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IRENE DWEN ANDREWS




VICISSITUDES OF FAMILIES.



VICISSITUDES OF FAMILIES.



Series*



SIR BERNARD BURKE, LL.D.,

El 1st Ittng of "Stms,

AUTHOE OP " THE PEEEAGE AND BABONBTAQE," " THE LAKDED
GENTET," ETC.



SECOND EDITION.



LONDON:

LONGMAN, GEEEN, LONGMAN, AND EGBERTS
1863.



CONTENTS.



PA OB

INTRODUCTION , vii

LANDLESS LORDS AND BARONETS .... 1

VICISSITUDES OF PEERAGE TITLES :

DUKEDOMS OP CLARENCE CAMBRIDGE GLOU-
CESTER YORK AND KENT: EARLDOMS OF WAR-
WICK SALISBURY SHREWSBURY AND DERBY :
THE STORY OF THE COHEIRS OP DUDLEY : PEER-
AGE CLAIMS : B ANBURY DEVON HUNTINGDON
AND WILLOUGHBY OP PARHAM : ATTAINDER:
IRISH TITLES : KILDARE ORMONDE DESMOND
WATERFORD ROCHE OP FERMOY BALTINGLASS
ESMONDE TYRCONNEL TALBOT OF MALAHIDE
SCOTCH PEERAGES: CRAWFURD BREADALBANE
MAR DOUGLAS THE STORY OP THE GREAT
DOUGLAS CAUSE : RESIGNATION OF PATENTS :
QUEENSBERRY SINCLAIR CAITHNESS : NEW-
BURGH : CARDINAL ERSKINE .... 25

EARLDOM OF ANGLESEY 70

STORY OF PHILIP D'AUVERGNE .... 89

THE DE LA POLES 107

HECTOR GRAHAM, OP LEA CASTLE .... 129
A TALE OF MAGIC ON LOCHLOMOND .... 181
THE TRAGEDY OF COR8TORPHINJZ .... 202
RISE OF THE 8TRUTTS OF BELPER .... 213



2055980



VI CONTENTS.

PAGE

THE PARKYNS FAMILY 231

FATE OP THE EAELS MARISCHAL .... 230

SELF-RELIANCE 246

THE FATE OP SEAFORTH 266

AN ENGLISH FLOWER TRANSPLANTED TO ITALIAN SOIL 282

THE PILGRIM FATHER 288

THE HEIR OF DE LA PRE . . . . . 300
THREE PLANTAGENET LADIES :

THE FAIR MAID OP KENT ELIZABETH OF YORK
AND MARGARET OF CLARENCE: THE STORY OF
THE COHEIR OF THE COUNTESS OF KENT, AND THE
STORY OF ROGER STAFFORD, THE GREAT-GRAND-
SON OF THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS . 307
HEIRS OF THE BLOOD ROYAL OF SCOTLAND . . 330
THE FORTUNES OF THE WIDVILLES .... 355
A TALE OF A KNIGHT OF ST. JOHN . . . 373
THE SMYTHS OF ASHTON COURT .... 387
THE OGLANDEF:S OF NUSWELL .... 416
SUFFOLK VICISSITUDES :

ASHFIELD AND D'EWES, OF STOWLANGTOFT TEND-

RING OF TENDRING MANNOCK TIMPERLEY

UEVENINGHAM HOVEL WINGFIELD NAUNTON

HUNTINGFIELD ROKEWODE CORNWALLI3

WENTWORTH OF NETTLESTEAD (THE STORY OF
VISCOUNT OCKUAM) MOORE OF KENTTVELL (THE
STORY OF THE LAST INHERITOR) DE TJFFORD
DE LA POLE A>'D BRANDON .... 427

.... . 441



INTRODUCTION.



ENDOWMENT OF HEREDITARY RANK VICISSITUDES OF
TITLES LONG CONTINUANCE IN THE MALE LINE or
IRISH AND SCOTCH PEERAGES DUKEDOM OP MONTROSE
RAPID EXTINCTION OP EUGLISH HONOURS EXILED
FAMILIES.



