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THE



9lrcI)aeolosical 3fcwrnaL

I'UBLISIIED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

THE CENT HAL COMMITTEE

OF

€flt arcfjaeologtral ^institute oC QHxtat 13titairt antj $relanti,

FOR TUB ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTIONJOF

RESEARCHES INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS

OF

VOLUME XVI




LONDON:

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE INSTITUTE, 26, SUFFOLK
STREET, PALL MALL EAST,

(distributed GRATDITODSLY TO SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS.)

TO BE OBTAINED THROUGU ALL BOOKSELLERS, FROM (THE PRINTERS)
MESSRS. BRADBURY AND EVANS, WHITEFRIARS.

MDCCCLIX.



TuE Cextkal Committee of the Aechaeological Ikstitcte desire that it should
be distinctly understood, tliat tlicy are not responsible for any statements or opinions
expressed in tlie Archaeological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and
communications being alone answerable for the same.

j duplicate!

I ClirOSED Or BY GHDEn |
j OF THE I



11^ i.TZi^u!




CONTENTS.



PACE

The Tumulus of Hanai Tepeh In the Troad. By Frank Calvert . . . 1

Thoughts on Ancient Metallurgy and Mining among the Brigantes and in some
other parts of Britain, suggested by a page of Pliny's Natural History.
By John Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Geological
Society 7

Enumeration of Blocks or Pigs of Lead and Tin, relics of Roman Metallurgy,

discovered in Great Britain. By Albert Way, M.A., F.S.A. . . . 22

The Quigrich or Crosier of St. Fillan, with a notice of its present existence in
Canada. Communicated to Lord Talbot de Malahido by his Excellency
Sir Edmund W. Head, Bart., Governor-General of Canada. By Albert
Wat, M.A., F.S.A. ; with supplementary notices and documents communi-
cated by John Stuart, Sec. Soc. Ant. Scot 43

Notices of Wroxeter the Roman Urioconinm in Shropshire. By tho Rev.

Harrt M. Scarth, M.A 53

On the Boundaries that separated the Welsh and English Races during the 75
years which followed the capture of Bath, a.d. 577 ; with speculations as
to the Welsh Princes who during that period were reigning over Somerset-
shire. By Edwin Guest, LL.D., D.C.L., Master of Gouville and Cuius
College 105

Archtcological Notes of a Tour in Denmark, Prussia, and Holland. By J. 0.
Westwood, M.A., F.L.S., Keeper of the Hope Collections in the Univer-
sity of Oxford 132, 23G

Investigation of Barrows on the line of the Roman Road between Old Sarum
and the port at the mouth of the River Axe, supposed to be the ad axium
ofRavcnnas. By the Rev. Harry M. Scarth, M.A ]4G

Notice of three Silver Cups, preserved in the Public Library at Ziirich, presented
by Bishop Jewel and other English Bishops, in the Reign of Elizabeth, to
their friends of the Reformed Church in that City. By Dr. Ferdinand
Keller, President of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich . . . . 15S



iv CONTENTS.

PAGE

On the Early Historyof Cumberland. By John Hodgson Hixde, Vice-Presi-
dent of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle 217

The Votive Gold Crowns recently found near Toledo, and now preserved at the

Hotel dc Cluny at Paris. By Albert Way, M.A., F.S.A. . . . • 253
The Recent Discoveries at Wroxetcr. By the Rev. Hakrt M. Scarth, M.A. . 264
Some Notes on the History of Cardinals' Rings. By Edmund Wateeton, F.S.A, 280

Posy Rings. By Edmund Wateuton, F.S.A 307

Notices of certain remarkable fortified Churches in Cumberland. By John A.

Cory, Architect, County Surveyor for Cumberland . . . . . 318
The Parliaments of Carlisle. By the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne, M.A. . . . 326
Notice of an example of Military Costume at the commencement of the four-
teenth centurj', communicated by Dr. Ferdinand Keller, President of the
Society of Antiquaries of Zurich. By Albert Wat, M.A., F.S.A, . . 339

Original Documents : —

Proceedings connected with a remarkable Charge of Sorcerj-, brought

against James Richardson and others, in the Diocese of York,

a.d. 1510. By the Rev. James Raine 71

The Will of John Fi'omond, benefactor to Winchester College. By the

Rev. W. H. Gunner, M.A 166

Ancient Ordinances of the Gild Merchant of the Town of Southampton.

By Edward Smirke, M.A 283,343

Proceedings at Meetings of the Archaeological Institute: — November, 1848,

to June, 1859 84, 174, 295, 353

Auditors' Report, and Abstract of Accounts, 1858. 214

Annuid Meeting held at Carlisle ..." 3G4

Notices of Archaeological Publications: —

Sussex Archaeological Collections ; published by the Su.ssox Archaeolo-
gical Society. Vol. X 93

ARcnAEOLOGiCAL Intelligence 104,215,305,393




LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS.



