of Heat and Frost Insulators, Local No. 65; Automo-
bile Workers of America, International Union United,
Local No. 21959; Barbers' International Union, Jour-
neymen, Local No. 734; Boilermakers, Iron Ship Build-
ers and Helpers of America, International Brother-
hood of Local No. 295; Bookbinders, International
Brotherhood of Local No. 203; Brewery, Flour, Cereal
and Soft Drink Workers of America, International
Union of United Local No. 216; Bricklayers', Masons'
and Plasterers' International Union of America, Local
No. 16; Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Work-
ers, International Association of Local No. 72; Bakery
and Confectionery Workers' International Union No.
492; Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Union No. 6;
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brother-
hood of Local No. 191; Cement, Lime and Gypsum
Workers' International Union United Local No. 179;
Cigarmakers' International Union of America, Local
No. 242; Clerks, Brotherhood of Railway and Steam-
ship and Freight Handlers, Local No. 676; Clerks, In-
ternational Protective Association Retail, Local No.
1436; Clerks, National Federation of Post-Office, Lo-
cal No. 1244; Electrical Workers of America, Interna-
tional Brotherhood of Local No. 229; Electrical Work-
ers of America, International Brotherhood of Local
No. 1261; Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive
Firemen and Local No. 214; Engineers, International
Union Operating Engineers, Local Union No. 831;
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of
Local No. 138; Garment Workers' Union, Inter-
national Ladies' Local No. 108; Garment Workers'
Union, International Ladies' Local No. 316; Hodcar-
riers'. Building and Common Laborers' Union, Local
No. 1167; Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Interna-
tional Alliance and Bartenders' International League
of America, Local No. 737; Letter Carriers', National
Association of Local No. 509; Machinists' InteVnational
Association of Local No. 243; Machinists' Interna-
tional Association of Local No. 1400; Machinists' Inter-
national Association of Local No. 1462; Maintenance
of Way Employees, Brotherhood of Local No. 3024;
Marble, Slate and Stone Polishers', Rubbers' and
Sawyers', Tile and Marble Setters' Helpers' and Ter-
razzo Helpers', International Association of Local No.
147; Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North
America, Amalgamated Local No. 469; Metal Work-
ers' International Association Sheet, Local No. 19;
Moulders' Union of North America, International Lo-
cal No. 33; Moulders' Union of North America Inter-
national, Local No. 239; Musicians' American Fed-
eration of Local No. 472; Painters, Decorators and
Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of Local No.
227; Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of Amer-
ica, Brotherhood of Local No. 332; Papermakers' In-
ternational Brotherhood of Local No. 449; Pattern-
makers' Association of York and Vicinity; Plasterers'
International Association of the United States and
Yortfowne Homes, a Federal low-cost rental development.
Elm Terrace Apartments.
A number of York's attractive homes.
Canada, Operative Local No. 107; Plumbers and
Steam Fitters of the United States and Canada,
United Association of Local No. 555; Printing Press-
men's Union of North America, International Local
No. 329; Railway and Motor Coach Employees of
America, Amalgamated Association of Street and
Electric Local No. 858; Roofers', Damp and Water-
proof Workers' Association United Slate, Tile and
Composition, Local No. 207; Shop Crafts, Brotherhood
of Railroad, Local No. 12; Stage Employees and Mov-
ing-Picture Machine Operators of the United States
and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical,
Local No. B118; Stage Employees and Moving-Pic-
ture Machine Operators of the United States and
Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical, Local
No. 283; State, County and Municipal Employees,
American Federation of Local No. 300; Stereotypers'
and Electrotypers' Union of North America, Interna-
tional Local No. 108; Fire Fighters', International
Association of Local No. 627; Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, Interna-
tional Brotherhood of Local No. 430; Textile Workers
of America, United, Local No. 2646; Tobacco Workers'
International Union, Local No. 81; Typographical
Union, International Local No. 242; Typographical
Union, International Ladies' Auxiliary; Wallpaper
Craftsmen and Workers of North America, United
Workers' Local No. 1; Wallpaper Craftsmen and
Workers of North America, United Print Cutters' Lo-
cal No. 5; Wallpaper Craftsmen and Workers of
North America, United Machinery Printers and Color
Mixers, Local No. 6.
