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3rcf)aeolocpcal journal*



STfie Archaeological Institute of ©teat iStttatn anto Jtelanto,



&{je (JBarlg anti Jfttotile &ges.







Thi Centra] Committki ol the Archaeological Institutk. desire tliat it should
In- distinctl) - that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions

m in the Arc! ! Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and com-

munications being alone answerable for the Bame.




Introductory Address. By the Rev. J. H. Marsden, B.D 1

Notice of a Bronze Relique discovered at Leckhampton, Gloucestershire. By

Albert Way, M.A 11

On Colouring Statues. By Richard Westmacott, Jun., R.A., F.R.S. . . 22

On the Life and Death of Earl Godwine (continued from Vol. XL, p. 330). By

Edward Freeman, M.A ... 47

On the Book of Devotions, deposited by Cardinal Howard in the Library of the

Dominican Convent at Bornheim. By Joseph Hunter, V.P.S.A. . . 65

Notices of Roman Shafts discovered at Chesterford, Essex. By the Hon.

R. C. Neville, F.S.A 109

The Pai-liaments of Cambridge. By the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne, M.A. . . 127
The "Hales " at the New Temple on the occasion of the Knighting of Prince

Edward. • By W. S. W . . . . 137

Norton Church, in the County of Durham. By W. Hylton Dyer Longstaffe,

F.S.A 141

King's College Chapel Windows, Cambridge. By the Rev. W. J. Bolton. . . 153
Roman Antiquities from the North of England in the Libraries of Trinity and
St. John's Colleges, Cambridge. By the Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D,,

F.S.A. 213

The Monasteries of Shropshire. — Lilleshall Abbey. By the Rev. Robert W.

Eyton, M.A 229

Notice of a Flemish Sepulchral Brass, at Wensley, Yorkshire. By the Rev. James

Raine, Jun 238

The Church of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge. By the Rev. Edward

Venables, M.A 245, 338

Examples of Medieval Seals. Seals preserved at Wisby in Gottland. By the

Rev. F. Spurrell, M.A 256

Burial and Cremation. By J. M. Kemble 309

Artistic Notes on the Windows of King's College, Chapel, Cambridge. By

George Scharf, Jun., F.S.A 356

Notice of a " Moon," a relique of Municipal Ceremony, at Chichester. By Albert

Way, M.A . . 374

Original Documents : —

Letter relating to the Wars of Edward III. in France, and Public Affairs

in 1346. Communicated by William Clayton, Esq. ... 73
Agreement between the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London, and
Walter the Orgoner, relating to a Clock in St. Paul's Church. Coin-
municated by Sir F. Madden, K.B 173



Original Documents conditio. J.

Inventories of Chun 3hff ury, uml Proceedings respecting

them in the reign of Edward VI. Communicated by Joseph

Hintik. Be .. V.l'.s. \ 269

Original Letter addresse I I • Benry IV.. Bang of England, by Elizabeth,

Du( FB reria,1400. Communicated by Ed wabd A. Bond, Esq. 377

Proceedings at the Monthly V the] ate . . . 76,178, 275

Annual Report of the Auditors 203

g, at Shrewsbury 380

• new. Publications : — Sussex Archaeological Collections,

Latiquarian Society, Reports and Communi-

l. 1\ '.. p. L05. Antiquities of Shropshire, by the Rev, It. W.

i; i in Saxondom, by J. Yonge

;. Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages, by G. Edmund

11. Eandbook of th the Middle Ages, translated from

i nch "I'M. Jules Labarte, p. 408.

Abchjeoloqioax Intelliqenoe 107,212,307, 422



Bronze Frame of a Head-piece ? found at Leckhampton ..... 8

Cap, found at Ascheraden, Livonia . . . . . . . . . 14

Arched Crowns, and Head-piece, &c. Two cuts 17

Helmets, from Trajan's Column 18

■ worn by the Sarmatians ....... 19

■ from a MS. at Stuttgart 20

from the Painted Chamber, Westminster ...... 20

found in the Isle of Negropont 21

Koman Sepulchre at Caerwent 76

Ditto, Section ............. 77

Cruciform Conduit, Malvern Wells 83

Bronze Spear-head, found in Devonshire . 84

St. Gobnet's Cross, co. Cork ... 86

Roman Inscription from Combe Down, Bath 91

Bone Knife-handle, Roman, found at Chesterford * 112

Small Tun of red ware, ibid 114

Bronze Comb, ibid ib.

