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HAROLD Β. Lfct uhkah'

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO. UTAH




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in 2010 with funding from
Brigham Young University



http://www.archive.org/details/hibehpapyripart101gren



THE HIBEH PAPYRI

PART I

GRENFELL AND HUNT



τ c ι c η τ~ — '
\

5/5Γ

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND

1. I

GRAECO-ROMAN BRANCH



THE HIBEH PAPYRI

PART 1

EDITED WITH TRANSLATIONS AND NOTES

BY

BERNARD P. GRENFELL, M.A, D.Litt., F.B.A.

HON. LITT.D. DUBLIN; HON. PH.D. KOENICSBERG ; FELLOW OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD

AND

ARTHUR S. HUNT, MA, D.Litt.

HON. PH.D. KOENIGSBERG; FELLOW OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD
LATE FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE

WITH TEN PLATES



LONDON
EGYPT EXPLORATION SOCIETY

3 DOUGHTY MEWS, LONDON WCIN 2PG
1906



LONDON

SOLD AT

THE OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION SOCIETY

3 DOUGHTY MEWS, LONDON WCIN 2PG
ISBN Ο gOI2I2 31 8

© Egypt Exploration Society, igo6



Reprinted photographically

at the University Press, Oxford

1978



HAROLD B.LEE LIBRARY

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO. UTAH



UNIVERSITY PRE83
OXFORD



&*%%% /E.e.s.



PREFACE

The papyri which form the subject of the present volume were
obtained in the spring of 1902 from the Ptolemaic necropolis of
El-Hibeh, partly by purchase, partly from our first excavations at
that site, as is recorded in the Introduction. On p. 5 will be found
an explanation of the remarkable fact that some of the literary papyri
here edited belong to MSS. of which fragments were published by
us in 1897. The papyri were, with one exception (no. 23), derived
from mummy-cartonnage, and all belong to the third century b. c.

In editing the classical fragments we have continued to avail
ourselves very largely of the most generous assistance of Professor
F. Blass, whose weighty judgement we have followed in the authorship
suggested for most of the new pieces (nos. i -ΐβ), and to whom is
due much of their reconstruction and interpretation, besides many
suggestions on difficulties arising in the fragments of extant authors
(nos. 19-26). With regard to the non-literary texts we have received
much help from Professor J. G. Smyly, who has not only placed at our
service his intimate acquaintance with the contemporary Petrie papyri,
but has in many cases revised our decipherments of the texts and
made suggestions for their interpretation. His knowledge of ancient
mathematics has materially assisted in the elucidation of the astro-
nomical calendar (no. 27), and without his aid we should certainly not
have ventured, as we have done in Appendix I, upon the difficult,
perhaps even hopeless, task of attempting to solve the perplexing
problems connected with the Macedonian calendar. Our proof-
sheets have also had the advantage of having been read through by
Dr. J. P. Mahaffy, to whose liberality we owe the insertion of
a facsimile of the calendar (Plate VIII). Some assistance which we
have received from other scholars on special points is acknowledged
in connexion with the individual papyri.

For the interpretation of several demotic dockets appended to the
Greek texts we are indebted to Mr. F. LI. Griffith, who has generously
allowed us to utilize his forthcoming edition of demotic papyri in the
John Rylands Library.



vi PREFACE

A few words of explanation are due concerning the alternative
years b.c. on the Julian calendar into which for the convenience of
our readers the dates by the king's reign are converted. Apart from
the difficulties caused by the frequent employment of the Macedonian
in preference to the Egyptian months for dating purposes, an element
of uncertainty is introduced into the conversion of practically all early
Ptolemaic dates into their equivalents on the Julian calendar owing to
the fact that at least two systems of reckoning the king's years were
in common use, while papyri rarehy provide any indication which
method is being employed in a particular case. The nature of these
different systems is discussed in Appendix II, but the evidence
is unfortunately at present insufficient for a satisfactory explanation.
Accordingly we have converted the dates by the king's years into
what (granting the correctness of the Canon of Ptolemaic kings) are
their equivalents on the Julian calendar, firstly on 'the conventional
assumption that the king's years were reckoned from Thoth ι of the
annus vagus, the balance of days between his accession and the next
Thoth ι being counted as his ist year, and secondly on the assumption
(which is likely to be correct in many cases) that another system of
reckoning the king's years was employed, according to which the dates
when expressed by the Julian calendar may be a year later than they
would have been if the first system had been employed. The dates
b. c. which result or may result from the use of the second system are
enclosed in brackets.

