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[ DUPi :
W^ 1.';' j^gi.sj^j
Survey of tlie JIaideu W;iy, from the i
Roman Wall into Scotland . . \ ^^^- Jo^N Maughan, B.A.
Section I. — Survey of the Way through the Parish of Lanercost
Section II. — The Branch Way and Roman Station at Bewcastle
Section III. — Sui-vey through the Parish of Bewcastle .
Section IV. — Survey to Castleton in Scotland .....
The Additions to the Collections of
National Antiquities in the British
Lychnoscopes, or Low Side Windows in
Churches in the West of England .
Decorative Pavement in the Church of
St. Remi, at Rheims
Anglo-Saxon Cemetery on Linton
Heath, Cambridgeshire .
The Ancient Stone Wedges discovered
in Java. Translation from a Me-
moir by Dr. Leemans, of Leyden .
The Arrangement of Chapels East of
Sepulchral Monuments at Clifton
Ancient Church within the Castle of
Ancient Cambridgeshire, a survey of
vestiges of early occupation in Cam-
bridgeshire and Essex
The Life and Death of Earl Godwine .
Notices of the Game of Pall Mall
Examples of Medieval Seals. — Illustra-
tions of the mode of Sealing en
Chambered Tumulus, near Uley, Glou-
Notice of the Fortress of Uleybury
'J'he Obseipiies of Katharine of Arragon,
at Peterborough ....
Examples of Mediaeval Seals .
Augustus W. Franks, F.S.A. .
John J. Rogers, M.A.
Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A.
TuE Hon. Richard C. Neville, F.S. A.
James Yates, F.R.S.
Edwakd a. Freeman, M.A.
Rev. W. Hastings Kelke
Rev. George Oliver, D.D.
The Hon. Richard C. Neville,F.S.A. 207
Edward A. Freeman, M.A. . 236, 330
Albert Way, M.A., F.S.A. . . 253
Sir Frederic Madden, K.H., and
W. S. Walford, F.S.A. . .261
John Thurnam, M.D. . . . 315
Charles C. Babington, M.A. . . 328
Rev. C. H. Hartshorne, M.A. . . 353
W. S. W. and a. W. . . . 367
Original Documents : —
The Will of Luke de Ponynges, Lord St. John, from iv copy in the
Register of William of Wykeham. By the Rev. W. H. Gunner, M.A. 45
Correspondence between Bishop Grandisson and the Courtenay Family.
By Edward Smirke 165
The Rights of Christ Church, Canterbury, on the deaths of Bishops of the
Province. By W. S. Wai.ford and Albert Way .... 273
Accounts of the Constables of Dovor Castle. By Albert Wat . . 381
Proceedings at the Jlouthly Meetings of the Institute . . .49, 169, 278, 408
Annual London Meeting, and Report of the Auditors 192
Report of the Annual Meeting, Cambridge 389
Notices of Archaeological Publications : — Sussex Archa3ological Collections,
vol. vi. p. 82. Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, p. 86.
Illustrations of Ancient Art, by Rev. Edward Trollope, p. 87. The Ancren
Riwle, p. 194. Symbols and Emblems of early and Christian Ai't, by Louisa
Twining, p. 200. Antiquities of the Russian Empire, p. 202. Architectural
Studies in France, by the Rev. J. L. Petit, p. 299. Handbook of Buiy
St. Edmunds, and Architectural and Historical Account of the Church of
St. Mary, Bury St. Edmunds, by Sajiuel Tymms, F.S.A., p. 303.
