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480. Australia and New Zealand. (2:2:0) (G-SS m) Grey

490R. Readings. (1:0:2 ea.)
For majors only.

493. Special Problems. (1-2:1-2:0)
For majors only.

501. Geography for Teachers. (3:3:0) Hudman

A systematic approach to the fundamentals of geography, emphasizing
source materials, teaching methods, tools, and techniques.

502R. Seminar in Regional Geography. (2:2:0 ea.) (G-SS m)

504. Geographic Field Techniques. (2:1:2)
For majors only.

512. Cartography. (3:1:4) (m) Prerequisite: Geog. 312. Layton

520. Quantitative Methods in Geography. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: Math. 105 or
equivalent.

Application of quantitative methods in geography.

522. Urban Geography. (3:3:0) (G-SS m) Hudman

Distribution of urban areas, their development, internal land use pat-
terns, and functions in the world's economy.

533. Industrial Geography. (3:3:0) (m) Prerequisite: Geog. 231. Hudman

A systematic analysis of major industries in the United States, with
emphasis on planning and industrial location theory.



308 GEOGRAPHY



580. Geography of Underdeveloped Areas. (2:2:0) (G-SS) Prerequisite: con-
sent of instructor.

Physical, economic, and human geography as it affects the world's under-
developed areas, with emphasis on future development possibilities.

598. Seminar in Techniques of Research and Presentation. (2:2:0)

A proseminar in the scholarly use of geographical sources, leading to a
substantial paper in oral and written form.

601. Physical Geography. (2:1:2) Grey

620. Cultural Geography. (2:1:2) Jackson

630. History and Philosophy of Geography. (2:2:0)

The development of geographical thought. Major concepts concerning
the nature, scope, and methodology of the discipline.

690R. Readings. (1:0:2 ea.)

695. Special Problems. (1-2:1-2:0)

698R. Seminar in Systematic Geography. (2:2:0 ea.)

A detailed investigation of selected aspects of systematic geography.

699. Thesis for Master's Degree. ( 6-9:Arr.:Arr.)



GEOLOGY 309




Professors: Best, Bissell, Brimhall, Bullock, Bushman, Hamblin, Hansen, Hintze,

Petersen, Phillips, Rigby (Chairman, 275 ESC).
Associate Professor: Miller.
Assistant Professor: Baer.

Geology offers an unusually wide variety of attractive career possibilities to
students whose interests lie within the physical or life sciences. The graduate in
geology may anticipate a position, with better-than-average pay, in the petrole-
um or the mineral industry, with a university, or with a governmental agency.
He often enjoys opportunities for worldwide travel and for leadership in rapidly
developing areas of geology, such as oceanography or environmental geology,
with his choice of balance between outdoor field studies and indoor laboratory
investigation.

The Department of Geology offers the bachelor's degree in geology, earth
science, and geological engineering. The earth science major is for prospective
secondary school teachers and for others who are interested in geology but
who do not plan a professional geology career. The geological engineering major
leads to a professional degree. The geology major offers a well-balanced core
curriculum leading to a professional career in geology.

Geology Major

The four-year program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in geology
requires of all students a standard core of geology courses representing all
major phases of geology, with supporting work in chemistry, physics, mathe-
matics, and biology. The nonspecialized curriculum is designed to provide maxi-
mum flexibility for early employment of a broad, well-rounded background for
graduate study. The capable student is strongly encouraged to plan for
study beyond the bachelor's degree and to select those elective courses which
will strengthen his area of special interest.

It is expected that a student majoring in geology will have met the general
entrance requirements of the College of Physical and Engineering Sciences and
will complete all general education requirements of Brigham Young University
as outlined in the General Education Requirements section of this catalog. Each
student seeking the Bachelor of Science degree in geology must successfully
complete the following courses or their accepted equivalent at another institu-
tion:

Geology courses required: Geol. Ill (4), 112 (4), 301 (1), 310 (1), 311 (3),
312 (1), 313 (2), 351 (3), 352 (3), 410 (4); plus 12 credits selected from
the following: 411 (3), 451 (3), 460 (3), 470 (3), 480 (3).

