North Duke Street, and the Home Service Annex at
34 North Duke Street. Rooms in the Zion Lutheran
Church at 36 South Duke Street are used as a Blood
The following committees function under direction
of the executive board: Accident Prevention, Blood
Donor Service, Braille, Camp and Hospital Service,
Canteen, Dieticians' Aides, Disaster Chairman, First-
Aid, Home Nursing, Home Service Corps, Home
Service Chairman, Hospital and Recreation Corps,
Junior Red Cross, Motor Corps, Nurse Recruitment
Committee, Nurses' Aides, Nutrition, Prisoner of War,
Production, Public Information, Staff Assistance, Vol-
unter Special Services, Water Safety and War Fund.
Organized during the first World War, the York
Chapter of the American Red Cross had as its first
president John C. Schmidt. After a few months, Mr.
Schmidt was called to Washington to serve on a war
board. He was succeeded by Francis Farquhar who
remained as president for twenty-three years, and is
now an emeritus member of the Board of Directors.
Bertram R. Moore, Kenneth L. Cox, and J. E. Wayne,
along with Mrs. Minnie P. Hatton, who became ex-
ecutive secretary in 1937, have had charge of the
splendid work done by the Chapter in connection
with World War II.
CATHOLIC CHARITIES OF YORK
The purposes of The Catholic Charities are "to en-
gage in relief work among the poor and needy; to
secure employment for the unemployed; to assume
the care, guidance and control of destitute, depen-
dent, neglected or delinquent children and care for,
maintain and educate them; receive children by
surrender, commitment or otherwise, from parents,
guardians, or custodians and from the courts or from
administrative bodies having care of children; and
to maintain and educate such children, provide them
with homes and promote their comfort, welfare and
advancement in life, improve their condition and
provide for their adoption; supervise, care for, and
assist delinquents and persons convicted of crime;
develop recreational activities; make surveys, in-
vestigations of conditions and develop remedies for
evils found to exist; obtain information from all
sources and furnish advice and counsel in the ad-
ministration of Catholic charitable activities; and to
carry on all kinds of charitable work."
As a family agency. Catholic Charities offer coun-
selling services to Catholic families of York County
in coordination with the parish priests. The agency
assists families whose normal family life is threat-
ened or destroyed by unemployment, ill health, de-
linquency, infirmity, old age or moral adjustments.
This work is financed by York Welfare Federation
Affiliations: Branch of Catholic Charities of the Dio-
cese of Harrisburg, Inc.; Member of National Con-
ference of Catholic Charities; Member York Council
of Social Agencies.
PARADISE PROTECTORY AND
AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, INC.
The Paradise Protectory and Agricultural School,
Inc., is maintained near Abbottstown, for the relief,
support, and education of orphan and destitute boys.
It is staffed by thirteen Sisters of Saint Joseph, and
shelters ninety-three boys.
Boys at work at the Paradise Protectory.
The Children's Home of York City and County is
the oldest organization for child care in the county.
The building was erected in 1865. A wing has since
been added, and the Children's Home is now in its
eightieth year of service to needy and dependent
Mrs. Percy B. Cooper is superintendent of the
Home, with more than twenty-five busy years of
work with the children there behind her. She attends
state and national conventions, is past president of
the state organization of Superintendents of Child
Care Institutions and is in close touch with the Child
Welfare League of America.
Good food, annual physical examinations for each
child, medical and dental care insure high standards
Stupid, one of (he donkeys belonging to the Children's Home,
assists with paper salvage at the Pine Hill playground.
of health. At the age of eight, every child goes either
to Y. M. C. A., or the Y. W. C. A., and learns to swim.
Children are encouraged to play. There are four-
teen bicycles, roller skates and ice skates, sleds,
boxing gloves, tumbling mats, baseball gloves and
bats. There is a carpenter shop with an electric jig-
saw. The outdoor playground has a sand box,
swings, teeter-totters, slides and a large wading
pool. The children have a number of pets: four pedi-
greed Irish setters, pigeons, rabbits, turtles, ducks
and chickens, a goat, four burros, and three carts, a
sleigh and several saddles. The Home owns a mov-
ing-picture sound projector and one of the older
boys is a licensed operator. Films are received for
two shows each week, which are also attended by
young people in the neighborhood.