INTRODUCTION.



" Nihil est aptius ad delectationem lectoris, quam temporum
varietates, fortunseque vicissitudines." CICEBO, 3. de Oral.



THE favour with which the two former Series of my
" VICISSITUDES OF FAMILIES" have been received, and the
consequent desire I feel to render the Work as perfect as
my resources and researches will allow, induce me to add
a third and concluding Series, and thus complete my
original plan, by introducing, besides some further narra-
tives of the rise and downfall of families from the causes
already stated, the curious vicissitudes attending many of
our English TITLES.

There is one other part of my subject I wish in this
Volume to illustrate, in a more ample manner than I have
heretofore done. On a former occasion I ventured to
suggest a remedy for the fatal results which accrue from
the separation of title and estate : the notion has been a
kind of crotchet with me, and, in support of it, I purpose
adducing in the following pages a few striking instances
of the decay of families arising from this particular cause.
Some such enactment as that which I have recommended



X INTRODUCTION.

would meet a great evil. It would be a deed of in-
surance in favour of posterity, a fortification against
extravagance. Hereditary dignity would never be re-
duced to absolute penury, and cases of want and
misery, so frequent amongst landless peers and baronets,
could never occur. If a provision, however small, were
attached to titles of honour, what painful scenes of fallen
greatness and national reproach might we not have been
spared ! How often do we see the descendants of some
mighty peer, to whom a nation's gratitude assigned, with
acclaim, a title which has become historic, sink to abject
destitution ! Within my own knowledge I could name
several ; and it is only a year or two ago that I found in
a common pauper, in one of the Dublin workhouses, the
heir presumptive of a barony that is associated with the
martial exploits of Poictiers and Cressy.

The Vicissitudes of TITLES are as striking as the Vicis-
situdes of FAMILIES.

" Where is Bohun ?" exclaimed, in an eloquent lament,
Chief Justice C re we, "Where is Mowbray? Where is
Mortimer ? Nay, which is more and most of all, where
is Plantagenet ?" Remarkable, indeed, is this extinction
of families, but the extinction of TITLES is even more so to
the historical reader, who cannot but experience feelings of
sorrow at the disappearance of those famous titles, house-
hold words with him, the wearers of which senators,
statesmen, or warriors shed such brilliancy o'er many
a chapter of our English annals. In some instances a
tendency to vicissitudes attaches to a particular title,
and passes on through successive possessors of it, al-



INTRODUCTION. XI

though of different lineage and name. Where now are
Clare and Clarence, March and Kent, Gloucester and
Dorset, Oxford and Rivers, D'Arcy and Lovel, Her-
bert of Cherbury and Bassett of Drayton, Montagu and
Halifax, Wharton and Harcourt ? Those old dignities
are, however, not forgotten ; and the best English houses
are proud of being able to connect themselves ever so
remotely with them.

There is a charm that wins us in the titles that occur
in our early reading, especially in those titles that are
linked to feudal achievements. The magnificence of
chivalry hangs upon them, and dazzles the young mind
with a brightness that never entirely fades upon the me-
mory. After-study may render us more correct and cer-
tain, but it is the histories we have pored over and doated
on in our youth that really make " familiar in our mouths
as household words Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloster." Each one
of us seems to have a personal interest and a personal
pride in our great bygone titles, and each would feel hurt,
as it were, should an unworthy person a person not up
to the mark re-assume any of them. Like the sword of
the Conqueror, or the crown of Queen Elizabeth, they
must not be grasped by the weak or the churlish. They
are the trade marks of that historic gold which admits of
no alloy.

In England the extinction of hereditary dignities has
been most rapid; less so in Scotland, and far less so in
Ireland.
The Peerage of Scotland is still adorned by the famous



XH INTRODUCTION.

titles of Argyll, Athole, Montrose,* Crawford, Angus,
Perth, Strathmore, Falkland, Forbes, Saltoun, Gray, and
many others, all held by the male heirs of those on whom
the dignities were conferred.