Bronze Patera, ibid. ............ ib.

Glass Ampulla, ibid. . . . . .115

Norton Church, co. Durham, Window in Tower . . . . . . . 145

Chancel Arch .......... ib.

Outline of Interior Plan 147

Cross on a Sculptured Slab from Jarrow ... • , . . . ib.

Heraldic Bearings, Effigy in Norton Church 148

Sculptor's Mark 1 149

Sculptured Fragment, from Hartlepool ... . . . . ib.

Cross, near Norton ...... ... 151

Cross, found at Carlisle Cathedral 130

Alabaster Tablet, representing the Head of St. John Baptist, &c. . . . 1S5

i his and the thrco following illustrations, the Institute is indebted to the kindness of the
Hon. K. C. Neville.


Small Urn, found in Dor3ct

Sculptured Fragment, at Stainton-le Street, two cuts .
Roma: . found in Bases, three cuts

. Found at C Casl le

Silver Brooch, found in Kent

, found at Bremenium
— Riaingham .
at 1; • ogham
- d>, found am .
, found at Risingham ....
found at Halton ....

Roman Altar, found ;it Carvorjui

found at Ribcheater .....

found at Rib ulptures on

by, seal of the Ghiild of St. Canute
seal of the Guild of St. Lawrence

fraternity of St Nicholas
of the Germans in Gottland

L of the Guild of St James

seal of the Mayor of the Guild of All Saints . . . .
— seal of Brother Gerard of Gottland + . . . . .

Fibula, found at Painswick .

DrunshilL Oxfordshire, two cuts

• 11 deMontfort

i (Tanfaunt, attached in an unusual manner .
Palimpsest brass escutcheon, found al Betchworth . . . . . .

: iund at (Nottingham

I Oak Chest, St Mary' the Great, Cambridge t

Sketch of : I rtiiimt ..t' a Window al I. I ',.'.] ( 'Impel, ( 'amlirid^e

be L) To Gum

Muminated Mss. in B Plate 2.) . . To hoe

i bapel i Plate 8) . . To hoe

the ' k>ld< ii 1 Prom a window at Kin I I lhapel,

' ............

ilum Bumaneo Salvai i ......

f the Block Book "Speculum BumansB Salvationis " (Plate 4)

To hoe

i ■ ■ [lustra

M | I I • | . I








Ditto, " Biblia Pauperuni " (Plate 5) To face ib.

Lantern of State, "the Moon," at Chichester To face 374

Ditto, handle by which it was carried 37o

Ground-plan of Haughinond Abbey, Shropshire 397

Five woodcuts from " Sussex Archaeological Collections." Vol. VII.
Five woodcuts from the " Antiquities of Shropshire," by the Rev. R. W. Eyton.
Seven woodcuts from " Brick and Marble iu the Middle Ages," by George E. Street.
Ten woodcuts from the " Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Aces."

flT&e Archaeological journal

MARCH, 1855.


In addressing a Society which has devoted itself for so
long a period and with so much success to the pursuits of
Archaeology, it cannot be necessary for me to occupy time
by saying much either in explanation or in praise of this
particular line of study. In fact, the study of archaeology
is now generally accepted and understood, not only by its
admirers, but by the world in general, as an extended and
improved form of the study of history. It is the study
of history, not only from written documents, not only from
chronicles and traditions, but from chronicles and traditions
elucidated by contemporaneous monuments, by tangible and
substantial relics, the productions of ancient coinage, sculp-
ture, and architecture ; and, — in the case of Greek and
Roman history, — not only by these, but by an invaluable
series of commemorative inscriptions still extant upon marble
and bronze.

With regard to some of the great nations, indeed, we
have no other means of becoming acquainted with their
history, than through such material records. Of the ancient
history of Egypt how very little do we know excepting
from her monuments. What do we know of Assyria, ex-
cepting from casual allusions in the Old Testament, and
from her recently discovered monuments'? And even in
the case of Greece and Rome, precious as are the literary
treasures of those nations which have come down to us, we
possess very little of strictly contemporaneous history. Time

