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and after the battle of St. Alban's, when the Yorkists were completely
defeated, and in their hasty flight the poor King was forgotten and left
behind. He appealed to Sir Thomas Kyriel and Lord Bonville, entreating
them not to leave him but remain and protect him, assuring them that no
injury should happen to them. Although they might easily have escaped,
they compassionately and chivalrously consented to remain with him. They
were, however, seized by the Lancastrians, who affected to believe they were
the King's gaolors, and notwithstanding the remontrances and appeals of
the unhappy monarch were beheaded the following day. The case of Lord
Bonville was a particularly sad one. In the very short period of six weeks
the great house of Bonville was totally destroyed. William Bonville, Lord
Bonville's only son, and his grandson of the same name were both slain in
his sight at Wakefield on 31st December, and nothing remained to the old
heart-broken Lord, and the race of Bonville, save one little baby girl, his
great-grandchild, of not a year old.

The next Paper treats of the unfortunate Henry Stafford, Duke of
Buckingham, K.G., Lord High Constable of England, whom Archbishop
Morton, by treacherous flattery, lured to destruction and then deserted, as
stated above. He was executed at Salisbury 2nd November, 148.3. The sad
fate of his illustrious race is very remarkable. The Dukt's great-grandfather
died of the plague in 1400; his grandfather was slain at Northampton in
1460 ; his father at St. Albans in 14f>f> ; himself beheaded at Salisbury, as
just stated, and las son suffered the same fate in 1521, when the Dukedom
of Buckingham in the name of Stafford became utterly extinct.

The succeeding Paper contains an account of Sir John Cheney (after-
wards Lord Cheney), another adherent of the Earl of Richmond. He was
present at Bosworth, where, giant as he was, he was unhorsed by King
Richard himself. The battle had continued for an hour. Richard sought
everywhere in the thickest of the fight for the Earl to engage him in single
pombat, and thus end the contest. He had fought with several knights,






Notices of Recent Arch.eological Publications. 219

supposed to be him, and had had two horses killed under him, which leads
Shakspeare, following the old chroniclers, to say :

" I think there be six Richmonds in the field,
Five have I slain to-day instead of him."

At length gaining a sight of his enemy, surrounded by his friends, the King
charged straight at him with most desperate ferocity. The first shock of
the charge was borne by Sir William Brandon, Richmond's standard bearer,
whom Richard, with one blow of his sword, cleft through his helmet, and
the knight fell dead at his feet. The King seized the standard, shook it,
and flung it with contumely on the ground. Onward he pressed. Several
knights fell before him, but he thought of nothing but to reach the Earl. He
was now confronted by the stalwart, gigantic, figure of Sir John Cheney, by
whom he was challenged, and, as if by superhuman strength, was instantly
unhorsed and disabled. Fortune seemed to favour the King. He was almost
within reach of his enemy when Sir William Stanley, who, up to this time,
had remained a mere spectator of the fight, seeing the King's impending
triumph, rushed with his followers into the fray with the cry, "to the
rescue ! a Stanley ! a Stanley !" Richard had now become greatly exhausted,
but still, with a cry of "Treason! Treason!" he fought with desperate
valour, dealing blows right and left, but being surrounded was over-powered
and slain. The crisis was a very acute one, and but for the treacherous
defection of Stanley at the critical moment, it is probable the fate of the
day, and the subsequent history of England, would have been different.
The circumstances of this battle are a curious commentary on the alleged
deformed and diminutive stature, and the withered arm of Richard III.

The next Paper contains a memoir of the family of Stafford of Suthwyke,
and particularly of Humphrey Stafford, who by Edward IV. was created
Baron Stafford of Suthwyke. He seems to have been chiefly remarkable for
his antagonism to Henry Courtenay, Karl of Devon, whom he accused of com-
plicity with Richard Nevill, Karl of Warwick, in his designs for the restor-
ation of King Henry VI., and on this charge Courtenay was executed at
Salisbury in 14(56, and attainted. Stafford procured the grant from Edw. IV.
of the great bulk of the Courtenay estates, and afterward?, in 14(i9, of the
Earldom of Devon. A just retribution, however, quickly overtook him, for
within four months, by order of the same King he was summarily executed
at Bridgwater. The most interesting portion of this Paper, however, is a
memoir of John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury, an illegitimate scion
of this house, for particulars of which we must refer to Mr. Rogers's pages.