In Ireland attainder and confiscation have either driven
into exile, or reduced to an obscure position at home, the
heirs of several of its oldest titles ; but it is rare in that
country for a peerage to fail for want of a male suc-
cession.

The Irish Peerage exhibits the ancient titles of Kildare,
Ormonde, Clanricarde, Kerry, Inchiquin, Fingall, Howtb,

* There are three remarkable facts connected with the history
of the family of Montrose :

I. For seven hundred years, there has never been a collateral

succession, since the Grahams first branched off from the
family of Dalkeith and Abercorn. On two occasions, the
grandson succeeded his grandfather, but there is no in-
stance of the direct line being broken.

II. The intermarriages, which continued this long line of ances-

tors, have invariably been with nolle families. As far as
they can be ascertained, for four hundred years the wives
have been always daughters of actual peers.

III. Not one of the successive heads of the House of Montrose
has married an heiress, except on one occasion, when a
Marquesas of Montrose married the younger daughter of
the only Duke of Ilothes ; but as the lady did not share her
father's inheritance, she did not, according to the rule in
Scotland, bring the arms.

Thus, in consequence of the long continuance of the male line
m noble families in Scotland, and the paucity of heiresses, this
Montrose family, one of the noblest of the three kingdoms, has
no quarterings, while other families of much shorter duration
in the male line, have quarterings by the hundred.



INTRODUCTION. Xlll

Westmeath, Gormanston, Taaffe, Kinsale, Trimleston,
Dunsany, Dunboyne, and many others, all still possessed
by the male heirs of the original grantees ; while in England
a vast number of the existing dignities with historic titles,
such as Northumberland, Marlborough, Newcastle, Bath,
Buckingham, Exeter, Suffolk, Dudley, Salisbury, West-
moreland, Warwick, Leicester, Burlington, Beauchamp, Le
Despenser, De Ros, Berners, Grey de Ruthyn, Beaumont,
Camoys, Hastings, &c., are held either by heirs general,
through females, or by families slightly, and in some cases
not at all, connected with the early possessors. Nevertheless
an ancient peerage is like a regiment : upon its colours and
name glow the honours and deeds of men long departed ;
but still it is the same corps, inheriting the olden glory,
and bound to maintain and perpetuate an entail of
fame.

It is, indeed, quite surprising the ever-occurring extinc-
tion of English titles of honour.

After William of Normandy had won at Hastings the
broad lands of England, he partitioned them among the chief
commanders of his army, and conferred about twenty
Earldoms : not one of these now exist, nor one of the
honours conferred by William Rufus, Henry I., Stephen,
Henry II., Richard I., or John.

All the English Dukedoms, created from the institution
of the order down to the commencement of the reign of
Charles II., are gone, except only Norfolk and Somerset,
and perhaps Cornwall, enjoyed by the Prince of Wales.
At one time in the reign of ELIZABETH, Norfolk and
Somerset having been attainted, the whole order of Dukes



XIV INTRODUCTION.

became extinct, and remained so for about fifty years,
until James I. created George Villiers Duke of Bucking-
ham.

Winchester and Worcester (the latter now merged in
the Dukedom of Beaufort) are the only existing Mar-
quessates* older than the reign of George III. !

The Earl's coronet was very frequently bestowed under
the HENRYS and the EDWARDS : it was the favorite distinc-
tion, besides being the oldest ; and yet, of all the Earldoms
created by the Normans, the Plantagenets, and the Tudors,
eleven only remain, and of these, six are merged in higher
honors, the only ones giving independent designation
being Shrewsbury, Derby, Huntingdon, Pembroke, and
Devon.

The present House of Lords cannot claim amongst its
members a single male descendant of any one of the Barons
who were chosen to enforce Magna Charta, or of any
one of the Peers who are known to have fought at
Azincourt; and the noble House of Wrottesley is the
solitary existing family, among the Lords, which can boast
a male descent from a Founder of the Order of the
Garter. Sir William Dugdale's History of the Baronage
of England, published in 1675, contains all the English
Peerages created up to that time. The Index of these
titles occupies fourteen closely printed columns, a single
one of which would easily include the names of all
the dignities that remain now out of the whole category.

