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T R A N S A C T I ( ) N S



01 XHE



§ ris to J ant) C3 1 o u c e # t ersh i v c



Jl v c h iv o 1 o g i c a I <S o £ i £ t ji



FOR 1878-9.



TRANSACTIONS



i)K THE



Bristol anti (Gloucestershire



Slrcfmeologtcal §£>octetj>



FOR 1878-9.



Edited by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., die.



VOL. III.



BRISTOL :
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEPPERIE9 AND SONS,
CANYNGE BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET.



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch.eolocical
Society desire that it should he distinctly understood that the
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and
the Editor for the Notices of Books.



CONTEXTS OF VOLUME III.



Proceedings at Bristol ... ... ... ••• ... .. 1-47

Proceedings at Gloucester 299-302

Account of Receipts and Expenditure ... 48

Elmore and the Guise Family. By Sir John Maclean,

F.S.A 49-7S

On Certain Crania disinterred at St.Werburgh's, Church, Bristol.

By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S 79-82

Some Remarks on the Ancient Passage across the Severn,

By the Hon. and Bight Rev. Bishop Clifford. ... S3-S9

The History of the Guilds of Bristol. By Alderman Fox. . 90-9S

Bristol Cathedral. By Richard John King, B.A 99-10. r >

Vestiges of the Supremacy of Mercia in the South of England,

during the eighth Century. By Thomas Kerslake ... 100-107
The Crypt of St. Nicholas Church, Bristol. By J. F. NiCHOLLS,

F.S.A. ... 108-181

Appendix to the same. By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. ... 1S2-184

Bristol Castle. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A 185-192

Notes on the Church of St. Mary Redcliffe. By Rev. J. P.

Norms, B.D 193-210

On the Manorial History of Clifton. By Alfred S. Ellis. 211-231

The Dominicans & Dominican Priory. By John Tavlor ... 232-240
The Hospital of St. Mark, commonly called Billeswicke,

or Gaunt's Hospital. By John Taylor ... 241-245

Supplementary Notes on the Hospital of St. Mark of Billcswick,

or Gaunt's Hospital. By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. ... 245-255
Antiquities at Cirencester and Berkeley. Mei 'anda of Certain

Sketches. By J. T. Irvine 250-257

The Ancient Charter Privileges of the Bristol Freemen; whence

derived and how maintained. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A. 258-270

< >n the Great Berkeley Law-Suit of the 15th and 10th Centuries.

A Chapter of Gloucestershire History. By Jas. Herbert

Cooke, F.S.A 304-324

St. Briavel's Castle. By the Rev. W. TAPRELL Allen ... 325-304

Addendum to Ditto. By SlR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A 304-307

On the Earls of Gloucester. By the Rev. William Bazeley... 368-389



Notices of Recent Arch.s:ological Publications : —

A Key to the Domesday of Dorset. By the Rev. P. W. Eyton,

M.A 277-284

Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II. By the

Rev. R. W. Eyton, M.A 2S4-2S6

Pre-Historic Times. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart 286-289

Woriield on the Worfe. By Samuel B. James, M.A 289-290

Historical Memorials of Beauchief Abbey. By Sidney Oldall

Addy, M.A 290

Walks in London. By Augustus J. C. Hare 290-292

Memoranda, Historical and Genealogical, relating to the Parish

of Kelston, co. Somerset. By Rev. Francis J. Poynton. 293

Extracts from Parish Registers, &c. By Reginald Stewart

Boddington 293

A History of Altrincham and Bowden. By Alfred Ingham... 293-295
Contribution to a History of the Cistercian Houses of Devon.

By J. Brooking Rowe, F.S.A 29G-297

History of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland. ... 297-29S
Attempt to identify the Arms formerly existing in the Windows

of the Parish Church and Austin Friary of Warrington.

By William Beamont, Esq., and J. Paul Rylands,

F.S.A 29S

Church Work and Life in English Minsters. By MACKENZIE

E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A 390-392

History of Warminster. By J. Daniel, Vicar of Winterborne,

Stoke, &c. ... 393-394

Carmarthen, and its Neighbourhood. By Wm. Spurrell ... 394-39.")
The Roman System of Provincial Administration. By W. T.

