Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society.

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Bristol and Gloucestershire

Archaeological Society


1894 - 95.



Bristol anb Gloucestevsbiie

Hvcba^olooical Soctet^


1894 - 95-

Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A.




The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch-^ological
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and
the Editor, the Kev. C. S. Taylor, 2 Upper Byron Place, Clifton,
for the Notices of Books.


In Memoriam. Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., Irel.
Transactions at Ledbury .....

,, Bredon .....

,, Berkeley .....

A History of Kemerton. By the Rev. Jerome J. Mercier
Overbury Church. By the Rev. C. Glynn, M.A.

1 68





Notes on the History of Beckford. By the Rev. J. Melland

Hall, M.A. ....... 61

Berkeley Minster. By the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A. . . 70

The Domestic Life of Berkeley Castle. By the Rev. Thomas

Veal ........ 85

Two Bristol Calendars. By Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. . . 105

An Account of Roman and Mediaeval Remains found on the
site of the Tolsey at Gloucester. By M. H. Medland,
F.R.LB.A. ...... 142

The Tallage of 6 Edward H., and the Bristol Rebellion. By the

Rev. E. A. Fuller, M.A. ..... 171

Haresfield : Manors and Church. By the Rev. J. Melland

Hall, M.A. ....... 279

The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. By the Rev. Leonard

Wilkinson, B.A. ...... 374

On the Discovery of Skeletons at the Barton, Cirencester. By

Ernest Whatley ...... 394

Notes on a great Hoard of Roman Coins found at Bishop's Wood.

By Marv Ellen Bagnall-Oakelev . . . 399



Feudal England. Historical Studies on the Xlth and Xllth

Centuries. By J. H. Round, M.A. .... 159

Documents Illustrative of English Church History. By Henry

Gee, B.D., and William John H.\rdy, F.S.A. i6r

An Introduction to Folklore. By Marion Roalfe Cox 164

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Vol. VI., parts vi., vii. and

viii. ........ 165

Notes and Oucries for Somerset and Dorset. Part xxxiii. 166

Archcf'ological Journal. Vol. III., No. i . . 167

Woman under Monasticism. Chapters on Saint Lore, and Convent

Life between A.n. 500 and ad. 1500. By L:na Eckenstein 434

Historical and Topographical Collections relating to the Early
History of parts of South Somerset. By John Batten,
FS.A 437

i3attlcs and Battle-fields in England. By C, R. B. Barrett . 438

Venerabilis Bedse Opera Instruxit C. J. Plum.mer, M.A. 440


To face Page
7 Plates. Representations of Antiquities at Haresfield . 338

I ,, Roman Jar ...... 410

I ,, Map of Forest of Dean .... 411



liiistol Hutr ©[ourr.stcr.'ibivr ;^r4i;roloaitHl ^orictn,

At the Annual Meeting held at Ledbury

On Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, July 24th, 25th,

and 2Gth, 1894.

The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held at
Ledbury on the days above mentioned. This is the second
time within the last three years that members of the Society
have visited Ledbury and its neighbourhood. A large and
influential local committee were nominated to receive the
Society, Mr. M. Biddulph, M.P., being appointed Chairman.
Mr. Spencer H. Bickham and Mr. George H. Piper kindly
acted as local secretaries, but owing to the serious illness of
Mrs. Bickham — and which has since proved fatal — the for-
mer gentleman was unable to be present, and the duties were
kindly carried out by Mr. Jesse Garrood. Mr. Bickham was
also local treasurer. The company first assembled in the
ancient Townhall to hold the Annual Meeting of the Society,
and during the progress of the business the cries of the
market hucksters underneath were plainly heard. Among
those present at the introductory meeting were the Revs.
C. S. Taylor (Bristol), S. Bentley, G. S. Master, Pre-
bendary Maddison Green, and W. Bazeley, General Vizard,
Major Hawkins Fisher, Messrs. M. Biddulph, M.P. (Led-
bury), F. F. Fox, S. H. Swayne, F. Tuckett and J. Baker
(Bristol), W.J. Stanton (Stroud), J. Biddulph, J. Garrood,
G. H. Piper, and C. H. Dancey.


Vol. XIX.