Supporting courses: Math. 105 (3), 106 (3), and 109 (4); Stat. 221 (3); Chem.
105 (4) and 106 (4); Physics 201 (5) and 202 (5).

Geology students planning to specialize in mineralogy and petrology should
take Chem. Ill (3) and 112 (3): Math. 112 (4) or 141 (4); and Physics 121



310 GEOLOGY



(3), 122 (3). 221 (3), and 222 (3). Students having mathematical skills

sufficient to enroll in Math. Ill and subsequently in Math. 112 are urged to

take these courses in place of Math. 105, 106, and 109. Greater power and

flexibility is thereby afforded for advanced undergraduate and graduate

study.

Geology students with special interest in paleontology may substitute Zool. 202

(4) and 203 (4) or 363 (4) for the physics requirement.

The Department of Geology recommends the following courses for partial ful-
fillment of University, undergraduate, and general education requirements: bio-
logical science — Zool. 105 (3) and Bot. 105 (3); social science — Anthrop. 101
(3) and Geog. 101 (3) or 231 (3); humanities and fine arts— Phil. 101 (3).

Recommended Curriculum for the Bachelor of Science Degree in Geology



Freshman Year F W

Geol. Ill, 112 4 4

Math. 105, 106 3 3

Engl. Ill, 316 3 3

Bot. 105 3

Health 130 2

P E ?. •".

Religri2iri22 ''"ZI!"!''''''"! 2~ 2~



Total hours



14i 15?



Junior Year F W

Religion 2 2

Geol. 310, 312 1 1

Geol. 311, 313 3 2

Physics 201, 202 5 5

Zool. 105 or 202 3-4

Geog. 231 or 101 3

Elective (humanities) 2 2

Religion 2 2



Total hours



18-19 17



Sophomore Year F

Geol. 351, 352 3

Geol. 301 1

Chem. 105, 106 4

Math. 109

Stat. 221 3

Hist. 170

Upper-division hum. course .. 2

P.E I

Religion 2



W

3

4
4



Summer School Su

Geol. 410 4

Senior Year F W

Geol. 470, 460 3 3

Geol. 480; 411 or 451 3 3

Anthrop. 101 (recom.) 3

Religion 2 2

Electives 7 5



Total hours



15J 16^



Total hours



16 16



Earth Science Major

Earth science combines the more descriptive phases of geology with those of as-
tronomy, meteorology, and geography for those who seek careers in secondary
science education or those with nonprofessional aspirations in geology.

There is an increasing demand for teachers prepared to teach earth science.
This subject is widely recognized as a more appropriate and popular science sub-
ject in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Teachers preparing in earth science
must fulfill the requirements outlined below, including those courses required for
state certification. Prospective teachers who plan to use geology as a composite
major or minor should refer to the Education section of this catalog for the re-
quired curriculum.

All students majoring in earth science are required to take 52 credit hours
from the following list of courses with a minimum in each group as follows: 20
hours in geology, 12 hours in physics, 8 hours in chemistry, 4 hours in mathe-
matics, and 5 hours in geography. This leaves 3 hours for elective choice in
any one of the 5 areas.

Geology: 104 (3), 111 (4), 112 (4), 311 (3), 312 (1), 313 (2), 351 (3), 352 (3),
410 (4), 460 (3), 470 (3), 480 (3), 502 (2) (this course for teachers only).

Physics and Astronomy: 127 (3), 137 (3); and either 100, 101 (6) or 201, 202
(10) or 211, 213, 214 (11).

Chemistry: 105 (4), 106 (4).

Geography: 101 (3), 211 (2), 401 (3).



GEOLOGY 311



Mathematics: 105 (3), 106 (3), 109 (4), 111 (5), 112 (4), 113 (4).
Zoology: 105 (3); and 344 (4) or 202 (4), or 203 (4).

Prospective earth science teachers are required to take Geol. 502 (2); Zool. 105
(3), 344 (4) or 202 (4) or 203 (4); Bot. 210 (3) and 205 (2).