Lists of Recent Historical and Archa3ological Publications, English and Foreign,
and of Works in preparation 91,203,308,419
ARCHiEOLOGiCAL Intelligence 94,206,312,421
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Map illustrating the Survey of the Maiden Way .5
Ditto, No. II To face 8
Ground-plans, Ancient Works near the Maiden Way . . . . .15
Map, No. III. Sui-vey of the Maiden Way 19
Sepulchral Inscription, found at Lincoln ........ 26
Roman Pottery, found at Westergate, Sussex . . . . .To face 27
Enamelled Stands found at Farley Heath 27
Saxon Gold Ring 28
Seal of Wangford Hundred 31
Arms of Eleanor, Queen of Castile ......... 32
Lychnoscope in Mawgan Church, Cornwall 34
Ditto, and Ground-plan ............ 35
Decorative Pavement-slab, at Rheims 39
Ditto, Designs with foHated patterns To face 43
Bronze Relique, found in Herefordshire ........ 55
Cross Grave-stone ............ 56
Diminutive bronze Axe, found at Silchester 57
Silver Rings, found in Ireland 59
Sun-Dial at Bishopstone Church, Sussex 60
Stone Cross, found at Cambridge ......... 70
Gold Brooch, found at Brighton .......... 71
Ground-plan, Roman Villa at Wenden, Essex 77
Emblems of the Passion, from a Castle in co. Cork 80
Anglo-Saxon Sitidce, found on Linton Heath ..... To face 97
Bronze Reliques, ibid. .......... To face 98
Iron Spm-, ibid. 99
Bronze Relique, ibid . . . . . . 100
Iron Ferule for a Spear, ibid . . . . .103
Bronze Relique, ibid 105
Iron Spears, Knives, and Shield-boss, ibid. ..... To face 106
Sepulchral Urns, ibid To face 107
Iron Sword, ibid 108
Glass Vessel, ibid 109
Bronze Eai'-ring, ibid. . . . . . . . . . . .110
vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Stone Wedge or Axc-head fouud iu Java 118
Roman Inscriptiou, fouud at Bewcastle * ........ 129
Ruues on the sculptured Monument at Bewcastle . . . . .130
Ground-plan, West Ham Church, Sussex 139
Ditto, New Shoreham Church ■ . . 140
Ditto, Sompting Church 141
Ditto, St. Mary's Abbey Chvu-ch, Shrewsbuiy 143
Ditto, Crewkeme and Cricklade Chm'ches . . . . . . . . 144
Ditto, Brecon Prioiy Chiirch .......... 145
Ditto, Build was Abbey Church 146
Ditto, Bayliam Abbey Church . . . . . . . . . .147
UfBngton Church, Berkshire, N.E. view ......... 148
Sepulchral Effigies, Clifton Reynes 149
Silver-gilt Goblet in the collection of the Duke of Hamilton . . To face 186
Ancient Drinking-Cups 187
Incised Slab, found at Rauceby Church .189
Map, No. IV. Survey of the Maiden Way 216
Ditto, No. V 224
Ground-plan, Fortress near the Maiden Way 227
Bronze Spear-head found neai* the Maiden Way 231
Section of " the Cairns," ibid 232
Mallet and Ball, used iu the game of Pall Mall To face 2")8
Examples of the mode of Sealing en placard. Plate I. . . .To face 2G1
Ditto, Plate II To face 268
Roman Pig of Lead 278
Bronze Collar for a Magician, from Finmark . . . .To face 280
Sculptured Cross, Fletton, Huntingdonshire t To face 281
Ditto, Bakewell, Derbyshire, N.E. view To face 282
Gold King-brooch, fouud in Ireland t 285
Chambered Tumulus near Uley, east end To face 316
Ground-plan, Tumulus near Ulcy ......... 317
Ground-plan of tlie Chambers, j'iirf. ......... 318
Chambered Tumulus near Ulcy, longitudinal section ... To face 319
Seal of Alice, Countess of Eu 3(5f»
Seal of Margaret de Neville .■571
Seal of Eliauor Ferro 375
Seal of Laurence do Watclingtone ......... 377
Seals for Labourers' Passes § . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Ground-plan, Ancient Chapel at FJib's Nook Jl I
• For Iho UHO ofthiH woodcut tlio Institute ih iii'lolituil to tlio Uov. J. Collinpwooil Urnoo, U/.H.
t For iiriprcHnionM of the two platct, roiiruKciitiiig Sctil|)turud Crosaus, ILo lii.ttitutu in iiiJcblod
to Mr. J. H. Lu Kuux.
t 'I'hU WfKxlciit wiiH i)ro»cntod to thi« Journal by Kvclyn P. Hhirloy, lisii., M.T.