In conclusion we have to beg the indulgence of subscribers to the
Graeco-Roman Branch for presenting them with a memoir which on
account of its length is to count as a double volume. The next
memoir of the Branch, Part V of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, in which
we shall begin the publication of the very important literary texts
discovered in 1905-6 (cf. The Times, May 14, 1906), is already in hand,
and we hope to issue it in June, 1907.

BERNARD P. GRENFELL.
ARTHUR S. HUNT.

Oxford, May, 1906.



CONTENTS



PAGE



Preface ν

List of Plates viii

Table of Papyri ix

Note on the Method of Publication and List of Abbreviations . . . xiii

Introduction ι

TEXTS

I. New Classical Fragments (1-18) . . . . . . . 13

II. Fragments of Extant Classical Authors (19-26) . . . .67

III. Calendar (27) 138

IV. Royal Ordinances (28-29) 157

V. Legal Documents (30-32) 165

VI. Declarations and Petitions (33-38) . . . . . .172

VII. Official and Private Correspondence (39-83) 181

VIII. Contracts (84α-9β) 242

IX. Receipts (97-109) 269

X. Accounts (110-121) 286

XI. Descriptions of Documents (122-171) 324



APPENDICES

I. The Macedonian and Egyptian Calendars
II. The Systems of Dating by the Years of the King
III. The Eponymous Priesthoods from b. c. 301-221



332
358
367



INDICES



I. New Classical Fragments

II. Kings

HI. Months .

IV. Personal Names

V. Geographical .

VI. Religion .

VII. Official and Military Titles



377
383
384
385
391
393
394



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

VIII. Weights, Measures, Coins 395

IX. Taxes 396

X. General Index of Greek Words 397

XI. Index of Passages discussed 408



LIST OF PLATES



I. 1,4

II. 3, 14, 15

III. 6, 2Θ

IV. β .
V. θ, 10, 13

VI. 19, 20, 21, 23, 24

VII. 7, 84 (b)

VIII. 27 .

IX. 84 (a)

Χ. 88, 97, 99, 100 (redo)



at the end.



TABLE OF PAPYRI



B. C. PAGE

1. Epicharmus, Τνωμαι (Plate I) c. 280-240 13

2. Epicharmus (?), Γνάμαι c. 280-240 15

3. Sophocles, Tyro (?) (Plate II) c. 280-240 . 17

4. Euripides, Oeneus (?) (Plate I) c. 300-280 21

6. Philemon (?) (Plate III) c. 280-240 . . 24

β. Comedy (Plate IV) c. 300-280 . 29

7. Anthology (Plate VII) c. 250-210 . . 35

8. Epic Fragment c. 280-240 39

9. Epic Fragment (Plate V) . . . c. 300-280 40

10. Tragic Fragment (Plate V) . . . . c. 280-240 40

11. Tragic Fragment ....... c. 280-240 40

12. Comic Fragment c. 280-240 41

13. Hippias (?), Discourse on Music (Plate V) . c. 280-240 . 45

14. Lysias, In Theozotidem (Plate II) . . . . c. 280-240 . 49

15. Rhetorical Exercise (Plate II) c. 280-240 55

1β. Theophrastus (?) ....... c. 280-240 . . 62

17. Sayings of Simonides ...... c. 280-240 64

18. Literary Fragment ....... c. 280-240 66

19. Homer, Iliad ii and iii (Plate VI) .... c. 285-250 67

20. Homer, Iliad iii-v (Plate VI) c. 280-240 84

21. Homer, Iliad viii (Plate VI) c. 290-260 88

22. Homer, Iliad xxi-xxiii ...... c. 280-240 . 96

23. Homer, Odyssey xx (Plate VI) c. 285-250 . 106

24. Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris (Plate VI) . c. 280-240 108