2 Transactions for the Year 1894-95.

Mr. Michael Biddulph, M.P., said as Chairman of the
local committee he desired to offer the Society a hearty wel-
come on the part of the town of Ledbury. The inhabitants
w^ere exceedingly pleased to see their Society, and they hoped
their visit would be instructive and interesting.

In the absence through illness of the retiring president
(Mr. Russell J. Kerr), Aid. F. F. Fox, of Bristol, was asked
to take the chair. He said they all lamented the absence of
Mr. Kerr, who presided over them at Newnham last year
with singular ability, and successfully directed one of the
most admirable meetings the Society ever had. Let them
allow him, on behalf of the members of the Society, to thank
Mr, Biddulph and the local committee for their kind welcome.
The Rev. W. Bazeley, the Honorary Secretary, then
read the following

Report of Counxil of the Bristol and Gloucestershire
Arch^clogical Society for 1893-4.

The Council presents the following Report to the members of the Bristol
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for the past year. There are
at present 370 annual members, 70 life members, and 3 honorary members
on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 443 members.

The income of the Society for the financial year ending April 2istf
1894, was ;f479 i8s. fd. The expenditure during the same period was £yj
IIS. iid. The balance in the hands of the Society's Treasurer on April
2ist, 1894, was ;^442 6s. 6d., as against a balance of ;^294 12s. 7d. on the
2ist of April, 1893. Besides this balance, on which the cost of the Trans-
actions for 1892-3 and 1893-4 rnust be considered a charge, the Society has
a funded capital of ;^432 3s. 8d. in Consols representing the fees paid by
the life members.

The Society has held two General ^leetings during the past year.
The Annual Summer Meeting of 1893 "^^"^s held at Newnham-on-Severn,
under the presidency of Russell J. Kerr, Esq., and was most successful as
regards the number of members present, the interest of the places visited,
and the financial results. On Tuesday, July 25th, Mr. Charles Bathurst
and Miss Bathurst received the Members and Associates most hospitably at
Lydney Park. The Roman Station and Villa on Camp Hill were inspected
under the guidance of Mr. C. Bathurst, jun., and part of the beautiful tessel-
ated pavement, which at other times would have been covered with earth, to
protect it from the weather, was exposed to view by Mr. Bathurst's orders.

Report of Council. 3

Many beautiful and highly interesting objects which have been discovered
at various times and places in the Park are preserved in the Museum at
Mr. Bathurst's residence. These were shown to the members. For an
accurate description of the Camp and Villa, and also of the many antiqui-
ties found in Lydney Park, the Council would refer the members to Roman
Antiquities at Lydney Park, by the late Rev. W. Hiley Bathurst.

On Wednesda}', July 26th, an excursion was made from Newnham
under the guidance of Mr. G. W. Keeling, through the Forest of Dean to
Goodrich Court and Castle, and to Symond's Yat. On Thursday, July
27th, the members visited Littledeau, Flaxley Abbey, and Westbury, and
were received in the afternoon by the President and Mrs. Kerr at The Haie.
The Council is deeply indebted to Mr. James Wintle for placing Hill
House at the Society's disposal during their meeting, and also to Mr.
Douglas Wintle for the admirable manner in which he performed the
duties of Local Secretary. A detailed account of the meeting will appear
in volume xviii. of the Society's Transactions, and also the papers read at
Newnham and elsewhere.

The Annual Spring Meeting for 1894 was held at Gloucester on the
24th of April, and a special Report of the Council was presented to the
Society. In this Report, which was unanimously adopted, various recom-
mendations were made to the Society by the Council : — (i) That a piece of
silver plate should be presented to Sir John Maclean, in recognition of his
eminent services as Editor of the Society's Transactions for the last sixteen
years; (2) that a Photographic Archaeological Survey of Gloucestershire
be commenced under the auspices of this Society; and (3) that the finan-
cial year of this Society commence on the ist of January, and terminate on
the last day of December, instead of the 22nd and 21st day of April
respectively as heretofore.

(i) The Council has much pleasure in reporting to the members that a
very beautiful inkstand, selected by Mr. Wilfred J. Cripps, C.B.,
having a suitable inscription, was presented in June to Sir John
Maclean by Sir Brook Kay and other members of the Council, on
behalf of the Society.

(2) The Photographic Societies of Gloucestershire have been invited to
send delegates to an executive committee to draw up a scheme for the
Photographic Archaeological Survey of Gloucestershire, and favourable
replies for the most part have been received. It is hoped that the
Committee will meet shortly to draft the scheme.

