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TRANSACTIONS



OF THE



Bristol and Gloucestershire



Archaeological Society



FOR



1904.



TRANSACTIONS



CF THE



Bristol anb Gloucestershire



Hrcbaeological Society



FOR



1904.



Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A.



VOL. XXVII.



BRISTOL:

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J W. ARROWSMITH QUAV STRfcET



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and
the Editor, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A , F.S.A , Banwell Vicarage,
Somerset, for the Notices of Books.



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXVII.



Page



Proceedings at the Annual Spring Meeting at Bredon,
Strensham, and Pershore ......

Proceedings at the Annual Summer Meeting at
Hereford .........

The Early Connection Between the Churches of
Gloucester and Hereford ....



Effigies of Bristol ......

The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore .

Bristol C\thedral : The Choir Screen .

The Date of Wansdyke

The Painswick or Ifold Villa ....

On Some Gloucestershire Manuscripts now in Hereford
Cathedral Library ......

The Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol .

Heraldry Read at the Bredon Meeting .

Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral ....

Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903 .

The Old Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol

The Bristol Hotsvells ......

Notices of Recent Archaeological and Historical
Publications .......



r 5

45

5i

117

127
131
156

172
221

275
289

327
34"
352



211. 354



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Bredon Church — From the South
., North Porch .

,, Reade Monument

,, Interior

Strensham — Russell Monuments

Rood Screen
Pershore Abbey — Interior .
,, Exterior .

Hereford Cathedral — From N.W.

,, ,, North Transept

,, ,. South ,,

,, Ground Plan .

Reproduction of West Front
,, ,, ,, Presbytery

Old Map of Hereford ......

Kilpecx Church — From S.W. ....

,, South Doorway

Ludlow Church — Interior

,, Windows in St. John's Chapel

Hereford Cathedral — Lady Chapel .

,, ,, ,, ,, Arch in Vestibule

Ewias Harold Church
Abbey Dore— Exterior

,, Ground Plan .

Madley Church ....



/ agi

4
4
4
4

12

12

12

*4

*7
20

21

24
24
2 +
24

H

24

24

24
26

26


32
32
34



Vlll



List of Illustrations.



Ludlow Castle The Keep .

State Apartments .

Interior of Great Hall

West Door of Chapel .

Leominster — Cucking Stool

Bristol Cathedral — Choir Screen

Ifold Villa — Plan of the Farm .

„ Villa

Articles Found

Flue Tile Stamped R.P

Column and Cap

,, Mosaic Pavement .

General View

Hypocausts

I .1 oucester Cathedral —

Effigy of Abbot Serlo .

John Jones

Abraham and Gertrude Blackleech

( >bje< rs Found in Bristol, 1903. Plate I.

Plate II.

,, Plate III. .

I 'iiki 1; Kings Inn, Thomas Street, Bristol

Ancieni Chimney-pieces, Bristol ....



4"
40

40
40

43
128

58, 160

159
161

162

164

166, 167

291

317
319

329
33"
33*
337
338



Old Church 01 St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol-
Ground Plan

Old Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol-
Four Bosses ........

Two Views <>i the Hotwells .....



34i

35o
352






gristffl attfc (Btoucestelmc ^rckcalogical Stocietg.



PROCEEDINGS

At the Annual Spring Meeting,
At Bredon, Strensham, and Pershore,

Tuesday, June 7th, 1904.



This meeting proved to be a most successful and instructive one.
Bredon, Strensham, and Pershore were visited, and although it is not the
first time the Society has been there — Bredon being included in the
programme in 1885 and 1895, and the other two places on the latter date —
the ground was new to many members. What made the meeting so
attractive was the arrangement whereby the journey from Bredon to
Pershore was made by river, an innovation that proved very acceptable.
The weather was delightfully fine, and the large number of members
present had a most enjoyable day under the best conditions. The party
totalled between 160 and 170 — a record by about fifty.