Children are encouraged to invite their parents
and friends to Sunday night supper. They also enter-
tain their Sunday school classes and school friends.
The parties held at the Home are the envy of the
neighborhood. Through the generosity of friends of
the Home, the children attend the circus and have
picnics and outings during the summer. Their Christ-
mas celebration is financed by the Tramerick Club.
The children are also taught to work and to be
self-reliant. They assist with household tasks, and
the care of the grounds and the animals. lobs are
rotated every two weeks. Certain of these are paid
jobs and the children may also earn money outside
the Home. Some of the older boys work in groceries
and at other jobs. Older girls are employed as clerks,
salesgirls, waitresses and in caring for children.
These youngsters have bank accounts and own War
The barriers between the Home and the outside
world have been broken down. The children attend
public school and a number belong to Y. M. C. A.,
Y. W. C. A., Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts. They take an
active part in music, dramatics and sports. Many of
them attend summer camp.
Few of the children had any religious affiliation
before entering the Home. Now they attend Sunday
school regularly and many have received gift books
for perfect attendance. A number of the teen-age
boys and girls are leaders in the Young People's
Group at the First Presbyterian Church.
A large library of children's books is located in
the Home and the youngsters also have cards at
the Martin Library.
Children from the Home make average and higher
grades in school. Although every effort is made to
place the children in foster homes, those that remain
in the Home are not pushed out into the world to
make their own way with a minimum of education.
Higher education is provided for children with abil-
ity through scholarships and part-time jobs. Ten are
at present in senior high school, three have entered
nursing, two have trained as machine operators and
five have gone on to college. Business education will
be provided if desired, and music lessons are avail-
able for all showing ability.
Originally planned as a soldiers' orphans' home,
the Children's Home of York City and County is
again caring for a number of soldiers' children while
fathers are in the service. There are sixty-five chil-
dren in the Home, attended by a staff of twelve. Most
of the children are not orphans but the product of
broken homes. Many leave when homes are reestab-
lished, but there are many older children who return
often to visit the only real home they have ever
FAMILY SERVICE BUREAU
The Family Service Bureau, located in the Welfare
Building at 309 East Market Street, provides social
service on a professional level for York and its sub-
urbs, and to residents of the county, in selected
The Bureau fosters family life, aids those in
trouble, and works to improve social conditions in
Among the many problems handled confidentially
each year are those involving poor health, family
discord, money troubles, mental disease, and delin-
quency. Children are aided through nursery school
care, analysis of their school problems, and in case
of neglect or dependency, by placement in child-
care institutions. Personal guidance is given to the
emotionally unstable, and vocational information is
obtained for those seeking it.
Persons who need help may contact the Family
Service Bureau by telephone, by letter, or in per-
son. Veterans and their families may request aid not
being given by any other agency. Employers, min-
isters, teachers, personnel counsellors and others in
responsible positions may request aid for those in
their charge, providing the consent of the person to
be advised has been obtained.
Solutions for many acute personal and social
problems are found by the Family Service Bureau
through its close cooperation with the other health,
welfare and recreational agencies of the city.
JUNIOR SERVICE LEAGUE OF YORK
The Junior Service League of York is an organiza-
tion of women between the ages of eighteen and
forty interested in the social, cultural and civic af-
fairs of the community. Since its formation in 1930,
it has rendered outstanding support and volunteer
aid to welfare work in this vicinity.
Through its training course, provisional members
are made acquainted by lectures and field trips with
the public health, welfare and cultural agencies of
the community, and are thus able to render intelli-
gent service where needed. During the past year,
the 101 members of the League have given a total
of more than 10,000 hours of volunteer service to
the Visiting Nurse Association, the Young Women's
Christian Association, the Welfare Drive, Girl Scouts,
Family Srvice Bureau, War Bond Drive, U. S. Ration
Board, Maternal Health Center and all branches of
Red Cross work. At the York Hospital, they acted as
hostesses, tutored convalescent children, did per-
sonal shopping and provided library service for
In line with its cultural and educational aims,
members of the organization have served as volun-
teer workers at the Martin Memorial Library and the
Historical Society of York County, and have brought
to York such worth while entertainment as the Clare
Tree Major Players and the San Carlos Opera
The League has equipped a bathroom and a
neighborhood craft shop at the Children's Home,
provided two ambulances, one for the Red Cross
and one for the York Hospital. In that institution it
has also furnished and maintained a dental clinic
and provided other necessary hospital equipment.