(3) The Treasurer's accounts will close henceforth on the 31st day of

December ; and subscriptions for 1895 will become due on New Year's
Day. Those members and associates, however, who have subscribed
for 1894-5 will be entitled for such subscription to attend any meet-
ing of the Society held before the 2ist of April, 1895.

2 ■•'

4 Transactions i-or the Year 1894-95.

In connection with the Annual Spring Meeting, evening meetings were
held at Gloucester, Bristol, and Stroud, and addresses were given at each
place by Mr. H. S. Pearson, of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, on
the Photographic Archaeological Survey of Warwickshire. The thanks of
the Society are due to the Mayor of Gloucester for the free use of various
rooms at the Guildhall, and to the Bristol Museum and Library Com-
mittee for the free use of the Lecture Room.

The Council is glad to be able to report that considerable progress
has been made in preparing an Illustrated List of Church Plate in

During the last few weeks vol. xvii. part I. of the Society's Trans-
actions has been issued to the members, and part II. will be issued shortly.
The Council is anxious that an Index to the first 18 or 19 volumes shall be
prepared, and issued as a separate volume of the Transactions. An offer
on the part of one or more members of the Society to undertake the work
would be gladly welcomed.

The need of a building or room which shall be used as the head-
quarters of this Society and shall contain its Library has become a very
pressing one ; and a committee has been appointed to make the necessary
inquiries and report to the Council.

The binding of the Society's Transactions has been undertaken by
Mr. H. J. Rogers, of 51 Colston Street, Bristol, on similar terms to those
arranged with Messrs. Jefteries many years ago. Members who wish their
Transactions to be bound should communicate directly with Mr. Rogers.

The Council reports with great regret the death of Mr. Allard and Mr.
IMew, who acted for many years as Local Secretaries of the Society at
Tewkesbury and Evesham respectively.

The Council desires to nominate for re-election the President of
Council, the General Treasurer, the General Secretary, the Vice-Presidents
and the Local Secretaries for Stow-on-the-Wold, Tetbury, Lydney,
Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Chipping Sodbury, Cheltenham, Cirencester,
Gloucester, and Stroud. The Council has much pleasure in nominating
as a Vice-President of the Society the Rev. David Royce, Vicar of
Nether Swell. This position in the Society is due to him, the Council
ventures to think, on account of the very valuable service rendered by him
to Archaeologists by the editing of the Winchcombe Abbey Register. The
Council has much pleasure in nominating Mr. John Latimer, the very able
author of The Annals of Bristol in the iSth and igth Centuries, as Local
Secretary for Bristol ; the Rev. H. Sheringham, Local Secretary for
Tewkesbury ; the Rev. Harvey Bloom, Local Secretary for Chipping
Campden; the Rev. W. S. Davis, Local Secretary for Dursley ; and Mr.
Douglas Wintle, Local Secretary for Newnham. The following members
of Council retire by rotation, but are eligible for re-election : — Messrs. A.

Report of Council. 5

Le Blanc, W. C. Heane,.T. Dyer Edwardes, E. C. Gael, J. Morton Ball,
and the Rev. A. C. Jennings.

The Council has held seven meetings during the past year— four at
Gloucester, two at Bristol, and one at Ledbury ; and desires to express its
acknowledgments to the Mayor of Gloucester and the Mayor of Bristol for
the use of the Guildhall at Gloucester and the Grand Jury Room at

Mr. TucKETT, in proposing that the report be accepted, said it was
satisfactory, showing much activity and careful management of their
affairs. The comparative figures were satisfactory, as they showed a
balance in hand twice as large this year as last.

General Vizard seconded the resolution, which was adopted.

The Rev. W. Bazeley said that with regard to Mr. Tuckett's remark
on the financial position of the Society, he was afraid it must not go forth
that their financial position had improved by /200 during last year. The
fact was, that owing to a change in their printers and the serious illness of
their late Editor, Sir John Maclean, their Transactions had been delayed,
and the volume which should have been in the Society's hands by the
beginning of the year— volume xvii.— was only partly issued, and the
second part would not be out for a month or two, so that they would
have to pay for two volumes out of the funds they had in hand. Whilst
their financial position was not so good as it appeared, it was perfectly
satisfactory. They did not wish to make £2.00 a year profit by the Society.
The subscriptions would be expended in enriching their Transactions, for
the success of the Society depended upon the quality of the Transactions ;
and under the care of their new Editor, Mr. Taylor, he was confident the
character of them would be maintained.


