to reft the momentous concern of his eternal
welfare, on the fallacious expectation of a
protracted life ; he knew moreover too well
the power of habit, to admit a fuppofition,
that It could be effectually refifted or changed
at the dole of life. Neither are we to fup-
pofe, that moral and religious leifons which
conftitute the occupation of the eighth year,
werQ v from that period to be difcontinued,
although they are not afterwards mentioned ;
but the meaning of Mr. Jones probably was,
that they fhould be ferioufly and regularly
inculcated at an age, when the intellectual
faculties had acquired ftrength and expanfion
by preceding exercifes. That the order of
Life—V. J. R
arrangement in the Andrometer, could never
be ftri&ly adhered to in the application of our
time, and cultivation of our talents (if it
were intended) is evident ; but to thofe who
from their fituation are enabled to avail them-
felves of the fuggeftions which it furnifhes,
it will fupply ufeful hints for improvement,
and ferve as a ftandard of comparifon for
their progrefs. With refpect to Mr. Jones
himfelf, if his own acquisitions in his thir-
tieth year, when he conftructed the Andro-
meter, be compared with it, they will be
found to rife to a higher degree in the fcale.
With thefe explanations, I preient it to
the reader; reverfing, for the fake of con-
venience, the order of the fcale.
a 1 6 | o |
— Ideas received through the senses.
— Speaking and pronunciation.
— Letters and spelling.
— Ideas retained in the memory.
— Reading and repeating.
— Grammar of his own language.
— Memory exercised.
— Moral and religious lessons.
— Natural history and experiments.
— Dancing, music, drawing, exerci.es
— History of his own country.
— French and Italian.
— Compositions in verse and pfose.
- Rhetoric and declamation.
— ■ History and law.
— Logic and mathematics.
— Rhetorical exercises.
— Philosophy and politics.
— Compositions in his own language
— Declamations continued.
— Ancient orators studied.
— Travel and conversation.
— Speeches at the bar or in parliament.
— State affairs.
— Historical studies continued.
— Law and eloquence.
— Public life.
— Private and social virtues.
— Habits of eloquence improved.
— > Philosophy resumed at leisure.
— Orations published.
— Exertions in state and parliament.
— Civil knowledge- mature.
— Eloquence perfect.
— National rights defended.
— The learned protected.
— The virtuous assisted.
— Compositions published.
— Parliamentary affairs*
— Laws enacted and supported.
— Fine arts patronized.
— Government of his family.
— Education of his children.
— Vigilance as a magistrate.
• Firmness as a patriot.
— Virtue as a citizen.
— Historical works.
— Oratorical works.
— Philosophical works.
— Political works.
— Mathematical works.
— ( Continuation of former pursuits.
— Fruits of his labours enjoyed.
— A glorious retirement.
— An amiable family.
- Universal respect.
- Consciousness of a virtuous 1'if?.
— Preparation for eternity.
Perfection of earthly happiness..
I have mentioned that Mr. Jones was
called to the bar in 1774, but he declined
practice; from this period however he feems
to have been fully fenfible of the neceflity of
devoting himfelf exclufively to his legal Itu-
dips. The ambition of obtaining diflinction
in his profeflion could not fail to animate a
mind always ardent in the purfuit of the ob-
jects which it had in view, nor was he of a
temper to be fatisfied with mediocrity, where
perfection was attainable. His refearches and
ftudies were not confined to any one branch
of jurifprudence, but embraced the whole in
its fullcft extent. He compared the doctrines
and principles of ancient legislators with the
later improvements in the fcience of law ; he
collated the various codes of the different
itates of Europe, and collected profeflional
knowledge wherever it was to be found. If
the reader recollects the enthufiafm difplayed
by Mr. Jones in the profecudon of his
Oriental ftudies, the extent and depth of his
attainments in the literature of Afia, and the
high reputation which he had acquired from
them, he will readily applaud his refolution
and perfeverance in renouncing his favourite
purfuits. That he acted wifely, will be ad-
mitted, but the facrifice of inclination to
duty, affords an example of too great ufe and
importance to pafs without particular ob ■
In 1775, for the firft time, he attended
the fpring circuit and fefhons at Oxford, but
whether as a fpeclator, or actor, on that oc-
cafion, 1 am not informed. In the follow-
ing year, he was regular in his attendance at
The only part of his correfpondence of
this year which I polfefs, is a letter to his
friend Schultens, and I infert it as a memo-
rial of an incident in his life.