The sixth Paper contains a memoir of the Cornish family of Arundel, of
which there were two chief branches, one of Trcrice and the other of Lan-
herne. The latter, as well, we believe, for the high offices which they held
under the crown, as for their great possessions, were styled by the county
people, "The Great Arundels," to distinguish them from other branches of
the family. Sir Thomas Arundel of Lanhernc was a great favourite of King
Henry VIII., and received from him large grants of abbey lands, though
a Roman Catholic, as all his family were, and still are. The leader of the
Cornish Rebellion in 134!), Humphrey Arundel, was his uncle.



220 Notices of Recent Arch.eological Publications.

The extraneous narrative contained in the seventh Paper relates to one
Theodore Paheologus, of Landulph, in Cornwall, alleged to be descended
from Thomas, brother of Constantine Palreologus, the last Christian Emperor
of Constantinople. This subject has naturally aroused great interest. It
was brought before the Society of Antiquaries as long ago as 1817, and much
has been written upon it, but, so far as we know, not a vestige of evidence
has been found in support of the descent claimed.

In concluding this notice we venture to remark that Mr. E,ogers has
fallen into a very common error of confounding a chantry with a chantry
chapel. A chantry was a service, endowed, usually, in perpetuity, to pro-
vide a priest to sing masses after the death of the founder for him and for
any other persons named in the licence for foundation. The incumbent was
called a chantry priest, sometimes a mass priest, or a singing priest, because
the mass was sung or chanted. This service was said in the chapel, if there
were one, which was usually the mortuary chapel of the founder. A chapel
was not at all necessary for a chantry. In some churches thei'e were often
a great many more chantries than there were chapels. In some of the more
important churches there were as many as 30, 40, or 50, In old St. Paul's
Cathedral, if we remember rightly, there were upwards of 70. In ordinary
parish churches there were often several. All that was really necessary was
a small altar with room for the priest to stand before it.



THE SPIRIT AND INFLUENCE OF CHIVALRY. By John Batty,
author of the History of Southwell, &c, &c. London: Elliot Stock, 62,
Paternoster Row.

This is an interesting Essay on an interesting subject. We may think that
the spirit of Chivalry has disappeared as opposed to the spirit of the age,
and so, to a great degree, it has. It is utterly out of harmony with the
avaricious, grasping, money-seeking spirit with which we are surrounded on
every side. Nevertheless, it is a pleasant dream to picture to oneself the
brave and gallant knight, armed cap-a-pie to withstand all oppression,
rapine, and violence — to protect the weak and helpless, and redress all
wrongs. The true knight was trained from his childhood in those principles
of truth, honour, gentleness, courtesy, courage, generosity, self-denial, re-
ligion, and unfailing loyalty to his lord, which distinguished the true
knight. The guiding star of chivalry was woman. Reverence for woman-
hood as the most gentle and weaker sex ; but some particular young lady
whose personal beauty, or mental qualities, had gained his affection or
devotion of the knight, and whose approval was an incentive to his career of
honour and every gallant action. The beauty of his lady-love, though that
love may be purely platonic, he was, at all times, ready to maintain to the
death against all comers— but this devotion has utterly passed away,

Mr. Batty has evidently bestowed considerable and careful study of
the principles of Chivalry in the preparation of his essay. He treats of
the origin, maturity and decline of chivalry with the causes of such decline,
but he considers that the spirit of chivalry is undying. " It remains," he
says, " a principle of noble action, impelled by the highest motives. It is
the devotional heroism that fearlessly rights against the wrong done to mind,
body or estate— not taking into consideration any inconvenience or danger



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 221

involved in the performance. It maintains the right at any hazard ; it
protects the weak and defenceless, and, having only pure and honorable
motives, maintains masculine purity and the chastity of womankind ; dis-
countenancing everything tending to immorality ; despising low cunning ;
and scorning to take an undue advantage under any circumstances ; suffering
rather than imposing." These are high and noble characteristics, but, in
our estimate, they fall short of true chivalry. The author mentions Captain
Hedley Vicars, General Gordon, Father Damien, and some others who have
been remarkable for strength of character, high motives, and unshaken
bravery. All these admirable qualities are evidences of undaunted heroism ;
but we think they fall short, in the whole, of the true spirit of chivalry. We
can very cordially recommend the work to our readers. It is especially
suitable to the young.