But though titles have thus passed away, the Peerage

* I do not, of course, include Marqnessates the second titles
of Dukedoms titles which neither have nor ever can have se-
parate existence.



INTRODUCTION. XV

of England even now is, to use the words of " Coniugsby,"
" the finest in Europe :"*

" multosque per annos
Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum."

The fortunes of exiled families is another feature on
which I should have liked, had space permitted, to have
dwelt, in the present volume : the remarkable fortunes of
those gallant and energetic men, who, driven from their
own land, established themselves in foreign countries, and
won distinction abroad.

" Quae regio in terris nostri non plena cruoris ?" Every-
where in Europe, in every great war, and in almost every
martial enterprise, our countrymen may be traced. Their
fame is universal : France, Prussia, Holland, Spain, Ger-
many, Sweden, Russia, and Belgium have all been served,

* Hear, too, what Jean Jacques Konsseau, anything but a
flatterer of aristocracy, says of it : " If you know the English
nobility you must be aware that it is the most enlightened, the
best taught, the wisest and the bravest in Europe. This being
so, it is unnecessary to enquire if it be the most ancient, for, in
speaking of what it is, no question arises as to what it has been.
The peers of England are certainly not the slaves of the prince,
but his friends ; not the tyrants of the people, but its chiefs,
its guarantees of liberty, gustainers of their country, and sup-
porters of the throne, they form an invincible equilibrium be-
tween the people and the sovereign. Their first duty is to the
nation, their second to him who governs it it is not his will but
his right that they consult ; supreme administrators of the laws
in the House of Lords, and sometimes law makers, they render
justice equally to the people and the crown, and they allow no
one to say ' God and my sword,' but only ' God aud my right.' "
Nouvelle Heloise, Letter LXIIL



XVI INTRODUCTION.

and gallantly served too, by English, Scotch, and Irish
prowess. The vicissitudes consequent on civil wars and
attainders which have driven good and brave men to
thus devote to foreign lands those energies and abilities
which under better auspices might have added lustre to
the history of their own country have affected the public
weal almost as much as any other form of family suffering.

In two of the greatest victories ever achieved over the
English, those of Beauge and Almanza, the French were
commanded, in the former by the famous Scotch General,
John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, and in the latter, by the
equally renowned English commander, James Duke of
Berwick. Singularly enough, at Almanza, while the French
were thus under an English General, the English army
was led by a French officer, the Marquis de Ruvigny.

In more modern times there was scarcely one of the
Marshals of Napoleon abler or more considered than Mac-
donald, Duke of Tarentum ; and in our own day, Patrick
MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, has given another illustri-
ous addition to the roll of British names associated with
foreign renown. Under every nation's banner but their
own the Irish fought with success, and some of them
attained the highest rank.

Marshal Brown, who contended so ably against the
great Frederick, De Lacy, who organized the Russian
army, and the heroic Mahony, who saved Cremona, who
gained immortal glory at Almanza, and became eventually
Lieutenant-General and Commander of Castile, were
Irishmen. " The Thirty Years' War" enlisted many a bold
and adventurous Englishman and Scot in the army of



INTRODUCTION. XV11

Sweden, and many an enthusiastic soldier from Ireland in
that of Austria. Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein were
the leaders of the antagonistic parties and religions, and the
Protestant and Catholic had each his opportunity of
service.