The first place visited was Bredon, and the party enjoyed the walk
through the picturesque Worcestershire village, with its thatched cottages,
to the parish church, where the members were received by the Rev.
G. J. Say well (curate), in the absence of the Rev. H. G. Cavendish-Brown
(rector).

The monastery of St. Peter at Bredon was founded by Eanulf, grand-
father of King Offa, probably about 716, and in 731 Tatwin, a priest of

2

Vol. XXVII.



2 Transactions for the Year 1904.

the minster, became Archbishop of Canterbury. Bede calls him "a man
distinguished for religion and prudence, and notably well instructed in
sacred literature." He is also remarkable as being the first Mercian who
• in the throne of St. Augustine, and his elevation no doubt marks the
of Mercia under Ethelbald. His successor, Cuthbert,
was also a Mercian, translated from Hereford. In 772 King Offa granted
to the minster the land of eight manentes at Evenlode after the death of
the thegn Ridda, his wife Bucga, and their daughter Heaburg. 1 On
September 22nd 780, he granted to Bredon land at Waersetfelda, Coftun,
and Wreodanhal, with apparently an use to the Bishop of Worcester:
•In usum episcopi Weogernensis acclesia maneat." 2 This would seem to
mark an early connection between the cathedral and the lesser minster,
unless, indeed, it marks the compromise of a dispute between the two
churches concerning the property. On the same day, however, Offa
inted thirty-five hides to Bredon absolutely — five at Teddington on the
Carent, and ten each at Washbourne, Codeswell (Cutsdean), and Norton
on the Tyrl. 3 In 781, as a part of the great dispute between King Offa
and Bishop Heathored, which led to the surrender of the Minster of Bath
by the bishop, Offa had laid claim to twelve cassates at Bredon, but there
is nothing to show which they were or what was the nature of the king's
claim. 8 On Christmas Day, 841, Berhtulf, King of the Mercians, granted
to Abbot Eanmund and the family at Bredon freedom from the service
called fastingmen — probably the entertainment and forwarding on their
journey of royal messengers or travellers — in return for a precious silver
dish, 120 mancusses of pure gold, and the chanting of 1,200 psalters and
120 masses for the welfare of the king and his realm. Again, in 844 or 848
Berhtulf granted to the same abbot and his family freedom from the
services called cum feorme and eafor, also from the service of providing
food for the hawks or horses of the king or his huntsmen and servants ;
except that when messengers for the king came from over the sea, or from
the West Saxons or Northumbrians, if they came before midday dinner
must be provided for them, if they came after the ninth hour they must be
entertained for the night. Other privileges were granted by Humberht,
prince of the Tonsets "• In return the family at Bredon granted to the
king 180 mancusses of pure gold and the land of fifteen manentes at
:deghe and Bellanford. After this we hear no more of Bredon
as an independent minster ; probably it was disorganised during the
roubles of the Danish invasions, and it became a possession of the
cathedral at Worcester. It remained with the Mother Church till
after the consecration of Edwin Sandys to the See on December 21st,
1559, when Queen Elizabeth retained Bredon, Bishop's Cleeve, Bishop's

1 K. C. D , cxx. ; C. S., 209, 2 K. C. D., exxxviii. ; C. S., 23+.

» K.C.D., cxl.; C.S., 236. 4 K.C.D.,cxliii.; C. S., 241.

5 K. C. D., eclxi. ; C.S.,454.



Bredon. 3

Wyke, Knight Wyke, and Henbury, giving in return in the fourth
year of her reign some impropriations and tenths of quite inadequate
value. 1

The only existing relic of the Saxon monastery is a portion of a
beautiful interlaced cross, which was found in the churchyard and placed
in the chancel.