It is recommended that earth science majors take the following classes in
fulfilling the University general education group requirements: Geog. 101 and
Anthrop. 101.

For those intending to take additional classes in mathematics, chemistry, or
physics, or who plan to secure a master's degree in any phase of science edu-
cation, it is strongly recommended that Math. Ill, 112, and 113 be taken. Physics
211, 213, and 214 should be taken in preference to 100 and 101, and should be
followed by Physics 315 if possible.

Students with a good background in biology who desire a stronger emphasis
in zoology should take any combination of the following courses in place of
Zool. 105 and 344: Zool. 202, 203, and 331. This would enable them, with the
approval of advisers in geology and zoology, to have a wider selection of upper-
division courses and 500- and 600-series courses if they do graduate work.

The following education courses must be taken by those wishing to fulfill state
teaching requirements: Ed. 301B (2), 310 (2), 362 (2), 377 (3), 403 (4), 415
(2), 479 (8); for a total of 23 hours. (For additional information consult the
Education section of the catalog.)

Total hour requirements for graduation in earth science:



A. Earth Science Teaching Degree
52 hrs. major-minor
12 hrs. biological science.
35 hrs. general education
23 hrs. education
6 hrs. electives

128 hrs. (16 hrs. /semester)



B. Terminal Degree in Earth Science
52 hrs. major-minor
41 hrs. general education
35 hrs. electives (upper div.)

128 hrs. (16 hrs./semester)



Recommended Curriculum for the B.S. Teaching Degree in Earth Science



Freshman Year F

Geol. Ill

Math. Ill 5

Chem. 105, 106 4

Engl. Ill, 316 3

Health 130 2

P.E I

Relig. 121, 122 2

Geog. 101



W

4

4
3



Total hours



165 16i



Sophomore Year F

Geol. 112

Geol. 351, 352 3

Physics 100, 101 3

Hist. 170 3

Geog. 211 2

P.E I

Religion .. « 2

Bot. 210

Electives 3



W

4
3
3



Junior Year F

Geol. 502

Geog. 401 3

Physics 127, 137 3

Zool. 105 3

Religion 2

Ed. 301B 2

Ed. 310 2

Ed. 377

Ed. 403

Electives



Total hours 15

Senior Year F

Bot. 205

Zool. 344

Religion (2nd block) 2

Ed. 415

Ed. 479 (1st block) 8

Health 362

Engl. lit. (2nd block) 6

Geology elective



W

2



3
4
3

17
W

2
4
2
2



Total hours



16* 155



Total hours



16 16



312 GEOLOGY



Geological Engineering Major

The curriculum for geological engineering is a four-year professional program
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Engineering Science (BES).

As engineering, in general, tends to be concerned with application of the
principles of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the practical problems of
industry, geological engineering applies the additional principles of geology to
practical problems of the minerals industries and other phases of engineering.
Geological engineers tend to concentrate their efforts in one of the four follow-
ing areas of interest, depending upon the practical application of their training:
(1) petroleum, (2) mining, (3) groundwater, and (4) heavy construction.

Required Curriculum for Geological Engineering

Freshman Year F W Junior Year F W

Geol. Ill (or 330) 4 Geol. 351, 352 3 3

Geol. 112 4 Geol. 311, 312 3 1

Engl. Ill, 316 3 3 Geol. 313 2

Math. Ill, 112 5 4 Math. 321 3

Civ. Eng. 101 2 Civ. Eng. 102, 201 2 2

Relig. 121, 122 2 2 Physics 221, 222 3 3

P.E i h Religion 2 2

Health 130 2 Zool. 105 (recom.) 3

Soc. science elective 2 Soc. science elective 2

Total hours 16J Hi Total hours 18 16

Sophomore Year F W Summer, Junior Year Su

Math. 113, 214 4 3 Geol. 410 ... 4

Chem. Ill, 112. 113, 114 .... 5 5

Physics 121, 122 3 3 Senior Year F W

Humanities elective 3 Geol. 470, 460 3 3

Religion 2 2 Civ. Eng. 212 2

P.E i i Civ. Eng. 303, 332 3 3

Hist. 170 3 Civ. Eng. 341, 431 3 3

Religion 2 2

Total hours 17^ 16^, Bot. 105 3

Electives (hum. & soc. sci.).. 6

Total hours 16 17

Suggested elective courses, as the student's schedule permits: Agronomy 282,
303; Geology 451, 460, 515, 520, 535, 561, 562, 563.