The Cigar Makers were the first to organize in
1885. They were followed by the Carpenters and
Joiners in 1886 and the Bricklayers, Masons, and
Plasterers in 1899. The Building and Construction
Trades' Council occupies its own modern building
at 124 South Pershing Avenue.
Labor has responded generously to all the govern-
ment's wartime appeals, not only on the production
line, but also in bond buying, donation of blood
plasma, clothing collection. Red Cross and War
COMMITTEE FOR INDUSTRIAL
The C. I. O. has 15,000 members in York among
its several affiliated unions. The largest group is the
United Steel Workers with a membership of 9,000.
Others are the United Radio, Electrical and Machine
Workers of America; United Furniture Workers of
America; United Textile Workers; Allied Stone and
Quarry Workers; United Office and Professional
Workers; the Agricultural Canning Workers; and
several local industrial unions affiliated directly with
the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
The Local Industrial Union, No. 1335, composed of
roofing workers, while not a member of C. I. O., is
allied with the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
The C. I. O. in York carries on the program of the
national organization through collective bargaining.
Wage adjustments, standard work-week, vacations,
apprenticeship standards, sick benefits, and over-
time pay are agreed upon by union representatives
The C. I. O. stands ready to assist veterans of the
armed forces and maritime service in obtaining the
employment benefits due to them under Federal
Both War and Community Welfare Drives have re-
ceived active support of C. I. O. A ten per cent pay-
roll deduction for bonds is standard throughout the
Union. Through union representatives who went into
the plants and explained to the workers the impor-
tance of the Community Chest, labor has adopted a
payroll deduction of 2 of \% and gained ten seats
on the Welfare Board. In addition to this, the C. I. O.
has purchased several pieces of water therapy
equipment for the Visiting Nurses' Association.
The statements of historical facf in the foregoing secfion have been carefully examined and
discussed at length with the author by a special committee of The Historical Society of York
County. The committee recognizes (he extensive research that was required of the author and
believes that she has achieved a work tree from error, and welcomes it as a valuable contri-
bution to the literature of our local history.
THIS is the book of the people of York. Many have given gen-
erously of their time and of their specialized knowledge, the
results of years of research, to make this book possible. The
author is indebted to the library of the York Collegiate Insti-
tute, the Historical Society of York County and the Martin
Memorial Library, and for information on the following sub-
jects to the following people: Agriculture, George G. Weber;
Authors, Staff of the Martin Library; Banking, George L.
Sprenkel; City Government, Mayor John L. Snyder; Civil Air
Patrol, Oscar L. Hostetter; General Jacob L. Devers, Catherine
Devers; Flood Control, Benjamin E. Sweigart; Gazette and
Daily, Josiah Gitt; Markets, L. Elmer Leas; Motor Truck Trans-
portation, J. Frank Baird; Pennsylvania Rifle, Joe Kindig, Jr.;
Pennsylvania State Guard, Lieutenant Charles Spongier; Police
Department, Chief Nelson Schultz; Public Schools, Dr. Arthur
W. Ferguson; Refrigeration, Goodling Electric Company; Rabbi
Alexander Goode, Joseph Sperling; Sports, Robert Reichley;
Teen-Agers' Club, George S. Andes; Tobacco Industry, Com-
missioner of Internal Revenue, Treasury Department, Greens-
boro, North Carolina; Telegraph, Oliver S. S wisher; World
War II, Vernon D. Heilman; York Airport, Oscar L. Hostetter;
York as a clock-making center, Mrs. Ralph Cannon; York
County Academy, George Hay Kain; YorJc Dispatch, E. B. Wil-
liamson; York Inter-State Fair, Samuel S. Lewis; York Little
Theatre, Inc., Officer Robert L. Geesey; to E. A. Hirschman, and
to the officers and members of the clubs and other organiza-
tions represented and to many, many others.
THE ILLUSTRATIONS ALSO REPRESENT MANY SOURCES
THANKS are especially due to Daniel S. Seitz who permitted the
use of many of his photographs and took the market pictures
especially for this book; also to A. A. Bosshart, the Boy Scouts
of the York-Adams Area, the Girl Scouts, Catholic Charities,
Dr. Arthur W. Ferguson, Gretchen Goughnour, Historical So-
ciety of York County, Joe Kindig, Jr., Norman Kitchen, Laux-
mont Farms, Guy A. Leader Poultry Farms, Pennsylvania State
Police, Recreation Commission of York, Robertson Farms, Mar-
garet M. Small, Ethel Stum, H. C. Ulmer, York Collegiate Insti-
tute York County Academy, York Soil Conservation District,
York Water Company, Young Women's Christian Association,
officers of the various clubs and organizations represented and
many, many others.