The church consists of a lofty nave with north porch, Early English
south aisle, and Decorated north aisle. A tower has been inserted between
the nave and the chancel. It has a transitional Norman arch on the west
and an Early English arch on the east. There are no traces of transepts ;
the tower was evidently an afterthought. The western end of the nave is
especially interesting, as, with the exception of the west window, inserted
in the fifteenth century, it retains all its original Norman work. The
three doorways on the north, west, and south, with their chevron
mouldings, are beautiful examples of that style.

The west front is flanked by square turrets with pyramidal caps,
the angles of the upper stages being enriched with mouldings. The
roof of the porch is groined with diagonal ribs springing from shafts
in the angles. Over this is a parvise, to which there is apparently
no access.

The corbel table of the nave is continued round the porch, proving it
to be of the same date as the rest of the building, say about 1150. The
windows are plain, being splayed deeply on the inside.

The first change took place apparently early in the thirteenth century,
when the south wall of the nave was taken down as far as the north and
south doorwavs, an Early English arcade of two arches was inserted in its
place and a south chapel was constructed, having a triplet window at the
east end, four couplet? cf trefoil-headed lancets on the south, and a couplet
with quatrefoil head at the west end. This last window is now blocked by
tl\e fine Jacobean monument of Giles Reade, his wife, and eight children.
On the south side there are a trefoil-headed piscina and three sculptured
slabs in arched recesses —one representing two human arms rising from a
shield and bearing a heart is especially worthy of notice. In the north-
east angle is the door leading to the rooddoft staircase. The Perpendicular
rood-loft itself was ruthlessly destroyed some seventy years ago. A
drawing of one of the panels is given in the third volume of Reports and
Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies, 1S55, P- 334-

At the close of the thirteenth century a chapel was built on the north
side of the nave and an arcade of two arches was constructed, as on the
opposite side, with a central octagonal shaft and two responds. The
capitals are very poor when compared with the Early English caps
opposite. The windows are Geometrical.

1 Dugdale, lion, Aug., i. 578.



4 Transactions for the Year 1904.

The Early English tower of two stages has a graceful spire, which

rms a delightful feature in the view from the river or opposite shore. It
stands between the nave and chancel, without transepts. There are some

; ty churches in Gloucestershire similarly constructed, for example
Brockworth, Beckford, Leckhampton, and Ozleworth. It is possible that
when the church was first built there was an apse where the tower now
or a short choir with a chancel beyond.
The chancel is Early Geometrical, and was, it would seem, built in the
reign of Edward I. Under the eaves is a cornice, with a ball ornament
and the heads and shoulders of human figures in the hollow moulding.
In a buttress on the north side has been inserted what seems to be a very
beautiful piscina with ball-flower ornaments of somewhat later date than
the chancel itself, perhaps about 1318. The east window is of four lights
with geometrical tracery. Nash says that in the six side windows of the
chancel are the arms of Tateshall, Beauchamp, Vesey, Copelev, Botely,
1 These families, we may suppose, contributed to the building
of the chancel. On the north side is a Decorated founder's tomb, or
I aster sepulchre, and an aumbry; and on the south wall is a piscina with
a low window behind it. To the west of this are three seciilia. Placed
upright against the south wall is a most interesting and beautiful
Edwardian monument, illustrated in our Transactions, vol. x., p. 159. It
was found lying on its face in the chancel. Next to this is a fifteenth-
century tomb with the three miniature recumbent figures of a man, his
wife, and his child. On the floor is a large slab with an inscription in
memory of John Prideaux, Bishop of Worcester, 164 1 — 1650. He was
deprived of his income and home by the Puritans, and, taking refuge with
his son-in-law at Bredon, existed on an allowance of 4s. 6d. a week until
his death on July 29th, 1650, at the age of 72 !

The collection of heraldic encaustic tiles on the front of the chancel
steps is perhaps one of the finest in England It is described by the
Rev. A. S. Porter, a great authority on tiles, in a report of the Worcester
Diocesan Architectural Society, Reports and Papers, vol. xix., pp. 149- 160.
They have been carefully drawn by Mr. Roland Paul, who kindly sent me
tracing of one about which I had some difficulty. Nash, in his History of
IP 1 re, says that in his time were painted on the east wall of the

chancel — on one side the arms of Mortimer, and on the other side ten
bezants quartering Cornwall with a prince's crown.