» This discourse was delivered by the Disney Professor, the Rev.J.H.Marsden, B.D.,
on the occasion of the opening meeting, at the Annual Meeting of the Institute held
in Cambridge, July itli, 1854,



has swept away full one-half j while, of thai which remains,
much severe criticism is required in the separation of the
trust-worth? from the fabulous, and all, without exception,
stands in ueed of the light afforded by the study of monu-
ments. The <lny is coming, when it will be confessed thai
we have Learned more of the religious worship and the
political relations of the independent states of Greece from
inscriptions and coins, than from poets and historians. How
much has been brought to light by the monuments, and
especially by the coins, of Magna Grascia and Sicily! Take
th»- case, for instance, of the ancienl city of Posidonia. Of
this city we know little or nothing from written history,
excepting that in Roman times it was celebrated by poets
for it- genial climate and its roses : —

•• biferiqui rosaria Pa

But when the traveller describes to us its magnificent tem-
ples, and the numismatist displays to us its long series of
beautiful coins, we have unquestionable proof thai it rivalled
the greatesl cities of Magna Graecia in population, in wealth,
in commerce, and in the arts ; and that under the name of
Paastum it flourished to a later date than almost any of

To come nearer home. How scanty would be our know-
ledge of the State of SOcietj in our own island, not only in
its more barbarous age, but even during its occupation by
the Romans, if we had n<»t the means <>i ascertaining it
from monuments. The state of Britain under the Romans is
dow tolerably familiar to us : but we have learned it nol from
books, hut from an investigation of their works, their roads,
their houses, their hypocausts, their earthenware, then- coins,
their ornaments and utensils, their weapons, and the vast
multitude of other miscellaneous relics which they have left

The monuments of ancienl art are of many different
kind - : they are found wherever man has existed on the
globe; and wherever they are found, there is a field for the
Archaeologist. Life is not long enough to study them all—
to budy those of our tiation -scarcely ei en
of one class. No one, however energetic and hopeful,
can enter into these pursuits withoul feeling the hopeless
impo Ability of carrying oul the separate studies which a


general view of archaeology must comprehend. It requires
a greater amount of many various kinds of knowledge than
one person can hope to possess. This is, doubtless, the
reason why it has not usually been admitted into the ordi-
nary course of study ; and it was, doubtless, this considera-
tion, which induced the founder of a Professorship of
Archaeology in the University of Cambridge, to restrict the
duties of his Professor to the study and illustration of one
branch, — that branch being the archaeology of Greece and
Rome ; a branch more immediately connected than any
other with the classical studies pursued in our University.

Perhaps it will not be altogether out of place — although
I am aware that it is ascending to a higher point in the
stream of time than your Society has fixed upon for its
operations — if I briefly allude to the remains of Greek art
which are preserved in Cambridge.

In the possession of Trinity College are several Greek
inscriptions upon marble, of some importance. The prin-
cipal of these, is one well known as the Sandwich Marble,
having been brought to England by the Earl of Sandwich,
from Athens, in the year 1739. It contains a list of con-
tributions to the expenses incurred by the expedition for
the lustration of the island Delos, in the third year of the
88th Olympiad. Another is a decree made at Ilium, and
brought by Mr. Edward Wortley Montague from Sigeum,
in 1766 : it was presented to the College by his son-in-law,
the Marquis of Bute.

In the vestibule of the Public Library, are certain inscrip-
tions and pieces of sculpture, the principal part of which
were brought to England by Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke.
One of these inscriptions, which was brought from the Troad,
was believed by Porson to be nearly as old as the Arch-
onship of Eucleides, the era at which a well-known change
took place in Greek palaeography, about 403 B.C. Another
inscription is a sepulchral one, brought from Athens, to the
memory of a certain Eucleides of Hermione, whom Clarke
linnsclf believed to be the celebrated geometrician ; and,
under that impression, he thought that he had found for the
stele, a congenial resting-place, among the mathematicians
of this University. But there is no evidence whatever that
this Eucleides was the geometrician, and the probability is
decidedly against it.


One of the most remarkable of Dr. Clarke's marbles is a
mutilated statue of Pan, which was found in a garden close
by the grotto sacred to Tan and Apollo, below the Acropolis
of Athens. As it is known that a Btatue of Tan was dedi-
I by Miltiades, in gratitude for the services supposed to
have beeD rendered by him in the battle of Marathon, and
as this Btatue is of a Btyle of art corresponding to that
date, it is by no means impossible that it may be the
identical figure upon which Simonides wrote an Mypa^na
which is now extant.