ADRAIN, ROBERT "Robert Adroin," in Dictionary of Amer-
ican Biography, New York, Scribners, 1928-36.
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR York Federations of
Trade Unions, Official Annual Yearbook, York, 1944. Pamphlet.
BACON, SAMUEL Ashmun, Jehudi, Memoir of (he Life and
Character of Samuel Bacon, A.M., Washington City, J. Gid-
eon, Junior, Printer, 1822.
BIG INCH PIPELINE "1,400-Mile River of Oil," in Popular Me-
chanics, October, 1943; Eddy, Don, "Pipeline to Victory," in
American Magazine, June, 1943.
BIOGRAPHY Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, Vol.
23, New York, Lewis, 1938; also many volumes of genealogy
in the possession of the Historical Society of York County.
CHILDREN'S HOME OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF YORK
Children's Home of the City and County of York, Annual
Report, 1944. Pamphlet; Children's Home of the City and
County of York, 75th Anniversary af (he Children's Home of
the City and County of York, Pennsylvania, 1865-1940.
CHURCHES Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church, A Historical
and Descriptive Statement Published on the Occasion ot the
200th Anniversary of the Founding of Christ Evangelical
Lutheran Church, 1733-1933. York, (1933). Pamphlet; Al-
bright, S. C., The Story of the Moravian Congregation at
York, Pennsylvania. York, Maple Press (1927); Getz, John L.,
Historic York. York, 1940. Pamphlet; Yost, Donald H., "A
Brief History of the Society of the People Called Quakers of
York," in Conservation Society of York County, Memorial
Souvenir Commemorafing fhe 150/h Anniversary of York as
the Capital ot the United States of America, 1777-1778. York,
1927. Pamphlet; Prowell, George C., Hisfory of York Counfy,
Pennsylvania. Chicago, Beers, 2 Vols., 1907.
CITY HALL Dedication Program of fhe New City Hall, York,
Pennsylvania, Saturday Afternoon, May 30, 1942. Pamphlet.
CONESTOGA WAGONS "Inland Ships," in Hark, Ann, The
Story of the Pennsylvania Dutch. New York. Harpers, 1943.
CONSERVATION SOCIETY OF YORK COUNTY A Brief His-
fory of fhe Conservation Society of York County, Incorporated.
York, 1942. Pamphlet.
CONWAY CABAL see HISTORY, REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD
COUNTRY CLUB OF YORK The Country Club of York, Year-
boot, 1929. York, The Club (1929).
COUNTY GOVERNMENT Baugher, Edward E., York Counfy,
a Governmenfa/ Picture. York, 1943.
COUNTY SCHOOLS Directory of fhe Teachers and School
Directors of York Counfy, Pennsy/vania, 1944-45. York, 1944.
DAVIS, PHINEAS Jordan, John C., An Historical Citizen: Ca-
reer of Phineas Davis, the Noted Inventor. York. Pamphlet.
EDUCATION In Prowell, George R., Hisfory of York Counfy,
Pennsy/vania. Chicago, Beers, 1907.
ETNIER, STEPHEN Beebe, Lucius, "Adopt Island Life," in
Bachelor, January, 1938.
FARQUHAR, ARTHUR B. Farquhar, Arthur B., An Autobiog-
raphy of A. B. Farquhar, Garden City, Doubleday, Page, 1922.
FIRE DEPARTMENT General Committee of the City Fire De-
partment, Official Souvenir and Program of fhe Thirty-Second
Annual Convention of the Pennsylvania State Firemen's Asso-
ciation, Held af York, Pennsylvania, September 5 to 8, 1911.
Pamphlet; Heilman, Vernon D., Laurel Steam Fire Engine
Company, No. 1, 150fh Anniversary, 1790-1940. Pamphlet.
FLOODS Spongier, F. L., The inundation of York, Pennsyl-
vania. York, York Daily Printing House, 1884.