* Mr. JONES to H. A. SCHULTENS.
Behold me now no longer a
free man; me, who ever confidered perfect
liberty fuperior to every thing ! Under the
* Appendix, No, 32.
impreflion of the mo/t eager defire to fee
you, I promifed to vifit Amflerdam this year,
but I am detained in London by various and
important occupations. The fact is, that I
am appointed one of the fixty commiilioners
of bankrupts. It is an office of great ufe,
but little emolument; it confines me how-
ever to London during the greateft part of
the year. Add to this, my neceflary ftudies,
my practice at the bar, and the duty of giv-
ing opinions on legal cafes fubmitted by
clients. However, I read the Grecian ora-
tors again and again, and have tranflated into
Englifh the molt ufeful orations of Ifams,
How go on Meidani and Hariri ? Continue,
I befeech you, your labours upon them, with
due regard however to your health.
Notwithstanding the increafing application
of Mr. Jones to the duties and ftudies of his
profeflion, and his attention to political trans-
actions, the philofophical difcoveries of the
times did not efcape his obfervation. The
hopes and fears of the nation were at this
period anxiouily engaged in the event of the
unfortunate contelt, which had taken place
between the mother country and her colonies,
and whilft the juflice of the war, and the
expectation of a fuceefsful conclufion of it,
were maintained by one party, by another
their fentiments were oppofed, and their
rneafures arraigned and condemned. But it
is no part of my plan to invade the province
of the hiflorian by difcuffing the queftions of
thofe times. Thefe curfory remarks are
chiefly introduced as preliminary to the in-
fertion of two letters from Mr. Jones to Lord
Althorp, with whom he continued to culti-
vate that friendfhip which had fo naturally
been formed between the tutor and the pupil.
I add alio a lhort letter to Schultcns, in an-
fwer to one which Mr. Jones had received
from him, requeuing him to aflift by his own
contributions a new publication, then on foot
in Holland, and complaining of his finances
in a flyle calculated to confole his friend for
renouncing the haunts of the Mufes, for the
thorny but more productive Held of the law,
Mr. JONES to Lord ALTFIORP.
Temple •, JVbf. 13.
As I have a few minutes of
leifure this evening, can I employ them bet-
ter than in writing to my friend ? I haften,
my dear Lord, to impart to you the pleafure
I received to-day, from feeing a feries of
experiments exhibited by Mr. Walfh on the
American eel, by which he clearly proved
that the animal has a fenlation wholly dif-
tinct from any of the five fenfes. When he
announced the proportion to be demon-
itrated, I thought it might poflibly be true,
but could not conceive how a new fenfe
could be made perceptible to any fenfe of
mine, as I imagined it would be like talking
to a deaf man of harmonic founds, or to
one who had no palate, of nectarines and
pine-apples ; but he produced the fuileft con-
viction in me, that his pofition was in a de-
gree juft. His firft experiment was by fixing
four wires, about two inches in the water
where the fifh was fwimming, one in each
quarter of the elliptical trough ; each of thefe
wires communicated with a large gtafs of
water placed on a table at a little distance,
though the diitance fignified nothing, for the
experiment, had the wires been long enough,
might have been conducted in another room ;
while the four glaffes remained feparatc, the
gvmnotus (for that is his technical name) was
perfe&ly infeniible of the wires, but in the
very inftant when a communication was
made bv an inftrument between any two of
the glafles, he feemed to ftart, and fwam
directly to the wires which were thus joined,
paying no attention to the others, till a junc-
tion was made between them alfo. This
could not be fight, becaufe he did not fee the
wires while they were infulated, though they
were equally confpicuous ; it could not be
feeling (at lead not like our feeling) becaufe
the water was not in the leaft agitated ; ftill
lefs could it be hearing, and leaft of all fmell,
or tafle. It was therefore a diitinct electrical
feni'c of feeling, or power of conceiving any
ftronger conductor than the water around
him, tor which reafon he did not perceive
the wires till their junction, becaufe they
were at the extremities of the tub, and
fo little in the water, that they were lefs
powerful conductors. Several other experi-
ments were exhibited with equal fuccefs ; one
of them only I will mention. A triangular
inftrument of brafs was held over the tub,
and one of the legs placed gently in the
water, to which the fiih was wholly inatten-
tive, though he fwam clofe to it ; but when
the other leg was immerfed to complete the
circulation, he inflantly ftarted. It is by
this faculty that the wonderful animal has
notice of his prey, and of his enemies.