Alderman Fox then introduced the incoming President, Mr. Biddulph,
M.P. He remarked that Mr. Biddulph was so well known and highly
respected, not only in that county, but in the neighbouring counties as
well, that it was almost unnecessary to introduce him to them. He did
not think Mr. Biddulph would find the post a difficult one, or them a
difficult team to drive. He was old enough to remember the time when
two members of an archaeological society never agreed upon one single fact
brought under their notice the whole day. (Laughter.) That condition
of things, however, was not found now, and never in the Gloucester
Archaeological Society. (Hear, hear, and laughter.)

Mr. Biddulph, M.P., remarked that in presiding over
them that day — which he had very great pleasure in doing —
he must ask them in the first place to be lenient with him as

6 Transactions for the Year 1894-95.

their chairman. He was not a skilled archaeologist, and did
not pretend to be a great authority on the subject of archae-
ology. Any remarks, therefore, he had to make he trusted
they would receive with a lenient spirit and with indulgence.
Before he proceeded further he would ask them to pass a
hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Russell Kerr, the late President,
who, so unfortunately, was unable to be with them, and to
Alderman Fox for taking the chair that day. (Applause.)

Continuing, Mr. Biddulph observed that he proposed to
confine the remarks he should make to objects of interest in
the immediate neighbourhood, some of which they would see
in their excursions on the following days. (Hear, hear.) He
would first refer to that monument of antiquity — the magnifi-
cent old camp called the British Camp, the entrenchments
of which could be seen for many miles around the hill. It
was one of the most ancient of such monuments in this
island, for the date of its formation, he presumed, was
unknown and quite lost in the mists of antiquity. He
supposed it might be called pre-historic. There was no
doubt but that it was constructed by the early tribes who
inhabited this part of the country before the arrival of the
Romans. He would give a good deal to know who first did
construct the camp, and the different scenes to which it had
been a witness. One could not fail to be struck by the
immense size of the entrenchments. In fact they enclosed a
very large space ; but they must bear in mind that it had to
form a resting place for the whole tribe, and not only for the
tribe, but for their cattle and the cattle stolen from their
neighbours as well. (Laughter.) There were also a number
of other camps in the neighbourhood. Wall Hills Camp was
in the immediate vicinity, and was evidently a very old one,
probably forming one of the number which existed in this
part of the land at about the time he had mentioned.

The next matter to which he wished to direct their
attention was the notice taken of the town of Ledbury
in Domesday Book. That appeared to be the first notice
in ancient times there was of the town, as there were no

The President's Inaugural Address. 7

Saxon chronicles giving them a history of the vicinity
before that period. In Domesday there was an account
of the town which existed there at the time of the Conquest.
He presumed it was not then a large town, although
important enough to be noted. It gave the number of
inhabitants of different classes, and mentioned a very
interesting fact in the occupation of the Hazel Farm,
just outside the town. That farm appeared to have been
inhabited from that time right up to the present, and was
one of the most ancient places of habitation which existed
in the neighbourhood. After that they did not appear to
have any notice of Ledbury until the time of Bishop
Swinfield, who had a residence at Bosbury in the 13th
century, and there was a very interesting account book kept
by his steward. It gave an account of the Bishop's travelling
from one part of the diocese to another, and his journeys to
London and other places. It was also interesting in so far
that it showed the provisions consumed in the establishment,
where they came from, and how much was used. The
Bishop appeared to have had a large household. He got
venison from Dingwood Chase and Cohvall Chase, the Park-
way, the road in the Dingwood Chase, having sustained its
name ever since. There was another little fact in connection
with the diary worth referring to, and that was that there
was one mention, and one only, of roedeer venison having
been consumed.