FORGES AND FURNACES Lyles, Victoria D., Forges and Fur-
naces of York Counfy. (Papers of the Historical Society of
York County, New Series, Number 4.) York, n.d. Pamphlet.
HANOVER SHOE FARMS Mary/and Horse, March, 1945.
HISTORY Catechism on York County; Questions and Answers
on York's History. Pamphlet; Carter, W. C., and Glossbrenner,
Adam J., History of York County from Its Erection to the
Present Time, 1729-1834. Harrisburg, Aurand, 1930; Getz,
John L., Historic YorJc. York, 1940. Pamphlet; Gibson, John,
History ot York County. Chicago, F. A. Battey Co., 1886;
Heilman, Vernon D., York Town to York. Dispatch, 1934.
Pamphlet; The Historical Sketch and Account of the Centen-
nial Celebration at York, Pennsylvania, July 4, 1876. York,
Democratic Press, 1876; Prowell, George R., History ot York
County, Pennsylvania. Chicago, Beers, 2 Vols., 1907; Spencer,
Lilian White, The York Pageant. York, The Author, 1927.
COLONIAL PERIOD Yearbook of fhe Historical Society of
York Counfy for fhe Year, 1941. York. The Society, 1941.
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD Pennsylvania State Branch. United
National Association of Post-Office Clerks. Official Souvenir
Booklet. York, 1942. Pamphlet; Gamble, Anna Dill, "Revolu-
tion Began New World Order and French Alliance Estab-
lished Our Opposition to Isolationism," Reprint from Valley
Forge Historical Society, Picket Post, January, 1945; Tousey,
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas G., York as a Supply Center for
fhe Revo/ufionary Army. (Papers of the Historical Society of
York County, New Series, No. 5.) Pamphlet, No. 1; Young,
Henry James, York County, Pennsy/vania in fhe Revolution-
ary War. Typescript. Black Series, 7 Vols.; Red Series, 2 Vols.
CONWAY CABAL Conservation Society of York County. Me-
morial Souvenir Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of
York as the Capital of the United States of America, 1777-
1778. York, 1927. Pamphlet.
HISTORY CIVIL WAR Gordon, General John Brown, Remi-
niscences of fhe Civil War; with Portraits. New York, Scrib-
ners, 1903; Farquhar, Arthur B., An Autobiography of A. B.
Farquhar. Garden City, Doubleday, Page, 1922; Freeman,
Douglas Southall, Lee's Lieutenants; a Study in Command.
New York, Scribners, 1942-1944; Small, Cassandra, Letters
of "63." n.d.
HISTORY WORLD WAR I Hall, Clifford J., and Lehn, John,
York Counfy and the World War. York, n.d.
HOLTZAPPLE, DR. GEORGE E. Holtzapple, Dr. George E., "The
Uses and Effects of Oxygen Gas and Nux Vomica in the
Treatment of Pneumonia," in the New York Medical Journal,
September 3, 1887; Hart, William S., "Susquehanna Honorary
Degree Holder Prominent in Medical Profession," in The Sus-
quehanna Alumnus, June, 1943; "Pioneer in Battle on Pneu-
monia," in Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Sunday Morning,
May 22, 1932.
INDUSTRIES York, Pennsylvania, Chamber of Commerce,
York, the Industrial City. York, 1929; Edwards, Richard S.,
Industries ot Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Richard Edwards,
1881; Murphy, R. E., Economic Geography of York, Pennsyl-
vania. School of Mineral Industries. State College, 1935.
Pamphlet; Shipley, W. S., Smith, Beauchamp E., Bulette,
Warren C., and Fisher, William J., York Industries Day at
Rotary. York, 1939. Pamphlet.
PRINTING McMurtrie, Douglas Crawford, The First Printers
of York, Pennsylvania. York, Maple Press, 1940. Pamphlet.
IZAAK WALTON LEAGUE Titus, Harold, "The Truth About the
Izaak Walton League." A Reprint from Field and Stream.
JUNIOR SERVICE LEAGUE Junior Service League, Fourteenth
Annual Report, 1943-44. York, 1944; Junior Service League,
Aquaganza News. York, July 16, 17, 18 (1943).
KIRKWOOD, DANIEL "Daniel Kirkwood," in Dictionary of
American Biography, Scribners, 1928-36.