25. Euripides c. 280-240 113

26. Anaximenes (?), 'Ρητορική προι Άλίξαν&ρον (Plate III) . c. 285-250 114

27. Calendar for the Saite Nome (Plate VIII) . 301-240. . . 138

28. Constitutional Regulations c. 265 . . -157

29. Finance Laws c. 265 . .161

80. Judicial Summons ....... 300-271 . . . 165

31. Abstract of a Case for Trial c. 270 . . 168

32. Sequestration of Property . . . . .246 . .170

33. Property-Return of Sheep 245 . . 172



TABLE OF PAPYRI



34. Petition to the King

35. Petition of Hieroduli
3β. Notice of Loss

37. Notice of Loss

38. Declaration on Oath

39. Letter of Xanthus to Euphranor

40. Letter of Polemon to Harimouthes

41. Letter of Polemon to Harimouthes

42. Letter of Callicles to Harimouthes

43. Letter of Callicles to Harimouthes

44. Letter of Dinon to Harimouthes

45. Letter of Leodamas to Lysimachus

46. Letter of Leodamas to Lysimachus

47. Letter of Leodamas to Lysimachus

48. Letter of Leodamas to Lysimachus

49. Letter of Leodamas to Laomedon

50. Letter of Leodamas to Theodoras
61. Letter of Demophon to Ptolemaeus

52. Letter of Demophon to Ptolemaeus

53. Letter of Demophon to Ptolemaeus

54. Letter of Demophon to Ptolemaeus

56. Letter of Scythes to Ptolemaeus
66. Letter of Patron to Ptolemaeus

57. Letter of Dionysodorus (?) to Ptolemaeus

68. Letter of Dionysodorus to Ptolemaeus

69. Letter of Zenodorus to Ptolemaeus .

60. Letter of Zenodorus to Ptolemaeus .

61. Letter to Ptolemaeus

62. Letter of Philippus to Ptolemaeus

63. Letter of Criton to Plutarchus .

64. Letter of Paris to Plutarchus

65. Letter concerning Paris .

66. Letter of Protarchus to Clitarchus

67. Letter concerning Payment of Cloth-workers

68. Letter concerning Payment of Cloth-workers

69. Letter of Asclepiades to Clitarchus .
70 (a). Letter of Zoilus to Clitarchus .

70 (δ). Letter to Clitarchus

71. Correspondence concerning a Strike .

72. Correspondence concerning a Temple Seal



b. c.
243-2
c. 250
229

235

252-1

265

261

c. 261

262

261

253

257

258

256

255
c. 257
c. 257

245

c 245
246
c. 245

250

249
247
245-4

c 245
c. 245

245
245

c 265
264
c. 265

228
228
c. 228
230

229-8
c. 228

245

241



TABLE OF PAPYRI



78. Letter of Antigonus to Dorion .

74. Order for Payment ....

75. Letter of Theodorus to the Phylacitae
7β. Order for Payment ....

77. Letter concerning the Priestly Revenues

78. Letter of Nicias to Argaeus

79. Letter of Ptolemaeus to Heraclides .

80. Export of Wine ....

81. Official Correspondence concerning Cleruchs

82. Official Correspondence .

83. Letter concerning a Payment of Corn
84(a). Sale of Wheat (Plate IX) .
84(i). Date by a Ptolemaic Era(?) (Plate VII)

85. Loan of Seed-Corn ....

86. Loan of Corn

87. Advance of Seed-Corn

88. Loan of Money (Plate X)

89. Loan of Money ....

90. Lease of Land ....

91. Lease of Land ....

92. Contract of Surety ....

93. Contract of Surety ....

94. Contract of Surety . . . ■

95. Contract of Surety ....

96. Renunciation of Claims .

97. Receipt (Plate X) .

98. Receipt of a Captain
ΘΘ. Receipt for Rent (Plate X)

100. Account. Receipt for Rent (Plate X)

101. Receipt for Rent ....

102. Payment of Physician-Tax

103. Receipt for Physician-Tax and Police-Tax

104. Receipt for Various Taxes

105. Receipt for Police-Tax

106. Receipt for Beer-Tax

107. Receipt for Beer-Tax

108. Receipt for Bath-Tax

109. Receipt for άπόμοφα

110. Accounts. Postal Register

111. List of Cases and Fines



B.C.