Graduate Study

The Department of Geology offers graduate study leading to the Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in geology within five major areas of
specialization: paleontology; stratigraphy and sedimentation; structural and field
geology; mineralogy, geochemistry, and petrology; and economic geology. In ad-
dition, the Master of Arts degree in earth science is available.

It is assumed that any student seeking any graduate degree in geology at
Brigham Young University will have had undergraduate preparation essentially
equivalent to that required by the Geolc^y Department of BYU; otherwise, re-
medial undergraduate work may be required.

For details concerning graduate study in geology at Brigham Young University,
see the Graduate School Catalog.

Courses

101. Introduction to Geology. (2:2:0) Home Study also. (G-PS m)

A cultural focus in physical geology for nonscience students. May be
taken with or without Geol. 102.



GEOLOGY 313



102. Introduction to Geology Laboratory. (1:0:2) Home Study also. (G-PS m)

Common rocks and minerals laboratory, including local field trips.

103. Life of the Past. (3:3:0) Home Study also. (G-PS m)

A cultural focus on historical geology for nonscience students. Fossils
studied.

104. Environmental Geology. (3:2:2) (G-PS m) Baer, Brimhall

A cultural course emphasizing geological and environmental consequences
of urban development and industrial pollution. Field trips required.

111. Physical Geology. (4:3:2) (G-PS m) Hamblin

Materials, structure, and surface features of the earth and the geologic
processes involved in their development. Field trips cost approximately
$40. Not recommended for students who have taken Geol. 101 and 102.

112. Historical Geology. (4:3:2) (G-PS m) Prerequisite: Geol. 111. Hintze

Concepts of geologic history applied to North American continental de-
velopment. Required field trips cost $35.

301. Computer Applications in Geology. (1:0:2) (m) Prerequisites: Geol. Ill;
Math. 109. Recommended: Stat. 221. Brimhall

Introduction to computer programming and problem solving involving
common geologic applications.

306. Landforms and Their Origin. (3:3:0) Home Study also. (G-PS m) Pre-
requisite: Geol. 101 or 111. Bushman
The earth's landscape features and their origin. For nonmajors.

310. Geologic Illustrating. (1:0:2) (m) Prerequisite: Geol. 111. Rigby

Preparation of geologic illustrations using a variety of media, leading to
publishable illustrative material.

311. Structural Geology. (3:2:2) Prerequisites: Geol. 352; Math. 111. Baer

Explanation and nomenclature of structural features of the earth's crust
and practice in interpreting geologic maps.

312. Geological Literatiu^e and Scientific Report Writing. (1:1:0) Prerequisite:
successful completion of the Junior English Proficiency Exam. Hintze

Indexes and sources of geologic information. Preparation of professional
geologic reports.

313. Geologic Methods. (2:1:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 311. Bissell

Practice in methods of geologic fieldwork and use of field instruments.

330. Geology for Engineers. (3:2:3) Best

Origin and occurrence of earth materials and processes related to engi-
neering problems.

351. Mineralogy. (3:2:2) (m) Prerequisite: completion of or concurrent regis-
tration in Chem. 105 or 111. Phillips

Physical and crystallographic properties of minerals, with practice in iden-
tification of common rock-forming minerals.

352. Petrology. (3:1:4) Prerequisites: Geol. 351; completion of or concurrent
registration in Chem. 106 or 112. Best, Hamblin

Occurrence and identification of rocks in the field and laboratory by hand
specimen and thin-section. Required field trips cost approximately $30.