Arnold, B.A 395-396

Historical and descriptive Notices of the Parish of Dcddington,

Oxon. By the Rev. E. Marshall, M. A., F.S.A 390

The Annals of Newark-upon-Trent. By Cornelius Brown ... 390-397
On an Inscribed Stone at Orchard Wyndham, Somerset. By

William George 398-399



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Plate I., Portrait of Sebastian Cabot (presented by Mr. W. George)

To face page 21

Coffin Lid at Church of S.S. Philip and James', Bristol 24

Effigy at Bitton 30*

Coffin Lid at Bitton 34

Plate II., Candlestick in the Collection of Rev. C. W, Beaikenridge,

To face p. 37
Mazer Bowl do. do. do. 37

Seal of the Church of St. Thomas, at Bristol ... 39

Plate III. Candlesticks belonging to do To face p. 40

Bronze Dodecagons ... ... ... ... ••• .. ■•• ••• 41

A Pyx in Collection of the Rev. W. BAGNALL Oakelev 43

Seal of John de Burgh 50,51

Seal of Reginald Gyse ... . ... ... ... ... ... 56

Plate IV., Arms of .Sir William V. Guise, Bart., F.G.S., F.S.L., &c.

(presented by him) ... .. .. To face p. 68

Plate V"., Map, shewing Roman Road To face p. 83

Details of St. Nicholas Church, Bristol. ... ... 172, 178, 184

Plate VI., Plan of the Fortifications and Castle of Bristol To face p. 185
Plate VII., Groined Roofs in Bristol Castle (presented by

Mr. J. Lavars) To face p. ISO

Details of St. Mary Redcliffe Church 198,199,202,210

Plate VIII., Map of Clifton in the Middle Ages ... To face p. 211

Plate VIII*., the Old Church of Clifton (presented by

Messrs. C. T. Jefferies & Sons) To face p. 228

Details of the Dominican Priory, Bristol... ... ... 235, 236, 237

Seal of the Hospital of St. Mark of Billeswick 251

Plate IX., Details of Antiquities found at Cirencester and Berkeley

To face p. 256
Plate X., Details of Antiquities found at Berkeley ... To face p. 257

View of the " Charter House," London ... ... .. ••• 291

Details of St. Bartholomew the Great, London... ... ... ... 293

Blanks at Altrincham and Warrington ... ... ... ••■ ••• 205

Arms of Free Miners and Free Smiths in Forest of Dean ... 300, 301

Details in St. Briavel's Castle ... ... ... ... ... • •■ 329

Plate XI., St. Briavel's Castle, supposed extent of Castle grounds

To face p. 332
Plate XII., ,, „ Ground Plan of Castle To face p. 333
Illustrations of the Orchard Wyndham Stone 3«»8, 399



ERRATA. Vol. III.



Page 38, line 12, for " 1671 " read 1571.
,, 7)1 ,, 10, for Anselme read John.
,, 70 ,, 4th desc. First wife of Sir William Guise, to da. add., and

co-heir.
,, 9.~> ,, 26, for chalices read clergy.
,,111 ,, 3, for Kind read Knut.
,, 115 „ 28, for Boni/atius read Bonifacius.
,,151 ,, 31, for a ppanage read apanage.
,,170 ,, 25, for cross read 6oss.
,, 203 ,, 18, for Paynton read Poynton.

36, for Ingram read Ingham.

30, for Dunham read Bowden.






TRANSACTIONS



OF THE



^risfot anb (jSIoucrstersjme ^rrjraeolojical Soctttjj.



1S7S-9.



Part I.
Transactions at the Annual Meeting held at Bristol,

ON

Tuesday, July 30th, 1878, and three following days.

The Third Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Bristol on the days
above mentioned, under the presidency of Christopher James Thomas,
Esq. The arrangements for the meeting and the various excursions had
been made by John Reynolds, Esq., local Secretary, under the direction
of a Committee formed for the purpose.

On Tuesday, 30th July, the members of the Society assembled at the
Guildhall, where they were received by the Deputy-Mayor, who conducted
them to the Nisi Prills Court. Among those present were Sir W. V.
Guise, Bart., President of the Council ; The Right Rev. Bishop Clifford ;
Sin John Maclean; Revs. W. C. Fox, W. Hazledine ; Dr. Wright,
(Cheltenham) ; Alderman Jones ; Messrs. C. J. Thomas, A. \Y. Warren,
L. Fry, T. Kerslake, J. Btjsh, W. Adlam, W. Thomas, H. T. Chamber-
lain, A. A. Clabkb (Wells), C. Wintle, S. H. Swayne, S. Baker Gael
(Cheltenham), W. George, John Taylor, P. D. Prankerd, J. S. Metform,
C. Pebody, J. Latimer, J. Layars, J. T. D. Niblett, E. Strickland,
A. E. Hudd, and other members of the Society, and several ladies, as well
as Mr. Palmer Hallett, Hon. Sec, and Mi;. John Reynolds, local
Honorary Secretary.