I ThuiMj woodcutH havo Vjccn kindly bujipliod by A. W. iViinliH, EHq.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. vii
Plan of Doorway, Ancient Chapel, lit Ebb's Nook 412
Flint implement, from Denbighshire . . . . . . . .414
Bronze Blade-weapon, from Shropshire ......... 414
Bronze Spears, from China . . . . . . . . . .415
Iron Lamp-stand (?) found in London . . . . . . . ..41G
Miniatm-e Sepulchi-al Effigy found at Sheiuton 418
Four woodcuts from " Sussex Archaeological Collections."
Thirteen woodcuts from "Illustrations of Ancient Art."
Ten woodcuts from " Architectural Studies in France."
Three woodcuts from •' Architectural Account of the Church of St. Maiy, Bury
CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS.
The decorative pavement at Rheims (represented at p. 43), should be described as in the church
of St. Remi, removed thither from the church of St. Nicaise.
Page 104, line 19, for male, read female.
Page 179, hue 25, for Wolsonbm-g, read Wolsonbui-y.
Page 135, see some further remarks on the name of the Maiden Way, by Mr. Bainbridge,
Archseologia .aiUana, vol. iv. p. 51.
Page 137, line 7, for east ends, read east sides.
Page 200, line 5 from foot of the page, for Louisia, read Louisa.
Page 236, hue 5, for elective, read elected.
Page 296, line 26. The spear-head produced by the Rev. F. Dyson, was found near Great
Malvern, in Worcestershu-o.
Page 416. See a "portelampe en fer," almost identical with that here figured, in the Arts et
Metiers des Anciens, by Grivaud de la Vincelle, pi. 127.
HL'bt Archaeological Soutnal
THE MAIDEN WAY.
SURVEY OF THE MAIDEN WAY FROM BIRDOSWALD, THE STATION AMBOGLANNA,
ON THE ROMAN WALL, NORTHWARD INTO SCOTLAND ; WITH A SHORT
DESCRIPTION OF SOME REMARKABLE OBJECTS IN THE DISTRICT.
BY THE REV. JOHN MAUGHAN, B.A., Rector of Bewcastle, Oumberlaud.
Section I. — Survey oftlie Maiden Way through the Parish of
There is a natural craving in the human mind to pry into
and to master the secrets of the remote past ; to deal Avith
records of a period prior to written annals, and to supply the
want of ancient historical details by inferences drawn from its
reliques, such as votive tablets, sacrificial altars, sepulchral
memorials and other vestiges, and thus to be made acquainted
with a state of society, and a class of enterprises which the
world once saw, but which it will never see again. To gratify
such a feeling of inquisitiveness this investigation of the
Maiden Way was undertaken.
Mr. Bainbridge, in his account of the Maiden Way on the
south side of the Roman wall, says that it came from Kirkby
There, in Westmoreland, to the Carvorran Station.^ I think
it, however, very possible that there may have been a branch
from it direct to the Birdoswald Station. I have examined
the ground very closely, and although I could not find any
remains of an unquestionable character, I found some traces
on the south side of the river Irthing. These pass on the
east side of the Bushnook and Shawfield farmhouses, and on
' Archseologia /Eliana, vol. iv. p. 36. He states that it is called in old Boundary
Rolls " Mayden Gate— Via Puellarum."