Thirty thousand dollars has been raised since its or-
ganization by the Junior Service League, all of which
has been contributed toward the work of the local
NEW YORK HERALD-TRIBUNE
FRESH AIR CHILDREN
Under the chairmanship of Dr. Theodore Thomp-
son, for the past twenty years, groups of children
from the tenements of New York City have enjoyed
two weeks or more of wholesome country life in
beautiful York County. Through the sponsorship of
the York Kiwanis Club more than 1,400 boys and
girls have been given this opportunity for improved
health and first-hand contact with the American way
of life in homes opened to them by hospitable York-
ers. The New York Herald-Tribune Fresh Air Fund
pays transportation only. The rest of the vacation is
provided by the children's hosts and hostesses.
The Salvation Army occupies the entire building
at 128 West Market Street. Facilities include a recre-
ation room for young people, offices, two auditor-
iums, a lounge and transient kitchen, and sleeping
accommodations for 100 men.
The war services of the Salvation Army include
the Red Shield Club for servicemen, maintenance of
a canteen in Continental Square, and knitting by
the ladies of the organization. Meanwhile, visits to
the county jail and penitentiary, work with indigent
men, aid to unmarried mothers, supervision of pa-
rolees, and evangelistic work also continue.
SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS
York had a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals as early as 1873, but it passed out of
Dr. O. E. Gladfelter was the first agent of the pres-
ent S. P. C. A. in York after its incorporation in 1926
and served in that capacity for many years.
The Society has for its object the prevention of
cruelty to animals and the enforcement of laws for
their protection. It also prints, purchases, and circu-
lates books on the subject.
The S. P. C. A. Shelter, at the rear of 820 South
Newberry Street with living quarters for an atten-
dant, is used as a home for lost or neglected animals
until owners can be located or new homes found. If
the animals brought in are sick or injured they are
Citizens are invited to report to the Society cases
of cruelty or mistreatment. Steps are taken not to
prosecute the owner, but rather to insure proper care
of the animal. The name of the informant is never
YORK BRANCH, NEEDLEWORK GUILD
OF AMERICA, INC.
The York Branch of the Needlework Guild of
America collects new, plain, serviceable garments
for distribution to hospitals, homes and other chari-
ties. Each member contributes annually two or more
new articles of wearing apparel or household linen,
or a sum of money. The present membership in York
is about 2,000. In 1944, 5,377 garments were col-
lected which were distributed through the American
Red Cross, Catholic Charities, Children's Home,
Children's Services, Distribution Center, Family Ser-
vice Bureau, Maternal Health Center, Ruth Bennet
Club, Salvation Army, Visiting Nurse Association,
West Side Sanitarium, York Hospital, and to needy
The York Branch of the Needlework Guild of
America has been serving the community since 1902,
when Mrs. William Stair was elected its first presi-
YORK COUNTY BLIND CENTER
The York County Blind Center, at 227 East Phila-
delphia Street, was established for the purpose of
bettering conditions among the blind. The Center
keeps in touch with all blind persons in the county.
Instruction is given in reading and writing in Braille.
By teaching typewriting and handicrafts, and by
finding positions for blind persons in industry, Super-
intendent Fred O. Boyer has helped many to become
self-supporting. The Center is supported by volun-
tary contributions and is a participating agency of
the York Welfare Federation, Inc.
Making brooms and caning chairs at the Blind Center.
Agriculture In York County
Approximately half the people of York County
live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture.
Within the 903 square miles of the county are
7,000 farms, 83.8% of which are farmed by their
owners. The average size of farm is sixty-two acres.
The land of the county is used as follows: 69% is
cropland; 19.9% is woodland; 3.8% is pasture; 1.3%
is idle; 1.1% is in orchards; and .5% in farmsteads.
Most farmers have access to electricity and many
use it for the operation of machinery and to provide
all conveniences for their families.