The tiles show that they were given by one of the Mortimers, probably
Roger, third Earl of March, 1331-1360, during the episcopacy of John de
Trillick, Bishop of Hereford 1344-1360. Trillick had been rector of Bredon
from 1300 to 1339, and in all probability the chancel was beautified under
his superintendence. He did not forget Bredon when he was raised to the
1 History of Worcestershire 1781, vol. i., 131.




Neininger, Phot. Face page ■!.

ST. GILES' CHURCH, BREDON, FROM THE SOUTH.



Sj«sA%****«sA<




Neininger, Phot.



NORTH PORCH, BREDON.




Neininger, Phot.



READE MONUMENT, BREDON.




ffeininger, Phot.



ST. GILES' CHURCH, BREDON



Bredon. 5

episcopal dignity, and it was through his influence that his all-powerful
neighbours at Wigmore, Richard's Castle and Hanley Castle ordered these
tiles to be made and presented them to Bredon Church.

It is possible to connect most of them with the Mortimer family, or
with the more or less powerful families with whom the Mortimers inter-
married in the reign of the third Edward. They deserve more careful
attention than has ever been given to them, and should furnish matter for
a substantive paper in our transactions.

In the churchyard are a coped tomb and a recumbent cross profusely
enriched with the ball-flower ornament. The church has been described
in our Transactions, vol. x., pp. 159, 160, and vol. xix., pp. 19, 20; in
Brandon's Parish Churches, vol. ii , p. 51 ; in the ArchcBological Journal,
vol. iv., p. 105; and in the Reports of the Worcester Diocesan Archi-
tectural Society, as above.

Nash mentions many other coats of arms which have unfortunately
been lost since his time.

The Society is indebted to Mr. Neininger, of King Street, Gloucester,
for the photographs of Bredon.

After a short service,

The Rev. Canon Bazeley gave a description of the church, founded
on the notes which he had written for the programme, and which are
given above. After alluding to the early history of the monastery which
had stood on the same site, he called attention to the features which, he
said, deserved careful examination by those present : a beautiful interlaced
cross, perhaps of Saxon workmanship ; the twelfth-century tower without
transepts ; the Mortimer heraldic tiles on the rising of the chancel steps,
on which he promised a joint paper by Mr. Were and himself; the fine
Jacobaean monument of Giles Reade and the sculptured slabs in the
south chapel, especially the carving, which represented two human arms
protruding from a shield and holding a heart ; the monuments in the
chancel, especially the beautiful thirteenth-century tomb, of which a
drawing was given in the tenth volume of this Society's Transactions ; the
fifteenth-century tomb, with miniature figures of a man, his wife and child;
and the floor-slab over the tomb of John Prideaux, the unfortunate Bishop
of Worcester, who was deprived of his bishopric and his means of
livelihood by the Puritans and died almost a pauper at Bredon.

Mr. Were gave some interesting particulars with regard to the tiles,
which numbered about seventy, and included several varieties of the
Mortimer arms and also those of Ferrers, Trillick, and Elmbrugg, the
latter family coming from an adjoining manor.

Before quitting Bredon a visit was paid to the mediaeval tythe barn, an
unusually fine specimen, dating from the fifteenth century. It consists of
a nave and two aisles, and is 130 feet in length, the nave being twenty



6 Transactions for the Year 1904.

feet in width and the aisles eight feet six inches in width The roof is of
one span, and there is a noteworthy stone chimney.