THE ANTIQUARY.— A Magazine devoted to the Study of the Past.
Vol. XXII., July to Dec. 1890. London: Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster
Row, 1890.

To this volume the Honorable Harold Dillon contributes an interesting
Paper on the Canvas Coat of Sir Hugh Willoughby, shewn at the Tudor
Exhibition, a class of defensive armour now rarely found. Besides a " Jakke
of lynen cloth stuffed with mayle," and a "Jakke of Blake Clothe lyned with
canvas may led, " there were " six Jakkes stuffed with home," similar to that
of Sir Hugh Willoughby (the construction of which is particularly described
by Mr. Dillon), in the inventory of the effects of the renowned soldier, Sir
John Fastolf, taken after his death in 1459, and printed in the Arcltceolof/ia,
Vol XXL, in 1820. And some few others are mentioned by Mr. Dillon. Mr.
Dillon also contributes a most interesting Armourer's Bill, temp. Edw. III.
This Bill not only contains a list of the various pieces of armour delivered
into the Royal Wardrobe between 1st April, 1337, and 30th Sept. 1340, but
shews, also, the cost of the several pieces, and Mr. Dillon give some interest-
ing historical incidents which occurred during this period.

Mr. W. B. Rye furnishes a very interesting description in detail of the
cereuunial of the coronation of King James I., which has never before been
fully printed. Mrs. Baldwin-Child contributes two Papers in continuation
of her former Papers, edited from the MSS. of Sir Edward Pytt, Knt., on
the Building of the Manor House of Kyre Park, co. Wore. Mr. W. Page,
K.S.A., continues his very useful List of Inventories of Church Goods, temp,
Edw. VI. He has now brought down the list in alphabetical order to the
County of Sussex; and Mr. R. C. Hope continues his series of Papers on
Holy Wells: their Legends and Superstitions. Some of the legends and
Buperstitions are of much interest. In this volume (pp. 123-126) will be
found tin- suggestions adopted at the Conference of the Associated Archaeo-
logical Societies, held at Burlington House, London, on the 15th duly, ISM),
for the use of all persons anxious to assist in the preservation, transcription,
and, where possible, publication of Parish Registers, Churchwardens' Ac-
counts, and other local records. This important Paper may be obtained
upon application to the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, Burlington,
London, W. Mr. James Hilton introduces another Taper (the 7th) in con-
tinuation of his former communications on Chromocrams, and the Rev.



222 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications.

E. Manle Cole, M.A., P.S.A., continues from the last volume his description
of the Entrenchments on the Yorkshire Wolds. Mr. W. H. St. John Hope,
contrihutes a brief communication on the Important Excavations on the site
of the Romano-British City of Silchester, lately made at the instance of the
Society of Antiquaries. Mr. Hope states that the site contains 100 acres,
and is still encircled, with hardly any breaks, by the remains of a great wall
of flint with stone bonding courses, over 9 feet thick, and with an average
height of 12 or 14 feet. The numerous relics found were exhibited by the
Society of Antiquaries at the rooms of the Society at Burlington House in
the autumn. We find an interesting notice, illustrated, called " Books in
Chains," and a list of places is given where books so circumstanced have
lately existed or still exist. In compliance with a request to do so, we may
mention that, in addition to the places mentioned, there are, or very recently
were, books so chained to desks in the Church of Minehead, Som., and about
forty years ago also at Creditcn, Devon.

There are many other valuable Papers which we had marked for special
notice, but we must, for want of room, pass them over for the present. The
volume sustains the high character of this periodical.



STUDIES IN JOCULAR LITERATURE.— A Popular Subject more
closely considered. By W. Carew Hazlett. London : Elliot Stock, 1890.
Mr. Carew Haslett has been well known for very many years for his
works on popular literature, early poetry, folkdore, anecdotal and other
kindred studies ; and we gladly welcome his present scholarly and interesting
little volume.

" The Joke," Mr. Hazlett observes, " has proved in all ages a factor of
manifold power and use." The jester in mediaeval times was an important
and privileged personage in royal and noble houses, and conveyed to his
lord home truths which no other person dared breathe to him.