With regard to the colossal marble bust which was pro-
nounced by Dr. Clarke to be a parr of the statue el' the
( of Eleusis, it is in be feared that he went beyond the

bounds of that cautious discretion which is bo properly pre-
scribed to the archaeologist. That the figure was brought
from certain ruins near the site of the temple of Ceres at
- no doubt, and certain travellers who had
pved it there in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
turi( the goddess herself. But more

have held a contrary opinion. They have
_ from the position in which it was found,
and from certain appearances on the surface of the marble,
that it v. or architectural decoration, like the

tin- Erectheium. It will he allowed, however,
'■veil by • ritics who withhold their acquiescence from

Dr. Clarke's rather too positive assertion, that the bust is
a most interesting relic of Greek antiquity.

The Malcolm sarcophagus in the Fitzwilliam Museum,
described by Mr. Pashley in In- "Travels in Crete." and
equently brought to England and presented to the
University by Sir Pulteney Malcolm, i^ ascribed by Dr.
W'aa'j. n to the last half of the second century of the
Christian era. The Bubjeci of the Bculpture, which seems
to be the return of Bacchus from India, is treated in a man
nor spirit. id and original ; ami with tin- i tception ot one <>r
lacuna, it is in an extremely good state of preservation.

I must n<»t omit to menti :ertain Greek inscriptions

ntlj presented t<. the University by Captain Spratt,

th<- commander of one of Her Majesty's surveying ships

i <.ii the coast of Greece. Three of those wore

I by him in the island of ( !rete, ami one of these

of '■■ rj early date ; I ho inscription four.' read from


the right hand to the left. But the most interesting and valu-
able of Captain Spratt's marbles is an inscribed slab from
the Troad. This inscription is valuable on two accounts.
In the first place it is valuable as having been discovered
among the ruins of a temple, first pointed out by Captain
Spratt, which is satisfactorily proved to be the temple of
Apollo Smintheus, mentioned by Strabo and other writers,
but altogether unknown to modern travellers until lighted
upon by Captain Spratt within the last twelve months.
That the remains are those of the temple of Apollo, Colonel
Leake, than whom we can have no higher authority, lias
pronounced himself to be perfectly satisfied. In fact, an
inscription found there by Captain Spratt, places the point
beyond all doubt. The second point of interest connected
with this inscribed slab, is the subject of the inscription.
It commemorates the fact of a certain Greek, by name
Cassander, having been presented by each of eighteen or
twenty of the cities and states of Greece with a golden crown.
Each city is mentioned separately, and underneath the
words Xpuo-e<j> 2T€<p(M/(«> in connection with the name of
each city, is a representation of the crown itself, which
was in the form of a chaplet of olive-leaves. To the
custom of presenting a distinguished Greek citizen w T ith
a golden crown I need not do more than advert. We
all rememember the orations Ylepl 2re(pdvov of the two
great orators of Athens. And, if I mistake not, the effect
of a sight of this inscribed marble, would be the same
upon any one engaged in reading those orations, as the
effect of the celebrated Potida3an k~Cy pawa in the British
Museum would be upon a person reading the account of the
skirmish at Potidaia, in the first book of Thucydidcs ; —
namely, to impress his mind with a sense of the reality of
what he is reading, far stronger than any which could be
made by the mere fact of his finding it recorded in the
book. — " Magis movemur," says Cicero, " quam si quando
eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus, aut scriptum aliquod

It is only right that I should take this opportunity of
stating that Captain Spratt's presentation of these marbles
to the University, was made at the suggestion of his friend
Colonel Leake.

Of the numerous collection of ancient marbles presented


to the University in 1850, by Mr. Disney, it is unnecessary
for me to give any minute description, as the donor himself
has already done it in a very able and lucid manner in his
work entitled "Museum Disneianum." By coming forward
while tlic space was yet unoccupied, Mr. Disney secured for
his marbles a position which future benefactors may look
upon with envy, but to which, nevertheless, the example
which be was the first to set, on so extensive a scale, fairly
entitles him. And we may venture to express to my friend 1
our hope that at a very far distant period, when the beau-
tiful edifice in which tiny are deposited, shall itself be the
subject of curious investigation to future archaeologists, his
oame may still survive, as that of the earliest patron of
archaeological studies in the University of Cambridge.

1 Mr. Disney being then present.


During the autumn of the year 1844 a discovery occur-
red at Leckhampton, Gloucestershire, in a district full of
vestiges of early occupation, which excited considerable
interest. A short statement, communicated at that time,
was published in the first volume of this Journal, and the
subject was noticed in other archaeological publications. The
novel feature of the discovery consisted in a bronze frame,
supposed to have been attached to a head-piece of leather
or felt, a purpose to which, by the dimensions and general
fashion it appeared to be adapted. It was considered by the
late Sir Samuel Meyrick to have been the British " Pen-
ffestyn," possibly from the position of the skeleton being
described as " doubled up," as frequently noticed in inter-
ments of the earliest age, or from its having been found
near a supposed British fortress.