PAGE


243-2 .


226


c. 250 .


227


232


• 23Ο


248


• 23I


249


. 232


244-3 •


• 233


c. 260


• 234


250


• 235


238


• 237


239-8 .


• 239


c. 258-7 .


241


301-0


242


272-1?


• 245


261


. 246


248


. 248


256


■ 250


263-2


■ 251


239


• 252


222


• 254


244-3 01 219-


? . 258


263


■ 259


c. 250


26l


258-7 .


. 262


256


. 264


2 59


. 266


279-8 or 282-


[ . 269


251


270


270


. 271


267


• 273


261


• 275


248


276


231


• 277


225


. 278


228


• 279


246


. 280


244


• 283


258 or 248


. 283


247-6 .


. . 284


c. 270-c. 255


. 286


c 250


• 394



TABLE OF PAPYRI



112.


Taxing-List ....


113.


Banker's Account .


114.


Official Account


115.


Account of Taxes on Sacrifices ε


116.


Account of Bath-Tax


117.


Return of Corn Revenue .


118.


Account of Olyra


119.


Account of Rent


120.


Account of Goats


121.


Private Account


122-171. Miscellaneous Documents .



and Wool



B.C.


PAGE


c. 260


. 296


c. 260


• 303


244


• 3°5


c. 250


• 3°7


c 245


311


239 or 214


313


c. 250


314


c. 260


3!7


250-49 .


319


251-0 .


320


3rd cent. .


• 3 2 4



NOTE ON THE METHOD OF PUBLICATION AND
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

THE general system followed in this volume is that of its predecessors.
Literary texts are printed as they appear in the originals, except for division of
words, capital initials in proper names, and reconstruction, where practicable, of
lacunae. Additions or corrections by the same hand as the body of the texts
are in small thin type, those by a different hand in thick type. Non-literary
documents are printed in modern style with accentuation and punctuation :
abbreviations and symbols are resolved, while additions and corrections are
usually incorporated in the text, their occurrence being recorded in the
critical notes ; but where special considerations make this method inconvenient,
alterations in the original have been reproduced, later hands being distinguished,
as in the literary texts, by thick type. Faults of orthography, &c, are corrected
in the critical apparatus wherever they seemed likely to cause any difficulty.
Iota adscript is printed when so written, otherwise iota subscript is used.
Square brackets [ ] indicate a lacuna, round brackets ( ) the resolution of
a symbol or abbreviation, angular brackets < ) a mistaken omission in the
original, braces { } a superfluous letter or letters, double square brackets
[] a deletion in the original. Dots placed within brackets represent the
approximate number of letters lost or deleted ; dots outside brackets indicate
mutilated or otherwise illegible letters. Letters with dots underneath them are
to be considered doubtful. Heavy Arabic numerals refer to the texts of the
present volume, ordinary numerals to lines, small Roman numerals to columns.
On the numeration of the different mummies from which the papyri were
obtained see pp. 11-12 ; and on the alternative years B.C. in expressing dates
according to the Julian calendar see the Preface.



xiv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

The abbreviations used in referring to papyrological publications are
practically the same as those adopted by Wilcken in Archiv fiir Papyrusforsckung,
I, pp. 25-8, viz. :—
P. Amh. = The Amherst Papyri (Greek), Vols. I and II, by B. P. Grenfell and

A. S. Hunt.

Archiv = Archiv fur Papyrusforschung.

B. G. U. = Aeg. Urkunden aus den Konigl. Museen zu Berlin, Griech. Urkunden.
P. Brit. Mus. = Catalogue of Greek Papyri in the British Museum, Vols. I and II,

by F. G. Kenyon.

C. P. R. = Corpus Papyrorum Raineri, Vol. I, by C. Wessely.

P. Cairo = Catalogue of Greek Papyri in the Cairo Museum, by B. P. Grenfell

and A. S. Hunt.
P. Fay. = Fayum Towns and their Papyri, by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, and

D. G. Hogarth.
P. Gen. = Les Papyrus de Gen£ve, by J. Nicole.
P. Grenf. = Greek Papyri, Series I, by B. P. Grenfell, and Series II, by

B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt.