The subject is treated by our author in a philosophical and critical spirit,
but we can only briefly allude to it here. He says the jest resembles a
tree of many branches. It is couched in a wide variety of shapes — namely,
the Riddle, the Epigram, the Apologue or Tale, the Repartee, the Quibble
and the Pun." He describes the Apologue and the Riddle as the most
ancient, and resonant of early days, as, we believe, are folk-tales and super-
stitions to a greater extent than is usually supposed. He attempts to arrange
and annalize the jocular and humorous traditions which have descended to
us respecting the celebrities of all ages and countries, regarding them as
records of ideas and traits of ancient bygone manners which must otherwise
have perished.

The point of a joke is not always readily perceived. We have heard it
said of some persons that even a surgical operation would be unsuccessful in
impenetrating them. Oenerally, not only is a sympathetic auditory neces-
sary, but much skill is required on the part of the narrator. Unless he
himself feels the humour of the joke, and has somewhat of the gift of the
mimic or caricaturist, the richest joke will fall very flat. But we are told
by our author that we do not get the jest as originally delivered by the joker
in the warmth of his humour, — the raw material, as Mr. Hazlett calls it —



Notices of Recent Archaeological Pcblications. 223

the ipsissimis verbis. Jokes before set up in type " have to pass through the
finishing laboratory, -where," he says, " by rounding a corner or sharpening
an edge the dramatic beauty of a mot is enhanced beyond common credi-
bility " ; but it seems a question whether this operation would not tread out
the life of an improintu joke.

Mr. Ha/.lett, with much critical acumen, treats of the real importance of
jests and anecdotes, beginning from classical times and coming down to our
own. In the course of this review he relates many amusing examples of the
various classes of jocular literature. The book throughout will be read with
much interest.



COLLECTANEA CORNUBIENSIA.— A Collection of Biographical and
Topographical Notes relating to the County of Cornwall. By George
Clement Boase, one of the authors of the Bibliotheca Cornnlrienxis (one
hundred and thirty copies). Truro : privately printed for the author by
Netherton & Worth, 1890.

This is a work of great labour and research, which has occupied Mr. Boase
several years, and may be regarded as a supplement to the Bibliotheca
Cornubiensis, which he and Mr. W. P. Courteney jointly edited a few years
ago. The volume now before us is divided into four sections : The first
section contains Biographical Notes of Natives of Cornwall of both sexes and
of all ranks, some of which notes are of considerable length, shewing the dates
of their births, marriages and deaths, and any literary or other works for
which they were remarkable, with much other information most valuable to
the genealogist. This section occupies the greater portion of the volume.

The second section contains Topograpliical Notes of the County, and,
incorporated with them, is much information on miscellaneous matters,
Private Acts of Parliament, Royal and other Grants, Mines, Fisheries,
Militia, Local Literature, &c, &c, of great local and general interest.

The third section consists of a Journal kept by Mr. Henry Boase, as
Mayor of Penzance, from his election on the 20th Sept. 1816, until the 3rd
October in the following year. This curious record affords the reader a
remarkable insight into the working of the Borough system seventy years
ago. The mayor was ^very zealous and regular in the performance of his
municipal duties. The cases coming before the Court were not usually of a
very serious character, and in all cases his endeavour was to allay all
variance and make peace among his townspeople, and very often, by his
tact and influence he succeeded in reconciling the litigants. He was evidently
a man with a clear and sound judgment. The entries in the Journal afford
us many glimpses into the social condition of the borough at this date. Many
curious customs prevailed, which, doubtless, no longer exist. There was one
custom, of a dangerous character, which the mayor neither by his good uature
nor his authority could break down. This was the Midsummer Eve Bonfires.
The editor has greatly enriched the Journal by judicious annotations. With
reference to the bonfires he adds this explanatory note : "It had long been
a matter of public notoriety that the bonfires and fireworks caused a con-
siderable risk of setting fire to, and burning down, the town. The mayor's
plan was to have the fireworks on the Western Green, and on the 2nd June



224 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications.

he issued notices to this effect, but it does not appear that he was able to
prevent the annual celebration taking place in the Green Market and other
streets of the town as usual." On the 11th July, in this year, one Edith
Dale complained in the Mayor's Court against John Bramwell for burning
her clothes by crackers on the bonfire night, and the said John was fined
£1. The editor notes that " It is a curious fact that Francis Boase, Mayor
of Penzance in 1868, made a similar effort to prevent the midsummer eve
celebrations taking place in the centre of Penzance, but met with no better
success than did his namesake in 1S17 — fifty years before. There are many
entries in the Journal with respect to the practice of apprenticing the pauper
children to the principal ratepayers of the parish. A most excellent plan,
by which the children were brought up in respectable families as craftsmen
or otherwise, and taught to earn their own living creditably in after life.