The next fact of interest which affected Ledbury was
that once upon a time the town returned members of
Parliament. In 1295 and 1304, in the time of Edward I.,
Ledbury returned two members to Parliament. It did
not appear to have returned members after that time,
for he could find no mention of it. Therefore, Ledbury
returned members for a short time only. It used to be
reckoned a town of considerable importance. They knew
there were cloth manufacturers there, and that it possessed a
thrifty and well-to-do population. Some towns went up and
some went down in the world, and unfortunately Ledbury

8 Transactions for the Year 1894-95.

did not flourish much after the time of Charles I. or II. Its
manufacturers were drawn away to other centres, and the
town itself, although he was happy to say that of late years
it had looked up a little in the world, did not continue to
flourish as other towns had done, perhaps by reason of the
mail coaches ceasing to run or the railway taking people
elsewhere. Nevertheless, he did not think they had anything
to complain of now. The town had looked up, and was as
thrifty and industrious a centre as was to be found in their
agricultural districts.

He came now to the time of the Civil War. That

was, perhaps, one of the most interesting periods in the

history of the country, and one in which Ledbury was

particularly interested. There was, as many of his hearers

were aware, a battle at Ledbury. It took place on the

22nd April, 1645, and was fought between the Governor of

Gloucester (Colonel Massey) and Prince Rupert. Prince

Rupert was in command of a large force of cavalry, and was

quartered in the town, by tradition taking up his residence in

his (Mr. Biddulph's) house. At any rate Prince Rupert was

here ; and at the raising of the seige of Gloucester he retired

towards Worcester. Ledbury was immediately occupied by

the Governor of Gloucester (Colonel Massey) ; but Prince

Rupert, determining not to give it up, on the morning of the

22nd April retraced his steps and fell upon the town. The

defenders did not appear to have any guards set. Prince

Rupert came down from the Worcester Road, which used to

run through the churchyard, and fell upon them. They

appeared to have been totally unprepared to receive him. A

panic took place, and the Parliamentary army left by the

road to Gloucester. There was no time to mount horses^

and a regular fight took place in the streets. The officers

formed themselves into a kind of rear guard to protect their

men from the assault of the cavalry. They eventually

formed up at the top of the street, known as the "Cross,"

to prevent them giving pursuit. They learnt that one officer

was mortally wounded, and two or three officers otherwise

The President's Inaugural Address. 9

wounded. There was a very curious old sword (which Mr.
Biddulph handed round for inspection) discovered in the roof
of Mr. C. W. Stephen's house in the town. It was, no doubt,.
an officer's sword — it was no common soldier's sword ; and
his theory was that it must have belonged to one of the
wounded officers he had just spoken of. They knew the
fight took place at the top of the street near the house where-
it was found, and there was nothing more likely than that a
wounded officer should have been carried into there. To
keep it from the enemy, no doubt it was hidden in the roof.
He thought this was an item worth noticing, and one which
gave some interest to the encounter which took place there..
(Hear, hear.)

Whilst on the subject of the battle, he should like to
say something concerning a great national failing. It
was, that amongst the people there was a total absence of
any tradition. There seemed to be no one in Ledbury who
had the faintest tradition of the battle. There was in fact no
tradition in England. If they went to Scotland, there was
no highlander who could not tell them from tradition about
Prince Charlie and the Battle of CuUoden. If they went ta
Ireland, the people there were full of its traditions, and
would tell them about their ancient kings, and what happened
a hundred years ago in the Irish Rebellion. If they went
into Wales, the Welsh had a glimmer of tradition of what
happened in the ancient days. When they came over the
border, however, into England, the people did not seem to
have the slightest trace of any tradition at all. He did not
believe there were many working men in England who knew
anything about the Battle of Waterloo. (Laughter.) They
had no recollection of anything which had taken place unless
they found it out in old writings.

Continuing, Mr. Biddulph remarked that a short time
previously he referred to the old Hazel Farm. Coming down
to later times, a hundred and fifty years ago it was occupied
by a man of some note, and whose name was very well
known, Jacob Tonson, the founder of the " Kit-Kat Club."

lo Transactions for the Year 1894-95.

At a farm in Herefordshire there now lived a family who
possessed the " Kit-Kat " pictures. Their ancestors used to
live at the Argus Farm, which was close to the Hazel

In conclusion, he remarked that he always took the
greatest interest in everything appertaining to old times and
those who had gone before them, and he fully entered into
the spirit which had caused that Society to be formed and go
thus about the country. Their method was a most interest-
ing and valuable means of recreation, and he only hoped
they would have fine weather, and not be disappointed in
their visit to Ledbury. (Applause.)

A vote of thanks to Mr. Biddulph was proposed by Alderman Fox,

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