Thefe are pleafant amufements, and objects
of a jufl curiofity when they fall occafionally
in our way ; but fuch experiments might
have been exhibited at Paris, Madrid, or
Peterfburgh, where the philofophers, who are
difcovering new fenfes in other animals, are
not permitted to ufe their own freely ; and
believe me, my dear Lord, it is not by elec-
trical experiments, nor by triangular inltru-
ments, nor by condu&ors of wire, that wc
ihall be able to avert the black florin which
hangs over us. LeL you and me, therefore,
be philofophers now and then, but citizens
always -, let us fometimes obferve with eager-
nefs the fatellites of Jupiter, but let us incef-
fantly watch with jealoufy the fatellites of
the King. Do you hear any certain intelli-
gence concerning America ? Mr. Owen
Cambridge has jufl informed me, that a New
York Gazette is brought over, in which the
late uncertain accounts are confirmed in their
full extent, with this important addition, that
three counties of Maryland have offered not
only fubmiflion, but aiTiftance to General
Howe. This may, or may not be true.—
Mr. JONES to Lord ALTHORP.
i rejoice, my dear friend, that
vou have acquired that ingenuous diftrufh
which Epicharmus calls a-finew ofwifdom. It
is certain that doubt impels us to enquire,
and enquiry often ends in conviction. You
will be able when you come to London, to
examine with the minuteft fcrupulojity, as
Johnfon would call it, the properties of that
fingular animal, who is in the rivers of South
America, what Jupiter was feigned to be
among the gods, a darter of lightnings and
fhould be named drpcnrrKpfyos, inftead of gym-
notus, He certainly has (if an academic
may venture to affirm any thing) a mode of
perception peculiar to himfelf ; but whether
that perception can properly be called a new
finfe^ I leave you to determine : it is a modi-
fication indeed of feeling, but are not all our
lenfes fo ? I defire however, that in this and
in every thing, you will form your own
judgment. As to the TsctKxyUnvU of our noble
Conftitution, which has happily prefented it-
felf to your imagination, the very idea fixes
me with rapture. No, my dear Lord, never
believe that any thing is impoflible to virtue ;
no, if ten fuch as you conceive fuch fenti-
ments as your letter contains, and exprefs
them as forcibly, if you retain thefe fenti-
ments, as you certainly will, when you take
your place in parliament, I will not defpair
of feeing the moft glorious of fights, a nation
freely governed by its own laws. This I pro-
mife, that, if fuch a decemvirate mould ever
attempt to reftore our conftitutional liberty
by conftitutional means, I would exert in
their caufe, fuch talents as I have, and, even
if I were oppreffed with ficknefs, and torn
with pain, would ftart from my couch, and
exclaim with Trebonius, " If you mean to
" act worthily, O Romans ! I am well."
The fpeech, you find, was compofed and
delivered without my news about Maryland,
It IS ' Xoyos y.ce.\x y-ovxpyj-.ioq mxi r/JaTiwnxof, and
breathes a deliberate firmnefs. Lord Chat-
ham fpoke with a noble vigour for a veteran
orator, and your bifhop pronounced an ele-
gant harangue r I wifh Lord Granby had
more courage as a public fpeaker ; all men
fpeak highly of him, but he will never be
eloquent, till he is lefs modeft. Charles Fox
poured forth with amazing rapidity a conti-
* Too despotic and military.
rmed inveclive againil Lord G. Gennainc,
and Burke was fo pathetic, that many declare
they faw him fhed tears. The miniitcrs in
both houfes were fullen and referved, but
Lord Sandwich boldly contradicted the Duke
of Richmond on the ftate of the navy. I
grieve that our fenate is dwindled into a
fchool of rhetoric, where men rife to difplay
their abilities rather than to deliberate, and
wiih to be admired without hoping to con-
vince. Adieu, my dear Lord ; I fteal thefe
few moments from a dry legal inveftigation ;
but I could not defer the pleafure of anfwer-
ing a letter, which gave me inex^veflible
* H. A. SCHULTENS to Mr. JONES.