VOL. XI. H
2 THE MAIDEN WAY.
the west side of the Reagarth, ami arc in the same straight
Hue as the i\raiden Way on the north side of the walh After
passing the Reagarth about a quarter of a mile, tliey then
turn a little more to the east across the Reagarth ground,
and enter upon ITartleyhurn Fell, nearly direct south of an
old building called the " Colonel's Lodge." Here the trace
becomes entirely obliterated, in consecjuence of the soft
spongy nature of the ground and the thick herbage, but it is
aiming direct for Uli»ham, (query, from the Welsh, Gicylfa,
a Watch-tower 1) The trace which I found may be about
two miles in length, and another mile would enable it
to form a junction with the main line leading to the north
east, or to Carvorran. This branch, if it ever existed, would
reduce the distance to Birdoswald about seven miles, which
would be of great importance to troops passing from England
There has hitherto been a doubt as to the point where
the ^laiden Way started from the Roman AVall, and also as
to the line of its progress to the north. Mr. Hutchinson, in
liis History of Cumberland, Vol. i. p. G3, says that " it passes
throu'-h Carvorran, and extends along the northern parts of
this county, over the heights, to the east of Bewcastle, in a
direction almost duly north, and enters Scotland near
Lamyford, where it crosses the river Kirksop." It is very
possible, however, that Mr. Hutchinson's statement may have
been made without due examination, as I cannot hear of any
place licaring the name of the " Maiden Way " on the north
side of Carvorran, or in the direction of Lamyford. There
is no place beai-ing the name of Lamyford known on the
Kci'shope river at the present day. I find it mentioned,
howevei", in Denton's MS. as one of the boundaries of
Cumberland ; " Christianbury-Crag unto Lamyford where
Cumberland makes a nai-row point northwards. Tliere the
river Tjiddal, on the north-west side, I'uns <lown l)etween
Scotland and Cundierland." So that the Lamyford must
liavo l)een somewhei-e near the junction of the rivers Liddal
and Kershop(\ 1 fmd two roads branching from the Maiden
Way to the north-west ; the one from the station at
]>ewcnstl<', and the other I'rom the Crew. 1 have traced
ea<;h of tiies(.' roads for some distance, and if they continued
their (;our.S( s onwaids tiny wouM unite and ciilcr into
Scotland sonicwlicrr near (his ancient LaniNfdrd. 'IMic
FROM THE ROMAN WALL NORTHWARD INTO SCOTLAND. 3
Maiden Way, however, crosses the Kershope a few miles
farther to the east. The branch road from the Crew was
formerly called " the Wheel-Causeway," and hence, probably,
arose Mr. Hutchinson's error.
There is a part of an old road on the Side Fell, about two
miles south of Bewxastle, to which tradition has always
assigned the name of the Maiden Way, and this remnant of
the road is graced with a remarkable specimen of the ruins of
a lloman watch-tower. In the spring of 1852 the Rev. J.
Collingwood Bruce, the author of " The Koman Wall,"
accompanied by a friend, was on a visit of inspection of the
remains of the lloman Station at Bewcastle, and I conducted
them to this relic on the Side Fell. While seated on the
greensward which now covers the Roman fortlet, a question
arose whether the road proceeded northwards from Carvorran,
according to the generally received opinion as to its route, or
whether it did not proceed from Birdoswald, as the road on
the Side Fell seemed to be aiming direct to the latter
station. Having heard the same question discussed but not
decided on former occasions, my curiosity was excited, and I
was induced to pursue the track of this road, and thus in
some measure to test the accuracy of Mr. Hutchinson's
statement. I experienced very little difficulty in tracing it
to Birdoswald, but could not discover any point where it
showed the least tendency to diverge towards Carvorran. I
experienced considerable difficulty, however, in tracing it
northwards from Bewcastle. The trace was not so distinct
and well defined, and I had consequently to examine in
several places a large tract of land on each side of it, before
I could feel satisfied that I Avas not off" the line. This caused
a vast amount of labour, and often required the greatest
perseverance, but I have no doubt that my efforts have been
successful in recovering a road which was all but lost.