P. Leyden = Papyri Graeci Musei antiquarii Lugduni-Batavi, by C. Leemans.
P. Magd. = Papyrus de Magdola, Bulletin de Corr. hell, xxvi, pp. 95-128,

xxvii, pp. 174-205, by P. Jouguet and G. Lefebvre.
P. Oxy. = The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Parts I-IV, by B. P. Grenfell and

A. S. Hunt.
P. Par. = Les Papyrus Grecs du Musee du Louvre, Notices et Extraits, t. xviii, 2,

by W. Brunet de Presle and E. Egger.
P. Petrie = The Flinders Petrie Papyri, Parts I and II by the Rev. J. P. Mahaffy,

Part III by the Rev. J. P. Mahaffy and J. G. Smyly. Our references are

to Part III wherever texts previously published are reprinted there.
Rev. Laws = Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus, by B. P. Grenfell, with

an Introduction by the Rev. J. P. Mahaffy.
P. Tebt. = The Tebtunis Papyri, Part I by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, and

J. G. Smyly (Part II by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, and E. J. Goodspeed,

in the press).
P. Tor. = Papyri Graeci Regii Taurinensis Musei Aegyptii, by A. Peyron.
Wilcken, Ost. = Griechische Ostraka, by U. Wilcken.
P. Zois = Papiri Greco-Egizi di Zoide dell' Imp. R. Museo di Vienna, by

A. Peyron, re-edited in xi. Jahresb. lib. d. k. k Franz-Joseph-Gymnashim

in Wien by C. Wessely.



INTRODUCTION

In February and March, 190a, while we were excavating in the Fayum,
a dealer who had been travelling in Upper Egypt brought us a large quantity
of broken papyrus-cartonnage, amongst which we noticed the presence of
numerous literary fragments of the third century B.C. Our work in the
Fayum was at that time drawing to an end, the available sites for the discovery
of Ptolemaic papyri being exhausted, and we were naturally anxious to take
at once the opportunity of finding Ptolemaic papyrus-cartonnage in a different
district. With some difficulty we ascertained that the provenance of the papyri
brought to us was Hibeh, on the east bank of the Nile between Benisuef and
Shekh Fadl (Cynopolis) ; and as the Director-general of Antiquities most
obligingly gave us permission to proceed thither at once, we were able to start
work on March 24. The excavations were carried on until April 11 {Arch.
Report, 1 901-2, pp. 4-5), and resumed in January, 1903, for nearly a month
(Arch. Report, 1902-3, pp. 1-3). In February, 1903, after examining several
sites between Hibeh and Shekh Fadl, we returned to Behnesa, which has
occupied us for the last three and a half seasons.

The ruins of the ancient town of Hibeh are situated on the river bank
facing the villages of Feshn and Fent. The high desert at this point approaches
the river edge, leaving only a narrow strip a few yards in width available for
cultivation, and providing suitable places for quarrying limestone. The town
was built on rising ground, which reaches its highest point at the north-west
corner of the site. The most conspicuous feature is the massive wall of crude
brick, some metres thick, which protects it from attack on the north and east sides,
the east wall running in a south-westerly direction to meet the river, so that
the area enclosed forms with the river a kind of acute-angled triangle. Stamped
bricks with the names of the princess Estemkheb, her husband Menkheperre or
their son Pinotem II, show that the walls were built under the XXIst Dynasty.
Near the south end of the site stood a small temple (36 χ i6£ metres), built by
Shishanq and Osorkon of the XXIInd Dynasty, the picturesque ruins being
now overgrown with palms. The principal entrance to the town was through
the north wall, near its east corner ; west of the entrance the wall becomes more
than usually strong as the ground rises to a peak, and it is probable that here
was the citadel. The west face of this peak has been cut away for stone ; and