In consequence of the vacancy in the Presidency of the Society, being
void by the lamented death of Earl Bathurbt during his year of oflice,
the Chair was taken by Sir William V . Giise, Bart., F.G S., F.L.S., the
President of the Council of the Society.
B



2 Transactions at Bristol.

The Deputy-Mayor (Alderman J. A. Joxes) addressing the Chairman,
said : " I have been requested by the Mayor, who is now on the Continent, on
his behalf, and on behalf of the citizens of Bristol, to welcome the Society
to the good old city, and to wish the members a pleasant and agreeable
meeting. This old city and the neighbourhood afford a fine field of
research for the Archaeologist, and I trust that all the members of the Society
will derive advantage from and enjoy the meeting. I trust also that my
fellow citizens will do all in their power to make the meeting agreeable to
the members of the Society, and give them every facility for seeing, as
fully as possible, all that is worth seeing in the city and neighbourhood.
I have much pleasure in welcoming the Society to the ancient city of
Bristol." Sir William Guise, in reply, said : "It is my duty, as the
representative of the Society on this occasion, to express the cordial thanks
of the Society to the Mayor and citizens of Bristol for their kind welcome."

Mr. Palmer Hallett, the General Secretary, then read the Annual
Report of the Council, together with the financial statement, showing a
favourable balance of £739 4s. lOd. The report was as follows: —

" The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archa?ological Society,
in this its third annual report, may continue to congratulate the Society
on its satisfactory condition. The Society at its very successful inaugural
meeting in this city in 1876, reached the number of 400 honorary and
subscribing members. It now counts 512, including 500 subscribers, and
these numbers, if not showing an increase since the last annual meeting,
fill up losses and maintain the substantial position then acquired. The
finances, also, are sound. In order to secure the annual claims of life
members, it has been decided to invest in Consols the life subscription
fees, and the Society will thus possess a funded property of £409 10s. The
current account up to the present time, after deducting the estimated cost
of the annual volume, shows a cash balance of £179 14s.

" Among the personal losses which the Society has this year suffered is
that of its President (the late Earl Batiiurst). The Council in a memo-
rial drawn up at its first meeting after his death, and presented to his
representative, has already expressed its deep sense of the great loss, which
not only this Society, but the county and public generally, have sustained
in that lamented event, and the Council believe that in the spirit of that
memorial this meeting will fully concur. The cordial welcome which the
deceased Earl gave the Society at Cirencester, the deep interest which,
notwithstanding his great age, he manifested in its work, and the courteous
consideration he showed to its requirements, will long be remembered. Of
him it may be truly said that he died full of years and of honours, and
it is a melancholy satisfaction to feel that in his address to this Society,
written out in his own hand at the age of eighty-seven, which will appear,
as it was delivered, in the annual volume ; the Society has the last address
he ever gave, probably the last effort of his literary powers. Among other
- the Society has to deplore are those of the Rev. W, If. Bathurst,
of Lydney Paris ; Mi:. RICHARD Millincs, of Cirencester; and the lii'.v.

Jambs Gerald Joyce, of Strathfleldsaye Rectory, Hants. The Rev.



Eeport of Council. 3

W. H. Bathurst was a member of this Council and a warm supporter of
the society at its commencement. Mr. Mullinos was a member of the
Cirencester local committee of last year, and one of his last acts was the
presentation to this Society of an ancient seal of considerable interest.
The Rev. J. G. Joyce, well known for his classic work on the Fairford
Windows and other archaeological monographs of permanent worth, died
whilst the important and original address which he delivered to the Society
at Fairford last year was passing through the press. In the volume thus
containing his last work will be found a short ' In Memoriam ' of him, and
a brief notice of some of the chief literary works of his valuable life.