Gibbon, speaking of the union and internal prosperity of
the Roman Empire in the age of the Antonines, says, " All
these cities were connected Avith each other, and with the
capital, by the pubHc highways, which, issuing from the
Forum of Rome, traversed Italy, pervaded the provinces, and
were terminated only by the frontiers of the Empire. If w^e
carefully trace the distance from the Wall of Antoninus to
Rome, and thence to Jerusalem, it will be found that the
great chain of communication from the nortli-wTst to the
4 THE MAIDEN WAY.
south-east point of the empire, was drawn out to the length
of 4080 Ivoman miles. The public roads were accurately
divided by milestones, and ran in a direct line from one city
to another, and with very little respect for the obstacles
cither of nature or private property. Mountains were
perforated, and bold arches thrown over the broadest and
most rapid streams. The middle part of the road was raised
into a terrace, which commanded the adjacent country,
consisted of several strata of sand, gravel and cement, and
was paved with large stones, or, in some places, near the
capital, with granite. Such was the solid construction of the
lioman highways, whose firmness has not entirely yielded to
the etibrt of fifteen centuries." We have no reason, however,
to suppose that the Maiden Way w^as constructed on so
extended or so expensive a scale, although we must look
upon it as forming part of that great chain or network of
roads which extended fi'om the Wall of Antoninus, between
the Firths of Forth and Clyde, to Jerusalem.
The surface of the country through which the line passes
northwards from Birdoswald is, in general, exceedingly
irregular, and yet finely diversified. A large portion of it is
mountainous, and much of the land barren, or at least only
covered with heather, and yet it exhibits many scenes that
are beautiful and romantic. In some places the hills rise in
wild confusion, begirt with vast ranges of huge rocks
towering up in rude and fantastical shapes, in the midst of
which are torrents tlmndering down deep and narrow glens,
and forming beautiful cascades as they are precipitated over
the impending rocks. In other places, the prospect is
enlivened with the cheering diversity of gently rising hills
and winding vales, which are termed in the dialect of the
<li.stnct fells and gills (orghylls), presenting a most delightful
l;iiidscapu of verdant i)lains and rural beauty. The ridge of
liiils by which the country is traversed is of considerable
elevation, being sometimes styled the British Alps, or
Apennines, and forming the backbone of England. These
liills arc mostly composed of white freestone, interspersed
with numerous thick beds of limestone and ironstone, and
small seams of coal. There arc several veins of lead, some of
which ar(; lying almost close to the surface. The district
also abounds with sulphureous, chalybeate, and petrifying
SURVEY OF THE MAIDEN WAY.
I.— FROM BIRDOSWALD STATION ON THE ROMAN WALL TO THE
Scale, 800 yards to an iueh.
C THE MAIDEN WAY,
The ^laiden Way passes in a perfectly straight line to the
north-west rroni Biriloswald to the Little ])cacon Tower,
which from Birdoswald appears on a favourable day like a
small nipple on the summit of the ridge of hills running to
the east from the Beacon, and which may be readily discovered
by taking a sight along the stone fence which forms the
western boundary of the Waterhcad Fell, and the east side of
the farm-buildings at Spade Adam. It leaves Birdoswald at
the Praetorian or Northern Gate of the Station, near a tree
which stands at the head of the East meadow. It almost
immediately enters into the adjoining croft, and aims towards
a gate on the north side of the bog. It is traceable by means
of several large detached stones remaining in a narrow slip
of meadow ground, which runs along the foot of the brow in
the croft. The following survey was taken merely by
stepping ; the measurement of buildings, &c,, by a walking
stick three feet long.
At 260 yards it crosses a ditch and enters the bog. It
show^s some stones and gravel at the point of crossing, but it
is probably covered by the peat moss through the bog,
which is generally about four or five feet deep. Some may
feel inclined to doubt whether the ground can really have
grown so much in the time, but this is not a solitary
instance. In many places the drainers have proved its
suijterranean existence where there was not the least trace
on the surface. In the account of Naworth Castle, in
Hutchinson's Cumberland, is the following note. — "On im-
proving some peat moss, about a mile south-east of the
castle, found a road (Roman Maiden Way) about twelve feet
broad, laid with large stones, nearly five feet under the
surface ; the direction nearly north and south."
