now
represented by Edward Simcoe Drewe,
Esq., of the Grange; and the chief deriva-
tive branches are seated in Ireland, viz., the
Drews of Meanus, co. Kerry ; Strand
House, Youghal, co. Cork ; and of Drews-
boro', co. Clare.

Sir William Pole records the possession
of lands by the Drewes at Drewes Teign-
ton so early as the reign of Henry II.
Afterwards, in the reign of Edward IV.
they possessed lands at Modbury. At a yet
later period they removed to Sharpham, upon
the river Dart, and thence, as we have before
seen them, removed to Killerton, which
was the principal abode of the learned
Serjeant already mentioned.

The mansion of the Grange is built in the shape
of a Roman I, with a quadrangle at the upper,
or northern end, and is situated in a fertile
plain at the base of the lofty Blackdown
Hills,which here terminate in Hembury Fort,
a place remarkable as having been the site
of a Roman encampment, whereof the triple



Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 2) → online text (page 54 of 73)