"For a report of the work accomplished by the Society during the year now
ended, the Council would refer to the volume of Transactions, the first part
of which will shortly be issued. The Cirencester meeting introduced the
Society for the first time to the great evidences of the Boman occupation of
the Cotswold hills, and especially manifested the striking frequency of early
Norman work in the churches in these higher regions of our district. At
the beginning of the year a winter meeting was held at Gloucester, where
a temporary museum was formed and some very valuable papers were read.
Full reports of these meetings and papers will be contained in the volume
of Transactions. With regard to the volume itself, the Council has this
year increased the grant for its preparation. The cost of the Gloucester
volume was £112; this year the Council has thought the state of the
finances would justify the expenditure of a larger sum, and it has, accord-
ingly, set apart a sum not exceeding £150. The Council holds the annual
volumes to be among the best evidences of the Society's efficiency and
utility. The monographs they contain will constitute a valuable portion
of the work which the Society originally put before it as one of its chief
aims, viz. : ' The collection of materials for an improved County History,'
and towards such an aim as large an expenditure as possible will prove the
best economy The last volume was brought out chiefiy under the
direction of the Gloucester local committee, and to Mr. John Bellows
many acknowledgments are due, both for the good workmanship it
displays, and for other special services rendered in its preparation. This
year the Council has asked Sir John MACLEAN, F.S.A., to undertake the
editorship of the volume, and it believes that the work, when it appears,
will justify the members of the Council in the satisfaction they feel in his
acceptance of this post. In futherance also of the above-mentioned object,
viz. : the collection of materials for an improved county history, the
Council has printed and circulated a scheme of archaeological inquiry,
consisting of questions calculated to make known the various antiquitie a
existing in the different parishes of the county. The response to these
papers has not, in all respects, been as satisfactory as could be desired.
The papers returned are extremely valuable, but they are few. They
are, however, sufficient to evidence the amount of useful information
that a plan of this kind would be capable of securing, and the Council
hopes that the scheme will obtain the individual attention and co-operation
of members. In reference to the same object a committee of consulta.
tion has been funned to co-operate with Mi:. G, l'>. Witts, Civil Engineer,
who proposes to survey and map the Roman roads and British trackways
B 2



4 Transactions at Bristol.

throughout the Society's district. The Council regards this as a work of
immense scientific importance, and one yearly becoming more difficult,
owing to the gradual disappearance of the objects themselves through the
progress of cultivation, and other causes which lead to the loss of
historical monuments. Another work which the Society originally
laid down as one of the reasons for its existence has not yet satisfactorily
progressed, viz. : the formation of a museum and library. Both donations
and purchases have indeed been made towards this object, and among the
former should be noticed a valuable gift by Professor Kolleston, but in
the absence of a local habitation nothing satisfactory has yet been accom-
plished. Numerous objects of antiquarian interest in the district are
constantly being lost for want of a place of deposit ; others distributed
about in isolated places are bereft of all significance and meaning. In this
isolation they are mere disjecta membra, but united together in the
arrangements of a well-ordered museum, they would illustrate and
explain each other, and greatly aid the growth of a systematic and
higher knowledge of our local archaeology. In the absence of a museum
and library a local archaeological society appears to be lacking in one of
its first requisites, and the Council would recommend the subject to the
Society's most serious consideration.

' ' With regard to the internal constitution of the Society there are no
changes of importance either to report or to recommend. The Council
would, however, propose an alteration in Rule VIII : viz., changing the word
" Vice-president " of Council into "President of Council," a verbal alteration
which does not affect the nature of the office as therein defined, but gives it
a more adequate expression. In exercising the duty of provisionally filling
up vacancies, the Council has appointed Mr. Robert Lang a member of
Council for the Bristol district, and the Rev. Hemming Roeeson to the
same position for that of Tewkesbury. It has also nominated for re-election
for the next year the officers at present in office. It has to record the
resignation of the Treasurer of the Society, Mr. Bramble, and to express
its regret that his many private duties prevent him from continuing to give
to the Society his valuable and efficient services. The Council have much
pleasure in being enabled to nominate the President, Mr. C. J. Thomas, as
the successor of Mr. Bramble. The following members of Council have
retired by lot, viz.: Rev. J. W. Caldicott, LL. D., Rev. W. Dyke,
Mr. W. C. Lucy, Mr. Edwin Crawshay, Mr. Robert Lang, Rev.
Prebendary Scarth, F.S.A., Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. They are all
eligible for re-election. The Council has held various meetings during the
year at Gloucester and Bristol, and has to express its thanks to the Mayor
of Gloucester and the Council of the Bristol Museum and Library for the
accommodation courteously afforded for such meetings."

The Deputy-Mayor moved the adoption of the report and financial
statement, remarking that they were exhaustive and interesting. He also
moved that the Council's nomination of officers be accepted.

The Rev. W. C. Fox seconded the motion, and said in this utilitarian
age things were judged very much by their pecuniary success, and it was,



The President's Address. 5

therefore, satisfactory to find that the Society had been so successful
financially. He heartily congratulated the Society upon the fact of Sir
Wm. Guise being appointed President of the Council

The motion was carried unanimously.