(lf)0 yards.) ' At 450 yards it leaves the bog at the gate
(»n the noi'th side, and enters into a large S(piare iield
belonirine: to the Kilhill Farm. The road seems to remain
undisturbed at this gate. In passing through this field it
cnjsses a piece of meadow which has Ijeen drained. Some
of the drains cut through the bui'ied road, leaving little
doubt as to its line. There is a heaj) of stones lying at
present which have ])een gathered from the drains, detached
- In order t<> fuciliUitc llie cxHniiiiiitii'n (lioii^jlit ilLbiinlilc to hUiU) tliu (listunccs
of lli<! lino liy imy iinti<|iiiiry, wlio nuiy viHit lntwccii llio succcHsivo HliitioiiH duacribud
iIk' localiiii'H lirru noticed, it Iiiih I)l-(Ii in tiiiu burvcy.
FROM THE IIOMAN WALL NORTHWARD INTO SCOTLAND. 7
stones still appear on the surface of the ground. On the
north side of this field it passes on the east side of a small
mound, which has been partly carted away, and which may
have been the site of a small watch-tower.
(400 yards.) At 850 yards it crosses the public road to
Gilsland. Here it enters the Slack -house ground, where a
gateway has been left in the stone fence. It passes along
the east side of a small plantation, where it is now used for
the cart-road. It appears to have been undisturbed. It
then enters the corner of another field belonging to the Slack-
house Farm, where it has been raised considerably above
the adjoining ground, leaving unquestionable traces of its
(400 yards.) At 1250 yards it enters Lordsgate meadow,
and passes through the north-east corner, which was drained
about three years since. Several of the drains intersected
the Way, and produced a large quantity of stones. These
drains, showing such manifest traces of the Way, are decisive
against Mr. Hutchinson's statement as to its passing to the
north from Carvorran, unless we admit that there have been
two lines of Roman road each called the Maiden Way.
(180 yards.) At 1430 yards it enters the Waterhead Fell,
at the south-west corner, and runs for several hundred yards
on the east side of the stone wall, which forms the western
boundary of the Fell. The Way here is considerably raised
above the adjoining ground, and in some places shows a
ditch on the east side. It passes over the summit of a
barren and mossy ridge about the middle of this Fell. I
have thought it necessary to be thus explicit at starting, to
show the nature of the evidence on which I maintain that it
has proceeded to the north from Birdoswald. The general
aspect of this Fell is singularly bleak and wild, with little to
arrest the attention, except now and then the whirring of a
startled brood of grouse, the melancholy whistle of the plover,
or the solitary scream of the curlew.
From the south-west corner of this Fell, a ditch, or syke,
proceeds up the hill on the east side of the Maiden Way, and
aims to the north-east. This ditch appears to accompany
the Maiden Way as far as the Scottish border. It often
crosses it, being sometimes on the east side, and at other
times on the west of it. It generally has a low rampart,
probably formed by the eartli cast out of the ditch, on the
8 THE MAIDEN WAY,
one side of it, and in some places it appears to have had a
rampart on eacli side. Near the place Avhere this ditch
crosses the river Kirkbeck I lately found an ancient stone
weapon, resembling a large chisel, about a foot long. This
ditch may possibly have been a line of defence at some early
period, and the Romans may have followed it as a guide ; or
it may have formed an ancient boundary line between
the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland. As it
occurs so often in this survey, I shall call it, by way of dis-
tinction, the " Ancient Ditch."
(900 yards.) At 2330 yards it enters the Snowdon Close
out-pasture at the point where the stone wall terminates,
and where the rail fence commences. In this field it is also
raised, and has had a ditch on the west side of it. Here
we escape from the bleakness of the Fell range, and look
down upon the green meadows and woodland glades of the
vale of the river King.