Much as the company enjoyed the visit to the interesting church at
Bredon, there was a greater treat in store for them. Passing through the
meadows, they found awaiting them at the riverside two fine steamers, the
River Queen and the Jubilee, which were to take them the fourteen miles'
journey to Pershore, calling at Strensham on the way. The sun shone
brilliantly, but the heat was never oppressive, as a cooling wind was
blowing. The scenery that was unfolded as the steamers proceeded along
the winding river delighted everybody. Luncheon was served on board to
parties of twenty, and the holders of the early-issued tickets were able to
partake of their meal by the time Strensham was reached.

Canon Bazeley described the church which stands in a picturesque
situation, overlooking the fertile Avon Valley, and commanding line views
of Bredon Hill and the Malvern range.

Strensham appears in the form Strengesho in King Edgar's Confirmation
Charter of 972 to Pershore Abbey. It is said that the manor was given
to the Abbey of Westminster by Edward the Confessor, and that early in
the reign of Henry III. it. was held of the abbot by Hugh de Fokington.
Strensham nowhere appears by name in Domesday, and as it does not
appear in the Augmentation Roll among the estates of Westminster, it was
no doubt not a possession of the abbey at the time of the Dissolution. In
1292 Sir Roger de la Ware was patron of the church of Strensham.
Before the end of the thirteenth century the Russells, said to be a family
of Norman origin, took up their residence at Strensham, and James Russell
presented a kinsman to the living in 1300. x This confirms a statement on
the monument of Francis Russell, the last male possessor of that name,
who died in 1705, that his race had held the manor for more than
400 years.

There are traces of an earlier church in the east wall of the chancel,
the lower part of which contains numerous fragments of thirteenth-century
moulding, very similar to those which are found in the church at Matson.
It was probably built in the earlier years of the reign of Henry III. by the
Abbot of Westminster. The present building has been left untouched by
the nineteenth-century restorer, and is rich in brass and marble monuments,
paintings on panels, encaustic tiles, and sixteenth-century woodwork.
There are numerous heraldic coats, principally of the Russells and the
families with whom they intermarried. There are also some hatchments
of the Taylor family, who have possessed the manor for many years past.
The following sketch pedigree of the Russells will, it is hoped, assist our
members in their archaeological researches : —

1 Bishop Gifi'ard's Register.



Strensham.



James Russell, living at Strensham in 1272,

Patron of the Living in 1300 = Jane



Agnes (2) = Nicholas = (1) Alice Gryndon

Patron 1349. Patron 1312, 1318, 1328 :



1 Thomas



Sir Robert = Catherine Vampage
Patron 1361.
Brass.



I

Elizabeth (1) = Sir John, d. 1405 = (3) Agnes Planches
Margaret (2) Patron 1376, 1388,
1394, 1402. Brass.



I
William = Agnes Hodington, co-heiress of the Casseys
and Cookeseys.



Robert = Elizabeth Throcmorton
Patron 1409, 1414.



Robert = Johanna Delabere
Patron 1434 I



Patron 1482, 1500 ; d. 1502.
Brass.



I
Robert Elizabeth Baynham



Brass.



Patron 1549 ; d. 1556.
Monument.



Sir John = Edith Umpton



d. is62.



Frances Cholmondeley = Sir Thomas = Margaret Ligon
Knt. 1569.

Sir John Elizabeth Sheldon



Sir Thomas = Elizabeth Spencer



d. 1632.

Monument.



d. 161S.



I
Sir William, Bart. = Frances Read
d. 1669.
Monument.



I
Sir Francis = Anne Litton

d. 1705.
Monument.



I I I

(1) Anne Mary Elizabeth = W. Dansey

Wile of Guise, Lygon Wife of T. Jones. Lady of Strensham

and Every, d. 1734.
Monument.



I
Anne Dansey d. 1754.
Monument.

1 The Heralds' Visitation says that Sir Robert was a son of Nicholas, but the inscription
on the brass says "filius Thomas."