In the fourth section is given a list of Markets and Fairs and Parochial
Feasts throughout the county. The dates of the feasts are given, but it is
to be remarked that the names of the Saints who are commemorated by such
feasts are not generally stated.

We have only to add that the Book possesses a very full Index, and we
can heartily commend it as a most useful publication.



COMPLETE PEERAGE of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and
the United Kingdom, Extinct or Dormant ; alphabetically arranged and
edited by G. E. C Vol. III. D to F. London : George Bell & Sons. Exeter :
William Pollard & Co., North Street, 1890.

The first two volumes of this New Peerage were originally printed in the
"Genealogist," but since the decease of the late Mr. Walford D. Selby, the
talented editor of that periodical, the peerage is being printed separately.

The plan of the work is an alphabetical Synopsis of the Entire Hereditary
Peerage, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant, of England, Great Britain, and the
United Kingdom, as also of Scotland and Ireland, including Life-Peerages,
with a short account given of each Peer, and stating, when practicable, the
place and date of birth, baptism, marriage, death and burial, not only of the
peers themselves but of their respective wives, and other particulars of their
families ; including also the eldest sons, or grandsons, of peers, bearing cour-
tesy titles as heirs apparent of such peers, and pre-deceasing them.

The author gives some account of every peerage, or reputed peerage,
found in Duglas's Peerage of Scotland, and he points out the peculiarities of
the origin and descent of the peerages, or reputed peerages, of Ireland —
some of which differ widely in these rejects from the peerages of England.
The narrative descents are clearly stated, and tabular pedigrees are given in
cases, in which, in the opinion of the author, it would be advantageous to
do so. And the pedigrees of all extinct or dormant titles are printed with a
black border.

Great confidence may be placed in the general accuracy of thiswoik, for,
unless we are greatly mistaken, the initials only slightly vail the name of
one of the most able and trustworthy genealogists in the kingdom.



Announcements. 225



ANNOUNCEMENTS.
Wjb wish to direct the attention of the members of this Society, and of
Gloucestershire men generally, to the prospectus enclosed herewith for the
publication of a Descriptive Catalogue of a thousand ancient Charters and
other documents selected from the Muniments at Berkeley Castle, with the
sanction of Lord Fitzhardinge, It is scarcely possible to overrate the im-
portance of this book to the members of this Society, and especially to all
wbo take an active interest in the local history of the county, it will be
invaluable. We cannot be too grateful to Lord Fitzhardinge for this further
instance of his public spirited liberality, and we may have every confidence
that in the skilful hands of Mr. Jeayes the literary work will be well done.



It is announced in the last number of the Western Antiquary that a Society
has been formed of gentlemen interested in the collection of Book Plates,
called the Ex Libria Society, with the object of facilitating the exchanging of
views upon the subject, and promoting, generally, the interest of Bona fide
Book Plate Collectors. For this purpose a Monthly Journal will be published
by the Society, in continuation of the Booh Plate Collector's Supplement now
issued with the Western Antiquary, to commence on the 1st of July next,
which will be issued/ra? of cost to members of the Society, the Subscription
to which will be 10/6 per annum. The Society will be limited to bona fide,
Book Plate Collectors, or gentlemen interested in the pursuit. Dealers will
not be eligible as members. The Journal will be edited by Mr. \Y. II. K.
Wright, the Borough Librarian, Plymouth, the able Editor of the Western
Antiquary.



Notes on the Family of Yonge. 221



NOTES ON

THE FAMILY OF YONGE, OR YOUNG, OF BRISTOL,

AND ON THE RED LODGE,

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., Irel, &c, &c.

Among the places of interest visited in the perambulation of the
city of Bristol, on the occasion of the Annual Meeting of the
Society there in July, 1890, was the house known as the "Red
Lodge." This was built by Sir John Yonge in the ninth decade
of the lGth century, in the last year of which he died, leaving



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