The "Lion of the North" ranged under his colours
the Hamiltons, and Douglases, and Gordons, and a host
of others from Scotland: (who does not recall Captain
Dugald Dalgety of Sir Walter Scott's Legend of Mont-
rose ?) and during the period of religious persecution the
protection of Austria and Spain seduced from home many
a well-descended Catholic, many a Dormer, a Leslie,* an

* Walter Leslie, a younger son of the ancient family of Leslie
of Balquhain, in Aberdeenshire, entered the service of the Em-
peror of Germany in the beginning of the seventeenth century,
and rose to high distinction during the Thirty Years' War. He
was devoted to the interests of the House of Austria ; and the
share which he had in the death of Wallenstein, Duke of Fried-
land, has been celebrated by the pen of Schiller. He was amply
rewarded for his services by the Emperor of Germany, who
created him Count of the Sacred Roman Empire, and bestowed
upon him large estates in Bohemia and Styria. He married the
Princess Anna Francesca, daughter of Prince Dietrichstein.
This alliance is remarkable, insomuch as it shows the position in
which a family of the untitled Scottish gentry stood in the scale
of European nobility in the seventeenth century. Walter Leslie
was the younger son of an Aberdeenshire laird of ancient and
noble blood, but what we now-a-days would call a commoner.
He was a younger branch of that family, which was subse-
quently raised to the peerage with the title of liothes ; and hia
highest dignity was that of being possessor of an estate that was
a barony. He was a Scottish lesser Baron. Yet the second son
of this untitled country gentleman was considered a fit and
proper husband for the daughter of a German princely family .

b



XV'iii INTRODUCTION.

O'Reilly,* and an O'Donnell ; while the attractions of a
new world, where a greater freedom of thought existed,
led across the Atlantic the Pilgrim Fathers to form a mighty
nation on the western main.

My little work is now brought to an end, and will not,
I trust, be deemed unworthy of a place in the student's
library, as illustrating a peculiar and not uninteresting
" endroit" in history. The Vicissitudes of Families have in



It is true, that he had previously been created a Count of the
Empire, but that dignity would not alone have opened the door
of the Dietrichstein palace to him in the relation of son-in-law if
his birth had not been regarded as thoroughly noble. There
can be no doubt that his sixteen quarters of pure nobility were
curiously scanned before the Princess Anna Francesca was in-
duced to bestow her hand upon this successful soldier of fortune.
* The rise of the O'Reillys in Spain supplies an interesting anec-
dote : At the close of the Seven Years' War (1762), forming, as
it were, an episode of that great contest, hostilities commenced
between Spain and Portugal. In the regiment of Ultonia, which
fought on the Spanish side, was an Irish officer, whom, on
being left for dead on the field of battle, the followers of the
camp were, as usual, about to despoil, when he cried out that he
was the Due d'Arcos. The hope of a reward or ransom saved
his life ; but on his return to Madrid he was commanded into
the presence of the Duke's widow, and interrogated why he had
presumed to usurp her husband's name. " Madam," replied he,
" if I had known a more illustrious one I would have sought
its protection." The presence of mind evinced, both in assuming
the name in the hour of danger, and in his apt reply to the
haughty duchess, ensured him this lady's special favour, as her
influence did his rapid advancement in public life. This officer
was the celebrated Count O'Reilly, (youngest son of Thomas
O'Reilly, Esq., of Baltrasna, Co. Meath), who commanded the
African expedition under Charles III. of Spain, and was Go-
vernor of Louisiana, Ambassador to the Court of France, &c.



INTRODUCTION. XIX

them a moral of infinite importance to coming genera-
tions, and they tell us, in exposing the weaknesses of
human provision and forethought, that there is a guiding
law, the law of the ' Spirit of life, beyond and above the
control or reach of all worldly ambition. It is in vain in
many cases to analyze the causes of the rapid downfall of
mighty houses, and the striking contrasts in the most
powerful. To use the eloquent expressions of the Earl of
Carlisle, in one of his recent speeches

"Changes so extensive, shocks so violent, defy all
calculation, but they should not shake our confidence
in Him who gives the sunshine as well as the storm, the
fertilizing rain as well as the drought the manna, the milk,
and the honey, as well as the stony rock and the sandy
desert who from evil brings forth good, and in judgment
remembers mercy."



ERRATA.

Page 29, line 18 from foot, for " Dukedom of Northumber-
land," read " Earldom of Northumberland."