Β



2 Η IB EH PAPYRI

it is not clear whether the wall was ever continued down to the river, which,
moreover, has apparently encroached slightly upon the south end of the site,
washing away the original south corner of the wall. Opposite the ruins, and
separated only by a channel which becomes dry in the summer, is an island
about a miles long, which was already there in early times, for it is mentioned
in the demotic papyri from Hibeh of Darius' reign (cf. p. 7). The modern
village of El-Hibeh is a poor hamlet a few hundred yards to the south of the
ruins, and is combined for administrative purposes with another village on the
island which contains a few hundred feddans of cultivated ground, while on the
main land there is practically none. The extensive necropolis of Hibeh lies round
the ancient city to the north, east, and south of the walls, and dates from New
Empire to Roman times. By far the greater part of it had been dug out
before our arrival, principally in 1 895-6, when, as report states, an Arab dealer
from the Pyramids, known as Shekh Hassan, excavated the cemetery on a large
scale. From the assertions of an inhabitant of Hibeh who was then employed
as a rets, it appears that the dealer met with much success, especially in the
discovery of scarabs, amulets, ushabtis, statuettes, faience and alabaster vases,
and other objects such as would be found in the later tombs of the New Empire.
Quantities of mummies of the Ptolemaic period with papyrus-cartonnage were
also unearthed, but thrown away as worthless. This is the usual fate of
cartonnage found in the Nile valley proper, where, except at one or two places,
native tomb-diggers until quite recently attached no value to papyrus apart
from large rolls. A handful of small fragments, however, found their way to
Cairo, where they were bought by us in 1896 ; cf. p. 5. During the next few
years much plundering continued at Hibeh, among the chief finds being a
number of large demotic papyrus rolls, which were discovered together in a pot
inside the town close to the east wall in the southern portion of the site. These
were bought in Cairo by Lord Crawford, and having passed with the rest of his
papyri into the possession of the Rylands Library are now being edited
by Mr. F. LI. Griffith in the Demotic Papyri of the John Rylands Library,
pp. 38 sqq. The site, especially the necropolis, had thus been thoroughly
ransacked before Ahmed Bey Kamal in the year preceding our excavations was
sent by the authorities of the Cairo Museum to investigate the place. His
excavations, which lasted only a short time, produced no results of importance ;
cf. his report in Annates du Service des Antiquitt's, ii. pp. 84-91.

We had taken the precaution of bringing thirty workmen with us from the
Fayum, and our anticipations that the local inhabitants would not be satisfactory
were' fully justified. The villagers of Hibeh, having hardly any land to cultivate,
earn their living by antiquity-plundering or salt-digging in the neighbouring



INTRODUCTION 3

desert ; for regular work at the normal rate of wages they were not in the
least disposed, while the inhabitants of the village on the island were not
sufficiently intelligent to be of much use in the rather difficult task of clearing
out the remains of a much plundered cemetery. We had no hesitation in deciding
at which part of the necropolis to begin operations. The tomb which had
produced the papyri brought to us in the Fayum was about 150 yards outside
the town, in a rocky ridge which faced the north wall and ran from almost
the river bank towards a square brick-walled enclosure near the north-east
corner of the town ; and the report of Shekh Hassan's ex-rm that wushdsh
waraq ('faces of paper,' the Arabic term for papyrus-cartonnage) were to be
found in this quarter was confirmed by the presence of many broken Ptolemaic
mummies and limestone sarcophagi strewn about in the vicinity. The area
bounded on the south by the town wall, on the north and north-east by the
rocky ridge just mentioned, forms a triangular depression, of which the base is
the margin of cultivation on the west, and the apex the brick enclosure on the
east. The surface of the desert, which rises in an easterly direction, was to
a large extent covered with loose debris, consisting partly of rubbish thrown out
from the town between the time of its foundation in the XX 1st Dynasty and
the Ptolemaic period, with occasional accumulations of later date above the
earlier mounds, partly of bricks which had fallen down from the wall or belonged
to the buildings that had stood there before the Ptolemaic period, partly of
limestone chips from the rock-tombs scooped out in the ridge to the north and
underneath the wall itself, of which we shall speak presently. Throughout this
debris at intervals were Ptolemaic burials, mostly in plain limestone sarcophagi,
sometimes in rudely painted or plain wooden ones, rarely in pottery coffins, and
occasionally without any sarcophagus at all. The bodies were mummified and
generally ornamented with detachable cartonnage, either of cloth or papyrus,
very similar in the style of decoration to the Fayum cartonnage. In many
cases the Hibeh mummies are externally indistinguishable from those from



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