I know not how to exprefs
^y delight at the receipt of your fhort, but
very friendly and obliging letter. I take
ihame to myfelf at having fo long delayed
the acknowledgement of it, and you might
* Appendix, No. 33.
indeed juftly cenfure me, for an apparent,
forgetfulnefs of your kindnefs towards me,
This would indeed be a mod ferious accusa-
tion, which I cannot in any degree admit ;
I wim I could as fairly exculpate myfelf from,
the charge of negligence. You have now,
my friend, my confefTion, but you will par-
don me in confideration of my promife to be
more attentive in future. I may indeed plead
occupations fo incefTant, that they fcarcely
allow me time to breathe, and have often
compelled me to defer waiting to you, when
I moll ferioufly intended it; you will the
more readily admit this apology, when I tell
you, that for five months I have never once
thought of Meidanj.
I have now a little refpite, and mean foon
to refume my work, which has been fo long
interrupted ; the lingular kindnefs of the
fuperintendants of the library at Leyden, by
permitting me to take home for my ufe, and
retain as long as I pleafe, not only the manu-
fcript of Meidani, but any others which I
may want, will much diminifh the weight of
my labour. With this aiTiftance, I fhall pro-
ceed as faft as my other employments allow-
to copy the manufcript, finifh the indexes
(which are abfolutely necefTary to fuch a
work), and add whatever is wanted to ren-
der it as elegant and complete as poffible ; —
it gradually advances. I moft heartily wifh
it were in my power to beftow upon this fa-
vourite occupation, thofe hours which I am
obliged moft reluctantly to give to my various
public and private ledures; but I forefee that
it will flill require three or four years of hard
labour to collect fuch an ample flock of ma-
terials, as will enable me to deliver my lec-
tures fluently without much previous ftudy,
or " to make them out of a bag," as the
phrafe is, In the mean time, Hariri lies un-
touched, the Arabic poets are neglected, and
the foft and elegant literature of Perfia, which
above all I fincerely regret, remains unex-
plored ; fuch however is the ardour with
which you have infpired me, that I am de-
termined, if I enjoy life and health, at all
hazards, and at the rifk of fingularity, to
Life—V. L S
devote rnyfelf to the acquifition of it. I
almoft however defpair of publifhing Ha-
riri. I had determined to give the text only
from the belt procurable manufcripts, annex-
ing to it the translation of my grandfather,
which is complete. This I mould be able to
accomplish with little facrifice of time; and
without neglecting other bufinefs, I could
give the public an ufeful work. But there
are fome, to whofe judgment as well as in-
clination I owe much deference, who difap-
prove of this plan, and advife me not to
publifh the work, without extracts from
Tebrizi and other grammarians, nor even
without my own annotations. Though I da-
not agree with them, I muft fubmit to their
authority, at the neceffity of protracling the
publication, till I can give it as they wifh.
Scheidius has lately publifhed the firft
part of Jaohari's Lexicon, eonfifting of
about two hundred pages. He calculates
that the whole work will not be comprifed
In lefs than ten volumes, of a thoufand pages
each. Opinions about it are various. He
himfelf forefecs fo little impediment in com-
pleting this immenfe undertaking, that he
even talks of publishing Phiruzbadi, &c. ;
but others confider the obftacles fo infuper-
able, that they think it never will be fmifhed,
unlefs it mould rain gold upon him. This
is all relating to the Arabic that is now going
on amongft us, excepting a glofTary to Ha-
riri, Arab Shah, and the Coran, which Mr.
Wilmot, a young, but learned theologian has
undertaken. It will be very ufeful to be-
ginners, who from the difficulty and expenfe
of procuring Golius, are deterred from the
fludy of the language. Latin and Greek li-
terature receive more encouragement here.
This neither excites my envy nor furprife ;
but I mould be ftill more reconciled to it, if
fome fmall part of this patronage were to
overflow upon the Orientalifts. Ruhnkenius
is at work upon Velleius Paterculus, Burman
en Propertius, Wyttenbach on Plutarch,
Tollius upon the Homeric Lexicon of Apol-
lonius, an edition of which has been pub-
li ftied by Villoifon in France. The epiflles
S 2 '
of Phalaris, reflecting the author of which
your countrymen, Boyle and Bentley, had
fuch a controverfy, will foon be publifhed.
Have you feen the very elegant EfTay of
Ruhnkenius on the Life and Writings of
Longinus? Many copies have been fent to
England ; — if you wifh to have one, I will
take an opportunity of procuring it for you.
In the courfe of a few weeks, a critical mif-
cellany will appear, and it is intended to
publifh two or three numbers of it annually.
This publication has a double view ; to no-
tice the bell new books on every fubject
which relate to learned antiquity, and to in-
troduce occafionally new and unpublifhed
compofitions. The authors are unknown,
or, rather, wifh to be fo ; for fome of them
will certainly be difcovered by their fuperior
erudition, and uncommon elegance of flyle.