LONG, JOHN LUTHER "John Luther Long," in Burke, W. J.,
and Howe, Will D., American Authors and Books. New York,
Gramercy, 1943, p. 437.
MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION The New Home and Office
Building of the Manufacturers' Association of York, Pennsy/-
MARTIN MEMORIAL LIBRARY The Founding and Establish-
ment ot the Martin Memorial Library of York, Pennsylvania,
and Its Founder, Milton Daniel Martin, with the Program of
the Presentation of the Library to the Public ot York and
York County. York, 1935; Shorey, Katherine Abigail, "The
New Martin Memorial Library," in Library Journal, January
15, 1936, p. 55-7.
MASON-DIXON LINE "Mason-Dixon Line," in World Boot En-
cyclopedia. Chicago, Quarrie, 1938.
MELSHEIMER, FREDERICK VALENTINE Prowell, George R.,
Frederick Valentine Melsheimer, a Pioneer Entomologist; a
Paper Read Before the Historical Society of York Counfy,
April 8, 1897; Barba, Preston A., "Frederick Valentine Mel-
sheimer," in American-German Review, February and April,
MILLER, LEWIS Barba, Preston and Eleanor, "Lewis Miller,
Pennsylvania-German Folk Artist," in American-German Re-
view, March, 1938, and June, 1938; Miller, Lewis, Chronicles
of York, Pennsylvania. Unpublished manuscript in the pos-
session of the Historical Society of York County. Miller, Lewis,
Ladies' Book. Unpublished manuscript in the possession of
George Hay Kain; "The Sing-Master's Chronic of York," in
the Christian Science Monitor, 1936.
MOVIES Shettel, James, First Movies in York. Reprint from
the article in the York Dispatch, November 20, 1942.
NAME Historical Society of York County, The Name of York.
York, The Society, 1941. (Information Circular, No. 1.)
YE OLDE VALLEY INN Ye Olde Valley Inn, 200th Anniver-
sary. 1938. Pamphlet.
PARENT-TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION York, Pennsylvania. York
City Council of Parent-Teacher Associations. Yearbook, 1944-
PENN, WILLIAM Adams, James Truslow, editor, Album of
American History; Colonial Period. New York, Scribners, 1944.
PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH York, Pennsylvania. Schools. We are
the Pennsylvania Dutch. York Schools, 1944. Mimeographed;
Hark, Ann, The Story of the Pennsylvania Dutch. New York,
Harpers, 1943; "Pennsylvania Germans and the Land of Milk
and Honey," in National Geographic Magazine, July, 1938.
PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH COOKING Pennsylvania Dutch Cook
Book. Reading, Pennsylvania. Culinary Arts Press.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE Directory of Resources for
Community Welfare in York and York County. Social Service
Club of York, 1938.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS "York Schools Serve in Wartime," Jour-
nal of the National Education Association, March, 1942;
York Public School in Pictures. York Board of Education and
the Teachers of York City, 1940.
PUBLIC UTILITIES The Gazette and Daily, York, Pennsyl-
vania; Special Section Commemorating 50 Years of Progress
and Stability. Saturday Morning, April 13, 1940.
RAILROADS Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company.
A Brief History and Other Information Regarding the Rail-
road. 1937. Mimeographed; Williams, Lowell W., Early Rail-
roads of York Counfy. Unpublished manuscript.
RECREATION York City and County Defense Recreation Com-
mittee, Recreation Facilities in York, Pennsylvania. York,
1943. Pamphlet; York Recreation Commission, York, Pennsyl-
vania. Wartime Service to York in 1943; Annual Report, 1944.
RUDY, CHARLES "Challenge of Form," in Magazine of Art,
April, 1940; "Charles Rudy," in Life, December 20, 1943.
RUDY, HORACE J. Connick, Charles J., "My Friend, Horace
J. Rudy," in Stained Glass, Spring, 1940.
SECHRIST, ELIZABETH HOUGH "Elizabeth Hough Sechrist,"
in Who's Who in America. New York, Marquis, 1945.
SMITH, EDGAR FAHS Armstrong, Eva W., The Story of the
Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection in the History of
Chemistry. University of Pennsylvania, 1937; "Edgar Fahs
Smith," in Dictionary of American Biography. New York,
Scribners, 1928-36; "Edgar Fahs Smith," in National Cyclo-
pedia of American Biography. New York, James T. White
and Company, 1929.