Other antiquaries have regarded it, however, as an Anglo-
Saxon relique, a supposition to which Mr. Roach Smith, in
his " Collectanea Antiqua," seems inclined to assent, although
conclusive evidence may be wanting. 1 The Abbe Cochet,
also, in the second edition of his valuable " Normandie
Souterraine," has, without hesitation, admitted this object as
a coiffure or casque Savon?

The attention of archaeologists has recently been directed
to this singular relique, through the kindness of Capt. Henry
Bell, of Cheltenham, in whose possession it has been pre-
served. At the request of Mr. Allies, he sent it for exhi-
bition at the meeting of the Institute in December last. No
detailed investigation of its age and character having been

1 Collect. Antiqua, vol. ii. p. 2'M), where Cochet 1ms found no example of any head-
a representation of the bronze frame is piece of the Frankish period. He notices
given. at some length the remains of sift

2 Normandie Sontorraine, 2nd edit. which certain antiquaries have erroneously
18.5.5, pp. 17, 393 ; it is remarkable that described as the remains of some protec-
in his extensive researches the Abbe* tion for the head.



given, 1 have availed myself of the obliging- permission of
Capt. Bell, to offer a more accurate representation than
hitherto published. In the advanced state of information
regarding vestiges of the later Roman period and of that
immediately succeeding, upon which valuable light has Itch
thrown by the exertions of the Hon. Richard Neville, Mr.
Wylie, Mr. Roach Smith, Mi-. Bateman, and other antiqua-
ries, it appears desirable to invite attention anew to this
unique relique, ami that its real age and purpose should be

To those who are acquainted with the picturesque and
undulated Hank of the Cotswold Hills, to the south of
Cheltenham; overlooking the broad fertile plains of Glouces-
sbire, it can be no matterof surprise to find abundant traces
indicating thai the locality had been successively occupied by
,-i considerable population in British, Roman, and Saxon times.
Of th^ earlier period, vestiges present themselves in nume-
rous harr<-\\s along the margin of the higher ground, of
which some have been examined by Lysons, and more re-
cently by Mr. Gomonde and other members of the Glouces-
tershire Archaeological Society ; in the encampments also on
Crickley Hill and the height above Leckhampton. Near the
former of those, at Dry Hill Farm, distant about 3^ miles
from Cheltenham, a Roman villa of considerable extent
was excavated about L 849, by Capt. Bell and Mr. \V. H.
Gomonde, by whom an account was printed for presentation
to bis friends. South-easl of that spot, near the Ermine
Street, is the site of the villa at Witcomb, explored by
Lysons; similar remains occur between the Ermine Street
and Cubberley, and other traces of Roman occupation might
be noticed, [nterments have been found on Wistley Hill,
near the road to Cubberley, on Cricklev Hill, and at several
other places. At Cubberley there are vestiges, it is believed,
of a Saxon village.

The extensive camp on Leckhampton Hill occupies a

commanding position in the chain of ancient encampments

which extended through the south western parts of (don

rehire from the A.von to Bredon Hill, the frontier for-

n has been supposed, of the Dobuni} It was just

of the camps on Leek* of sncienl hill fortresses in Gloucester-
iii Hill sud ' i :■•!. I. _v Hill in tlu< Hliiri; above mentioned, AjrchsBologia.
Mi iioir b\ Mr. Lloyd Dakei on the chain vol. nix. p. 171.


below that camp, near the road leading over the higher
ground towards Stroud, that the discovery which is the sub-
ject of this notice occurred, as related in the following state-
ment received in October, 1844, from the Rev. Lambert
]'». Larking : —

"A few weeks since, some labourers, in digging for gravel
on the hill above the Manor-house of Leckhampton, about
two miles from Cheltenham, suddenly came upon a skeleton,
in a bank at the side of the high road leading from Chelten-
ham to Bath. It was lying doubled up, about 3 feet under
the surface ; it was quite perfect, not even a tooth wanting.
On the skull, fitting as closely as if moulded to it, was the
frame of a cap, consisting of a circular hoop with two curved
bars crossing each other in a knob at the top of the head.

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