I am fufficiently acquainted with them, to
affirm confidently that the work will pleafe
you. With fome of the perfons concerned
in it, I am intimately connected, and they
have requefted me to recommend to them
fome London bookfeller, to whom a few co»
pies may be fent for fale. For this purpofe
I have thought of Elmfley, who will pro-
bably have no objection to try the fuccefs of
the work in England, by taking twenty or
even fewer copies. I wifh however in the
firft place to mention the bufinefs to you,
that Elmfley, or fome other by your intereft,
may be the more readily induced to under-
take it. There is alfo another favour of
more importance, which my friends, through
my agency, anxioufly hope to obtain from
you ; the circumftance is this : upon their
expreffing a wifh that their mifcellany mould
contain extracts from Oriental authors, par-
ticularly Perfic and Arabic, I recommended
to them, as there are but few works of this
nature, and ftill fewer worthy of notice, that
they mould leave a fpace for fhort differta-
tions, under the heads of tracts, or effays, or
any other title, by which they may be com-
municated, as a means of promoting thefe
ftudies. I promifed, for my own part, to
contribute fome biographical memoirs from
Eben Chali Khan, if they fhould have no-
thing better to infert. They approved my
advice, and earneftly entreated me to prevail
upon you to furnifh them with fome efTays
of this kind ; adding, that they would prove
the greateft ornament and recommendation
of this part of the work, and that if I really
enjoyed your friendfhip, which I was per-
petually afTerting, I could not fail of obtain-
ing this favour from you. You fee, my
friend, to what I have been led, by boafting
of your regard for me. I have yielded the
more readily to their felicitations, in the
hopes of retrieving by it, in fome degree,
the heavy lofs which we fuftained in you. I
therefore moft earneftly entreat and befeech
you, by your ancient love of the Oriental
mufes, who fo feelingly and fondly regret
you, not to omit any convenient opportunity
of gratifying our wifhes. Examine your
fhelves ;- — you will find many things ready,
and fufficiently perfect for publication. What-
ever you fend, will be moft acceptable, and
it fhall appear in our mifcellany with or with-
out your name, as you may think proper.
If you have any thing in Englifh, and want
time to turn it into Latin, I will readily un-
dertake the tranflation of it, and fubmit it to
the examination of others who are better
fcholars than myfelf, that your reputation
may fufFer no impeachment from it. Nothing
(hall be added, omitted, or changed ; but it
fhall appear exactly as you fend it ; to this
if you think it neceffary, I will pledge my
word. I hope it will not be inconvenient to
you to favour me with an early reply to this
letter, and I rely upon your obliging acqui-
escence in our requeft.
I congratulate you upon your new office,
as an introduction to fomething more ho-
nourable and lucrative ; and as to the lofs
of your liberty, I regret it rather on my ac-
count, than on yours. No one, not even an
Englishman, can object to fervice for the
public good, which is the juft recompence of
virtue and merit. To me, however, your
confinement is grievous ; for, if I was dis-
appointed in the expectation of feeing you,
when you were your own matter, I can
fcarcely now indulge a diftant hope of that
pleafure. Do not however leave me in
defpair : you have fifty-nine affociates ; fome
interval of leifure may occur, and if it
mould, do not neglect it, hut run over and
make us happy by the enjoyment of your
company and converfation. It is not from
want of inclination that I do not pay you
another vifit ; the recollection of the pleafure
I had in your fociety, is fo ftrongly imprefled
upon me, that I have nothing more anxi-
oufly at heart, than to fly over to you with
all fpeed, that I may again enjoy it. Neither
is it want of time, that detains me ; for my
office, which exclufively occupies me for
nine months, leaves me at liberty the re-
maining three. What is it then ? I will tell
you the truth, nor blufh to reveal to my
friend, " that, when my purfe is heavier, I
u fhall find the journey to you lighter*."
The foil of Oriental literature in Holland,
* An Arabic proverb, adapted to the situation of the
as elfewhere, is barren ; it produces only the
mere conveniences of life, but no fuperflui-
ties whatever. I muft therefore defer all
hope of accomplishing a journey to England,
without fome unexpected improvement of
my circumftances. I fhall however bear my
lot, whatever it may be, with patience.
Having mentioned this fubjecl to you, I
will add fomething in which you may efTen-
tially ferve me. With a view to improving
my fortune, and procuring that affluence,