Mr. J. Bush moved, and Mr. Chajmberlain seconded, that the retiring
members of the Council, as named in the Report, be severally re-elected,
which motion was unanimously adopted.

Sir William Guise then addressed the meeting. He said : "I think
such Societies as the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society
are indebted to noblemen who take an interest in them, especially noble-
men such as Earl Bathuest, who, at the advanced age which he had
reached, placed himself at the head of this Society, and showed by his
example an interest in the advance of intellectual knowledge. I wish such
interest were more widely felt among others of his lordship's order. The
fact is, the longer I live the more I become impressed with the immense
force of advancing knowledge ; those who do not go with it will inevitably
be crushed by it ; and therefore I desire to see those who are the natural
leaders of society, place themselves at the head of the scientific associations
of the country. I greatly regret to see that such is not generally the case.
We have a considerable roll of noble names at the head of our Society, and
I would have been glad if some one of those noblemen had been with us
to-day, and given what support and countenance he could to those
assembled on an occasion of such importance. Lord Bathurst set a noble
example in this respect ; he took his place at the Board and Council table,
and accompanied members of the Society on their excursions, and I feel it
was a very great advantage to the Society and to the Cirencester meeting.
We, the members of the Society, are greatly indebted to his Lordship for his
example on that occasion, doubtless at some inconvenience to himself. At
the present meeting in this city, on account of its wealth and influence, the
Council left it to the local committee to nominate the president, and the
committee had decided to elect a very eminent citizen, Mr. Christopher
Thomas, whom I beg to induct into this chair, which I invite him to occupy. ''

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Mr. C. J. Thomas then took the Presidential Chair and addressing the
meeting, said : — "I regret exceedingly that your choice of the President
for the ensuing year has fallen upon me. Sir Wm. (luise lias given you
reasons why the office ought to be held by some one of greater position than
myself. I can only say that I was pressed to take the office, and that I
have felt a lively interest in Archaeological pursuits, so far as time has per-
mitted me to attend to them, for a groat many years, and, although I feel
that the mantle of my predecessors has fallen on unworthy shoulders, 1
will do my best during my year of office to keep up the interest of the
Society. Archaeology, which lias until comparatively recent times been the
study of but a few, and was mainly conlined to an acquaintance with the
antiquities of Egypt, of the Crocks, and of the Romans, has, in later times,



G Transactions at Bristol.

become the interesting and fascinating pursuit of an ever ■widening circle
of votaries, many of them men of learning and ability, zealously occupying
themselves with this branch of science, not only in Europe but wherever
civilization has extended. As the knowledge of the structure of the globe
on which we are placed and its varied conditions in ages, or, may I not say,
in aeons long past, has been obtained by the researches of geologists among
the strata of which its crust is composed, so the archaeologist, when he has
discovered the works, or the remains, of ancient man which by good fortune
have not been destroyed or disturbed, accumulates the facts of such dis-
coveries, and deduces from these facts a far wider and more accurate
knowledge of the early condition of humanity than was previously possessed,
a knowledge stretching back far beyond the age of letters or of the most
primitive records. As instances of the value of recent archa?ological re-
search and its results, allow me to mention the discoveries of Dr.
Schliemann, in Greece, and of Mr. Wood, at Ephesus. By means of dis-
coveries such as these, and others of still earlier periods, we are enabled to
trace back the progress of humanity, which in its beginnings is shown to
be of low type and of great rudeness, and we can compare those times with
these our later days — days in which sciences and arts have tended in their
development to a vast improvement in the moral, the mental, and the
material condition of mankind. I must confess that the views to which I
thus briefly allude, are those which, for me, constitute the chief interest of
arclneology ; but the programme laid out for the present session of our
Society is mainly of a comparatively modern date. We are about to visit
some of the mediaeval buildings of Bristol and its vicinity. I am far from
saying that any of these should stand injuriously in the way of modern com-
fort and convenience, or be hindrances to the requirements of the present and
the future ; but as far as possible these memorials should be preserved with
loving care. We are in old Bristol and in old Britain. Our inheritance
from the past is a rich inheritance. If our ancestors had, as men, their
faults and their failings — let us not dwell upon these needlessly, let us
rather sustain the fine buildings and the worth}' institutions they have left
us ; let us keep alive their munificent charities, not in a literal spirit, but
maintaining them as we believe our forefathers would have carried them on,



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