York County's agricultural products are as diversi-
fied as those of its industries. Its farms range from
homesteads which have been passed down through
a single family since Colonial times, to "Gentle-
men's farms," with championship blooded stock
riding horses, swimming pool, and every modern
Truck farmers are within overnight hauling dis-
tance of the great markets of Washington, Baltimore,
Philadelphia and New York. All kinds of fruits, veg-
etables and poultry and dairy products are sold.
York County's celery is famous.
Fruit growing is an important industry. Over 663,-
000 bushels of apples are produced annually, and
more than 168,000 bushels of peaches. Cherries and
pears are also grown in abundance. The production
of the 604 farms engaged in raising strawberries
totals more than 600,000 quarts each year.
York County has twenty commercial canneries,
more than any other county in the State. In 1940, the
following acreages were planted under contract:
4,141 acres of sweet corn; 1,900 acres of tomatoes;
1,400 acres of snap beans; and 1,350 acres of peas.
York County ranks third in the United States in
the value of its poultry products. It raises more tur-
keys than any other county in the eastern United
States. In 1941, it produced 17,255,000 dozens of eggs,
valued at more than four and a half million dollars.
In 1942, it had 1,739,000 hens.
The total value of livestock in York County in 1942
was $6,400,000. There were 24,000 dairy animals.
Value of dairy products produced in 1940 was
Two hundred and fifty dairymen are interested in
artificial breeding of dairy cattle which will result
in further improvement of stock.
In 1940, field crops in York County were valued
as follows: corn, $2,196,000; wheat, $1,304,000; hay,
$1,233,000; and potatoes, $963,000. Alfalfa, soybeans,
oats and barley are also raised. Approximately 3,000
acres are planted in tobacco each year.
Through cooperation with Pennsylvania State Col-
lege, a County Agent, with offices in the Post-Office
Building, carries on educational and extension work
in agriculture, encouraging improvement of live-
stock; scientific poultry production; control of soil
erosion; use of hybrid corn and the work of the 4-H
clubs. A Home Economics Demonstrator aids women
and girls with canning, sewing, personal and home
Incubator room cr( (he Guy A. Leader Poultry Farm.
Scientific methods place York County third in poultry
production in the entire United States.
York County produces more (hern 168,000 bushels at pecrche
Lauxmont Rag Apple Lucinda, Grand Champion at leading
fairs, and a( (he Harrisburg Farm Show, 1942. Her record was
883 pounds of buffer faf, 4.0 test.
York County leads Pennsylvania in the production of swine.
Gien Affon Rag Apple Mark brought top price of $15,200 at
the Blue Ribbon Sale.
YORK COUNTY SOIL CONSERVATION
When Vice-President Henry Wallace visited China
and Russia by plane in the spring of 1944, he took
with him two sound films to show to our Allies. One
of them, "For Years to Come; A Primer of Conserva-
tion," was of a typical York County farm located just
south of Manchester and owned by Christian Musser.
The film shows in technicolor how in just one year
production was increased by the change from square
field to conservation farming.
During World War I, Christian Musser was a
buddy of Sergeant York. He used his mustering-out
pay as a down-payment on the 100-acre Spring
Run Farm. The ten-room farmhouse, dated 1852, and
the stone barn are of Pennsylvania Dutch architec-
ture, but the methods of contour, strip-farming and
scientific crop rotation used are strictly modern. In
addition to raising field crops, the Mussers have
twenty acres of orchards, seven acres of truck gar-
den and swine, turkeys and chickens. They retail
produce over a regular route during the summer and
"stand market" in York the year round.
The film, showing Mr. and Mrs. Musser and their
two girls and three boys at work on the farm, has
been equipped with sound tracks in several different
languages and is being used in Europe to counteract
German propaganda to the effect that there is a
severe food shortage in the United States. "For Years
to Come" is being used all over the country by the
Department of Agriculture and one implement com-
pany alone has purchased eighty copies to show
On November 17, 1944, under sponsorship of the
York Soil Conservation District, York Chamber of
Commerce, the Manufacturers' Association and the
York County Conservation Society, with Louis Brom-
field as guest speaker, "For Years to Come" was
shown to 1,400 people in the William Penn Senior
High School Auditorium.