SMITH, REVEREND S. MORGAN In Industries of Pennsyl-
vania. Edwards. 1881, Philadelphia.
SOIL CONSERVATION York Soil Conservation District, Super-
visors' Annual Report, 1944. Mimeographed pamphlet.
SPRING GARDEN BAND Spring Garden Band Herald, 1944.
STEVENS, THADDEUS "Thaddeus Stevens," in Dictionary of
American Biography. New York, Scribners, 1928-36; "Thad-
deus Stevens," in National Cyclopedia of American Biog-
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SWIMMING York, Pennsylvania. Junior Service League,
Aguaganza News, July 16, 17 and 18, (1943). Pamphlet.
TAYLOR, KATHERINE HAVILAND "The Failure," by Kath-
erine Haviland Taylor, in Barrows, Marjorie and Eaton,
George, Box-Office: Short Stones from which Outstanding
Motion Pictures Have Been Made. New York, Ziff-Davis, 1943.
VISITORS Kain, George Hay, "Famous Visitors to York."
(Papers of the Historical Society of York County, New Series,
Number 2.) Pamphlet.
WAGNER, WILLIAM "William Wagner Was York's First En-
graver." In Conservation Society of York County, Memorial
Souvenir Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of York as
the Capita/ of the United States of America, 1777-1778.
WHITE ROSE Marshall, Henrietta Elizabeth, An Island Story;
a History of England. New York, Stokes, 1920.
YORK York, Pennsylvania, Chamber of Commerce. York,
Pennsylvania, a City of Diversified Industry and Civic
Achievement; Pertinent Facts and Figures Plus a City Map
and Street Guide. York, Chamber of Commerce, 1935. Leaflet.
Same, New Edition, 1945.
YORK CITY GOVERNMENT Code of the Ordinances of the
City of York, Pennsylvania. The Mischie Co., Charlottesville,
Va., 1944. Kain, George Hay, Digest of Special Acts, Assem-
bly, Ordinances and Resolutions for Incorporation and Gov-
ernment of the Borough and City of York, 1907. Newark, N. J.,
Soney and Sage.
YORK COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE YORK COUNTY ACADEMY
York Collegiate Institute York County Academy, Seven-
tieth Annual Catalog, 1944-1945. York, Pennsylvania.
YORK IMPERIAL APPLE Prowell, George R., "Early History
of the York Imperial," in Dedicatory Exercises to Commem-
orate the Site of the Origin of the York Imperial Apple,
Spring-wood Farms, Pennsylvania, Eighteenth Day of August,
1920. Pamphlet; Springwood Farms. Scrapbook on the York
YORK JUNIOR COLLEGE York Junior College of the York
Collegiate Institute, Fourth Annual Catalog, 1944-1945. York.
YORK PLAN "York Rates a Star on the Defense Map," in
Business Week, September 28, 1940; Manufacturers' Associ-
ation of York, Pennsylvania. The York Plan; Addresses De-
livered at the Thirty-Filth Annual Meeting of the Association,
February 10, 1941; Hippleheuser, Richard H., "Hello, Wash-
ington, York, Pennsylvania, calling," in Saturday Evening
Post, October 24, 1941; Menefee, Selden, "Pennsylvania Dutch
Town," in Assignment U. S. A., p. 28-34. New York, Reynal,
YORK RIFLES Loucks, Augustus, History of the York Rifle
Company from 1775 to 1908. York, The Gazette, 1908; Sing-
master, Elsie, Rifles for Washington. Boston, Houghton, 1938.
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION Young Men's
Christian Association; 75 Years in York, Pennsylvania. York,
Trimmer Printing Co., 1944. Pamphlet; Young Men's Christian
Association. Seventy-Fifth Annual Report. York, 1945.
Industrial and Commercial
York's development and growth rest
upon its industrial and commercial enter-
prises It is fitting, therefore, that this
volume include the individual histories of
typical business institutions The puJb-
lication of this book has been made possi-
ble by the financial assistance of the firms
I. B. ABEL-SON
In the Fall of 1913 a partnership was formed be-
tween I. B. Abel, father, and Norman E. Abel, the
son, as a retailer of electrical appliances and elec-