Page 153, line 17 from foot,/or "1726," read " 1626."



VICISSITUDES OF FAMILIES.



anb $ annuls.



The land left by thy father P that rich land
That had continued in Welborn's name
Twenty descents ; which, like a riotous fool,
Thou didst make sale of."

MASSINGEB.



" It is incumbent on the high and generous spirit of an ancient
nation to cherish those sacred groves that surround their ances-
tral mansions, and to perpetuate them to their descendants."

WASHINGTON IEVING.



THE separation of TITLE and Estate has been, most as-
suredly, the main cause of the destruction of noble families.
For this evil, I venture still to prescribe my favourite re-
medy the ENDOWMENT of every hereditary honour with



2 LANDLESS LORDS AND BARONETS.

a certain landed property. Even though the law of England
may now prevent such an interference with the descent of
land, a special enactment of the Legislature would easily
meet the case an Act to declare that an adequate portion
of the estate of the grantee of each hereditary dignity con-
ferred by the Crown, should follow the title, and be in-
separable from it. Every title might have affixed to it a terri-
torial designation, (as, for instance, " Egerton of Tatton,")
and the land, thus named, might be declared inalienable
from the dignity for all time to come. It is marvellous
how the possession of ever so small a landed interest
keeps a family together for century after century. A
statement made by Lord Palmerston, who is always so
happy and apposite in his illustrations, gives great force
to this assertion. In a speech to a Hampshire audience,
at the opening of a local railway, his lordship observed,
that there was a small estate in the New Forest, which
had belonged to the lime-burner PURKIS, who picked up
the body of Rufus, and carried the royal corpse in his
humble cart to Winchester, and which had come down,
through an uninterrupted male line of ancestry, to a worthy
yeoman of the same name, now resident on the exact same
Farm, near Stoncy Cross, on the llingwood Road, eight
miles from Romsey.



How much more safe the Vassal than the Lord :
Low skulks the hind beneath the rage of pow'r,
And leaves the wealthy Traitor in the Tow'r :
Untouched his cottage, and his slumbers sound,
Though confiscation's vultures hover round."



LANDLESS LORDS AND BARONETS. 3

If some such system as this endowment of Titles
of Honour had been acted on in days gone by, the
Earl of Perth and Melfort would now enjoy a portion,
at least, of the historic inheritance of theDrummonds ; the
late Earl of Huntingdon, the representative of the famous
house of Hastings, would not have been restored to a
landless title ; the Earl of Buckinghamshire might still be
seated at the old Manor- House of Blickling ; Viscount
Mountmorres would yet have his home at Castle Morres,
and Viscount Gort at his princely castle of Loughcooter;
Lord Audley would have a share of the broad acres won
by his chivalrous ancestors; Lord Kingsland, the waiter at
the Dawson Street Hotel, would not have been a pauper,
wholly dependent on the Crown's bounty, and Lord Aylmer,
of Balrath, would not be driven to fight the battle of life
in the distant colony of Canada. A fragment, at all events,
of the great Tristernagh estate would yet give local position
to the old Baronetical family of Piers, and a remnant of
the extensive Carbery possessions of the Moores would have
saved their representative, the present Sir Richard Emanuel
Moore, Bart., from the necessity of holding the situation of
third Class Turnkey at Spike Island. Theancient Baronetcy of
Hay would not have come, despoiled of its fine estateof Park,
to be the emptyinheritanceof a Clerk inabranch of theRoyal
Bank of Scotland, nor that of Wishart, to be represented
by a wanderer in Australia and New Zealand. The story of
the poor Baronets, Echlin and Norwich, would not have to
be related ; Lord Kirkcudbright need not have stood behind
the counter of his glove shop in Edinburgh ; and that noble-
hearted gentleman, Mr. Surtees, the historian of Durham,

B 2



4 LANDLESS LORDS AND BARONETS.

would hdve lost the opportunity of taking from the work-
house of Chester-le Street old Sir Thomas Conyers, the
last baronet of Horden. I will instance a few cases in



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