8 Transactions for the Year 1904.

There are ten monuments of the Russell family: —

1. The brass of a man in late fourteenth-century armour, c. 1375, the
earliest in Worcestershire: IRobCVtUS IRllSSCll, fillUS TXbOltlSe IRUSgClI

quondam oommus oc strcinisbam cuius anime propicictur

5>C11S.

2. The brass of a knight in armour : 1bic jaCCt JObr.UUCS IRltSSCll,

cbivalcr, Dominus be Strensbam, qui obiit apuo ULetbergnbam (n
comitatu Soutb folcfe ultimo Die mcnsis Jauuarij anno Domini
mccccv. ©rate pro antmabus i>icti Jobannte ct j£U3abetbar,
/BSargaritae ct scmctis ujorum suarum quarum antmabus pro=
picictur 2>eus. amen.

3 and 4. In the vestry, as Mr. Davis found them in 1883, are the
brasses of an esquire in the armour of the time of Henry VII. and of a
lady ; the heads of both are separated from the bodies. Inscription :

Ibere ivjctb TRobert iRusscll of Strensbam Bsquiet sometime
loro ot tbis manor, ano Bli3abetb bis wnjffc, tbc wbicb IRobert
beccaseb tbc jrtij cap ot" June 1502 on wbose soul Jesus bave
mercv?.

One shield remains with the paternal arms of Elizabeth Russell,
daughter of Thomas Baynham, of Clovverwall, Co. Glos. : Gu. a chevron
sa. between 3 bulls' heads cabossed arg. armed or.

The Harleian MS. 1041 tells us that she married secondly Robert
Throckmorton [Vis. Glou. 1643, p. 14]. Surely these brasses should be
replaced in the chancel as soon as possible.

5. Mural brass. A knight, Sir John Russell, kneeling with heraldic
tabard, and by his side his wife Edith, daughter of Sir Thomas Umpton.

Below the brass is a tomb with an inscription saying that Sir John died
1556 and Dame Elizabeth in 1562.

6. Monument on the south side of the chancel, with recumbent effigies
of Sir Thomas and Elizabeth, Lady Russell, daughter of William Spencer,
of Yarnton, Oxon. He died in 1632, and Dame Elizabeth in 161S.

7. An oval black marble slab on the opposite wall commemorates Sir
William Russell, who fought for Charles II. at Worcester, and his wife
Dame Frances, daughter of Thomas Read, of Barton, Berks. He died
in 1669.

8. A pretentious monument with the figure of a lady weeping over
her dying husband. A long epitaph commemorates Sir Francis Russell,
who died in 1705, leaving three daughters, co-heiresses.

9. The adjoining monument commemorates Anne, the eldest daughter
of the above, who died in 1734.

10. The mural effigy of his granddaughter Anne Dansey, who died in
1754. This is in the nave ; all the rest are in the chancel.

The church appears to have been rebuilt in the fifteenth century.



Strensham. g

Nash gives the patron saint as St. James, the rector adds St. Philip ;
Ecton's Thesaurus, 1742, gives the dedication as to St. John Baptist. The
church stands on a commanding site overlooking the valley of the Avon,
with delightful views of Bredon Hill and the Malvern range. Its lofty
western tower may be seen for many miles around, forming a conspicuous
feature in the landscape. The tower is of three stages, and has a staircase
turret on the south side.

The rector states that in the will of Sir John Russell, preserved at
Lambeth, and dated 1404, there is a clause leaving ^20 to widen and
lengthen the chancel — in other words, to rebuild it. The will (Arundel,
p. 1, 222b) assigns ^20 to be devoted to the enlarging of the chancel of
Strensham Church, in which a tomb is to be erected with a stone (lapis)
on it, with an inscription containing my name, and those of my wives,
Elizabeth, Margaret, and Agnes. 1 The east window, which is modern, is
said to be an exact reproduction of the original window which was
probably of this date. Several windows are blocked by the Russell
tombs.

The nave floor was relaid with Malvern tiles late in the fifteenth-



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