410. Summer Field Camp. (4:0:40) Prerequisite: Geol. 313.

A five-week summer field camp in geologic mapping. Required of all ge-
ology and geological engineering majors.

411. Geomorphology and Air Photo Interpretation. (3:2:2) (m) Prerequisite:
Geol. 112. Hamblin

Landforms and their geologic and environmental significance. Recogni-
tion and interpretation of landforms from air photos.



314 GEOLOGY



451. Optical Mineralogy. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 352. Phillips

Fundamentals of optical crystallography and mineral identification tech-
niques using the petrographic microscope.

460. Economic Geology. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 352. Bullock

Principles, genesis, and localization of ore deposits, including laboratory
study of ore minerals.

470. Stratigraphy and Sedimentation. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 352. Bushman
Sediments, sedimentary rocks, and principles of stratigraphy.

480. Introduction to Paleontology. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 112. Petersen
Distribution, morphology, paleoecology, evolution, and stratigraphic sig-
nificance of organisms in the geologic record.

496. Readings in Geology (Honors Program). (1-2:0:3-6)

Directed reading of challenging books and articles dealing with funda-
mental geologic problems.

501. Rocks and Minerals. (2:2:0) (m) Bullock

Origin, classification, and identification of the earth's common raw ma-
terials. For nonmajors.

502. Geology for Teachers. (2:2:0) (m) Prerequisites: Geol. 101 and 102, or
103, or 111. Bushman

Designed to aid junior and senior high school earth science teachers.
Materials and methods useful for the classroom.

507. History of Geology. (2:2:0) Bushman

Historical development of concepts and philosophy distinctive to geology.
Offered 1972-73 and alternate years.

510. Conducted Field Trips. (l-3:Arr.:Arr.) Prerequisite: Geol. 101, 103, or 111.
Visits to and explanations of a variety of geologic features spectacularly
displayed in the Intermountain West. Credit varies with number and
length of trips in which the student participates, but, in general, 30 hours
will be spent in the field for each credit hour. Maximum credit allowable is
3 hours.

512. Geology of North America. (4:3:2) Rigby

A region-by-region study of the areal geology, physiography, and geo-
logic development of Canada, the United States, and Mexico.

515. Photogeology. (3:1:4) Hintze

Techniques useful to practicing geologists; use of parallax bar and various
instruments applicable to contact print photos.

520. Petroleum Geology. (4:4:0) Hansen

Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

535. Groundwater. (4:4:0) Hansen

Offered 1972-73 and alternate years.

540. Geophysics and Constitution of the Earth. (2:2:0) Best

Survey of physics of earth's interior and its bearing on plate tectonics.
Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

544. Geochemistry Laboratory. (2:1:2) Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Brimhall
Use of spectroscopic instruments for acquisition of chemical and isotopic
data on geological materials.

545. Geochemistry. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Brimhall

Geological materials and processes from a chemical point of view. Offered
1972-73 and alternate years.



GEOLOGY 315



551. Advanced Mineralogy. (3:2:2) Prerequisites: Geol. 351; Physics 202 or 213.

Phillips
Crystallography; structure and crystal chemistry of major mineral groups
studied by X-ray diffraction and other methods.

552. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrography. (3:1:4) Prerequisites: Geol. 352
and 551. Best

Microstructures, textures, and mineral associations.

561. Ore Deposits. (4:4:0) Prerequisite: Geol. 460. Bullock

Metallic ore deposits — their origin, classification, and distribution, empha-
sizing major ore deposits of the United States.

562. Industrial Minerals and Rocks. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: Geol. 460. Bullock

Occurrence, distribution, and use of nonmetallic earth materials. Offered
1972-73 and alternate years.

563. Mining Geology. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: Geol. 460. Bullock

Ore search and appraisal; assembling geological data; mining techniques;
ore treatment. Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

574. Principles of Stratigraphy. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 470. Bissell

Offered 1972-73 and alternate years.

575. Precambrian and Paleozoic Stratigraphy. (3:3:0) Hintze

Synthesis of regional stratigraphic relations in North America. Offered
1972-73 and alternate years.

576. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Stratigraphy. (3:3:0) Hamblin

North American Mesozoic and C!enozoic rocks and key fossils. Offered
1972-73 and alternate years.

577. Oceanography. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: Geol. 470. Hamblin

Oceanic processes, shoreline topography, sedimentary patterns, and sea
floor features. Offered on demand.

580. Invertebrate Paleontology (Protozoans through Brachiopods) . (4:3:2) Rigby

Morphology, paleoecology, evolution, and stratigraphic significance of in-
vertebrates. Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

581. Invertebrate Paleontology (MoUusks through Hemichordates). (4:3:2)

Petersen
Continuation of Geol. 580. Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

582. Biostratigraphy. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 480 or 581. Petersen

Fossils in their stratigraphic setting and principles of paleontologic chro-
nology. Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

583. Palynology. (3:2:3) Prerequisites: Bot. 105; Geol. 480. Bushman

Modern and fossil palynomorphs — their preparation and identification
and application to stratigraphic and paleoecologic problems. Offered 1972-
73 and alternate years.

591R. Seminar. (1:1:0 ea.)

610. Structural Geology. (3:3:0) Baer

Earth structures and their origin, emphasizing sequence of tectonic events
and their global significance. Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

655. Igneous Petrology. (4:3:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 352. Best

Origin and crystallization behavior of magmas, with emphasis on crystal-
liquid relations in simple experimental systems. Offered on demand.

656. Metamorphic Petrology. (3:2:3) Prerequisite: Geol. 655. Best

Subsolidus mineral equilibria; thermodynamic concepts; geologic variables
in metamorphic systems; graphical analysis of mineral assemblages. Offered
on demand.



316 GEOLOGY



670. Sedimentation and Sedimentary Tectonics. (3:2:2) Bissell

Offered 1972-73 and alternate years.

671. Sedimentary Petrology — Carbonate Rocks. (3:3:2) Bissell

Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

672. Sedimentary Petrology — Clastic Rocks. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 470.

Hamblin
Offered 1973-74 and alternate years.

678. Subsurface Methods. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 551. Baer

Use of electric logs in subsurface mapping and evaluation. Offered on
demand.

680. Micropaleontology. (3:2:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 480 or 581. Rigby

Geologically important microfossils, including conodonts, ostracodes, and
foraminifera. Offered 1972-73 and alternate years.

682. Vertebrate Paleontology. (4:3:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 480 or 581 or consent
of instructor. Miller

Morphology, ecology, and phylogeny. Offered on demand.

685. Paleoecology. (4:3:2) Prerequisite: Geol. 480 or 581. Rigby

Ancient environments and ecology of major taxonomic groups. Offered
1973-74 and alternate years.

696. Reading and Conference in Geology. (1-4:1-4:0)

697R. Directed Field Studies. (l-6:Arr.:Arr. ea.)

698. Research. (1-4:1-4:0)

699. Thesis for Master's Degree. (6-9:Arr.:Arr.) (m)
797R. Directed Field Studies. (l-6:Arr.:Arr. ea.)

799. Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy Degree. (Arr.)



GUIDED STUDIES 317



Guided
Studies



Professor: Reid.

Associate Professors: Herlin (Chairman, 126 BRMB), Mayfield.



Many students entering universities desire to improve their reading and studying
efficiency in order to meet the sudden, overwhelming load placed upon them
by university demands. The purpose of the Guided Studies Department of the
General College is to provide assistance that will enable such students to handle
effectively their heavy academic loads and to meet the challenge of new and
sometimes awesome study expectations. Guidance is given through a reading
laboratory and through organized academic classes in efficient reading and study
skills. Reading, listening, note taking, preparing for and taking examinations,
time scheduling, spelling, and attitudes of self-motivation are some of the major
areas of concern in Guided Studies classes. These classes are taught with the
university student in mind and are geared to help all students, whether they
are having trouble with their studies and are seeking specific help or are simply
trying to improve their already reasonably successful reading and study methods.

The Guided Studies Department is also charged with the responsibility of



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