Although this was the most publicized event in the
district's history, the York Soil Conservation District
had been quietly aiding farmers in many other ways.
During the year, 101 farmers, representing 11,412
acres, became district cooperators, and were assisted
in laying out their farms on the new plan. Farm
ponds were encouraged and 1,120 fish supplied to
stock them. Assistance was given in the production
and marketing of woodland products. Thirty acres of
orchard were set on terraces and a reforestation
plan was worked out for the Spring Grove water
shed. Two radio programs were given over W S B A
at the request of the People's Forum.
Since 1938, the York Soil Conservation District has
been at work. At present, 546 farmers, holding a total
of approximately 55,000 acres of land, are cooper-
ating in checking erosion and increasing yield on
farms in York County. It is estimated that this work
brings to farmers three dollars return for every dol-
THE HANOVER SHOE FARMS
The Hanover Shoe Farms, located in York County
just north of the Maryland Line, managed by Dr.
C. R. Richards, for many years in charge of Alfred
Vanderbilt's Sagamore Farm, and owned by H. D.
Sheppard, C. N. Myers and L. B. Sheppard, is known
throughout the racing world for its breeding and
training of blooded horses.
From the Hanover Shoe Farms comes Titan Han-
over, greatest trotter of the age, who trotted the
world's record mile at Lexington, Kentucky, October
4, 1944, in two minutes flat. The 2:02 record that he
smashed that day had been held jointly by Han-
over's Bertha and Lawrence Hanover. His winnings
for the season were around $25,000.
Among the yearlings sent to the Standard-Bred
Sale, held at the York Fair Grounds, was Whitney
Hanover who brought $17,000, more money than was
ever paid for a harness-bred yearling previous to
At Old Orchard, Maine, in 1944, in a trotting event
for two-year-olds, top honors went to Beatrice Han-
over, second to Jenifer Hanover, third to Kimberly
Hanover, and fourth to Honor Hanover.
Hanover Shoe Farms also own the two fastest liv-
ing trotting stallions, Nibble Hanover and Spencer
Scott, and the fastest pacing stallion, Billy Direct.
One hundred and thirty-five colts are expected at
the Hanover Farms in 1945, among which there will
doubtless be many future champions.
YORK IMPERIAL APPLE
Boys in the apple orchard again! John Kline looked
out of the window of his farm home, near Hallam,
one May afternoon in 1826.
It was only natural for boys on the way home from
school to look for apples under his trees in late sum-
mer and fall, but what were they doing poking
around under the fallen leaves in May? As Mr. Kline
opened the door, the boys tumbled over the fence
and were gone. When he looked under the tree
where they had been, he found a number of apples
on the ground. These apples had lain under the
snow all winter, but were still perfectly firm and
There was no refrigeration in those days and
many apples spoiled before spring. Mr. Jonathan
Jessop, as well as being a noted clockmaker and
teacher of Phineas Davis, propagated young apple
trees in his nursery at Springwood Farm, two miles
south of York. He would certainly be interested in
an apple which would keep all winter, its flavor im-
proving with age.
Mr. Jessop grafted stems from this tree onto a large
number of apple seedlings. Fruit growers of York
County purchased trees and Quakers whom he met
at the Friends' Yearly Meeting in Baltimore carried
the tree to Leesburg and Winchester, thus starting the
great apple industry of Virginia, where 60 per cent of
the apples grown are York Imperials. These Friends
called it "Jonathan's Fine Winter Apple," but Charles
Downing, a pomologist of New York State, where
the tree had been introduced, suggested the name
Titan Hanover froffing his record mile in two minutes.
The York Imperial apple is grown extensively in
Michigan, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana,
and Missouri, as well as New York State, Pennsyl-
vania, and Maryland. At one time it was worth more
commercially than any other apple and has been ex-
ported to all parts of the world, especially to England
On the eighteenth day of August, 1920, the State
Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania dedicated
a monument at Springwood Farms, now owned by
the family of John C. Schmidt, to commemorate the
site of the origin of the widely-known York Imperial
YORK IMPERIAL SWEET CHERRY
York County's cherries, both the sweet and the
sour pie cherries, have been famous for generations.
However, after more than fifteen years of research