PACS



Sepulchral Jar, found in the Tumulus of Hauai Tcpeh 2

Section of the Tumulus of Hanai Tepeh To face 3

Tombs formed of Tiles, found ibid 3

Vase of Pottery, ibid. i

Painted Vases, Glass, &c., ibid. To face 4

Pioman Pig of Lead, found near Blagdon, Somerset 2i

Ditto, found at Pulborough, Sussex ........ 20

Ditto, found at Hints, Staffordshire ......... 28

Ditto, found on Hayshaw Moor, Yorkshire 30

Ditto, found on Cromford Moor, Derbyshire ....... 31

Ditto, found at Westbury, Salop 32

Ditto, found on Matlock Moor, Derbyshire ........ 36

Stamps on a Cake of Lead, found in the Thames. (Two wood-cuts.) . . . 38

Pig of Tin, and portion of another, both in the Truro Museum.* (Two

wood-cuts.) ............ 39

The Quigrich or Crosier of St. Fillan To face 41 ^ '

Details of ditto, portion of the Crook . . . . . . . .46

Ditto, Ditto, Filagree ornament of the Crook 47

(These illustrations have been kindly prepared by Mr. Westwood fi-om

photographs for which the Institute is indebted to the G overnor-

General of Canada.)

Roman Empiric's Stamp, found at Wroxeter GG

Bronze Armlet, found in the Danes' Graves, DrifiSeld S3

Bronze object, possibly an Arm-Purse, found in Northumberland . To face 841/'

Scpulchi'al Cross-Slab at Laou.f 85



* These illustrations have been chiefly contributed by Professor Phillips and Jlr. A. W. Fr.ink?
t This cut is here placed en-oncously. Sec the cut refeiTcd to in the text, placed at p. ^Oi.



vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Sepulchral Cross-Slab, Bosbury, Hcrefordsliiro To face 86

Portion of a Sepulchral Cross-Slab, ibid S7

Map, illustrative of English and Welsh Rule iu Somerset, circa a.d. 577.* To A^ce 105

Ivory Tablet, from the binding of a MS. at Hamburgh 133

The Cathedral of Roeskilde, Denmark To face 136

Front of the Cross of the Princess Gunhilde, at Copenhagen . . To face 141

Silver Cup at Zilrich, the gift of Bishop Horn. (Two wood-cuts.). . To face 163

Anns of Bishop Horn and Bishop Parkhurst, ibid 164

Silver Cup presented by Queen Elizabeth to BuUinger . . . .To face 164

Gold Brooch, found at Sydling, Dorset 181

Ground Plan, Roman remains at Dorchester 184

Stone Roman Roofing Tile, found ibid 1S6

Bronze Armlet, foimd near Plunton Castle, co. Kirkcudbright . . To face 194 '

Mass, or Pig of Iron, found in Switzerland 200

Vase of Black Wai-e, found at Wyke, Dorset. (Two wood-cuts.) .■ . . 202

Bronze Cross and Crucifix Figure, foimd at Llanaber, Merionethshire. (Two

wood-cuts.) 205

Bronze Censer, found at Corwen, Merionethshire 206

Enameled Fibula, found at Lincoln 209

Fac-sinules of Drawings, &c., in a MS. Psalter at Utrecht (Eight wood-
cuts.) To f\ice 246

Gold Cro^vn and Cross, found near Toledo To face 256

Plan of recent Excavations at Wroseter + . . . . . .To face 266

Saucer or Patera of Kimmeridge Coal, found at Povington, Dorset . . . 29D

Specimen of Kimmeridge "Coal Money," Dorchester Museum. J (Two wood-
cuts.) 301

Guard of a small Sword, fouud near Downham Market, N'orfolk.§ (Two wood-
cuts.) . 303

Sepulchral Cross-Slab at Laon To face 304

Roman Gold Posy Ring, in the collection of the Duke of Xorthumberlaud . . 317

Respond in the Church of Burgh on the Sands, Cumberland .... 319

Ground-plan of the Church, ibid To faco 320 ^

Plans of the Tower, Newton Arlosh, Cumberland. (Three wood-cuts. ) . . 321

Plans of the Tower, Great Salkeld, Cumberland. (Two wood-cuts.) . . . 323

Elevation of ditto, south side . .324

Military Figure of the Fourteenth Centuiy, Konigsfelden, Switzerland To {nee 340

• This valuable Map has been most liberally presented by Dr. Guest, the autlior of the
memoir which it illustrates.

t For tlic accurate Survey from -which this Tlan is prepared, the Institute is indebted to Mr.
Hillary Diivics, of Shrewsbury, with the obliging sanction of the Excavations' Committee.

I These illustrations arc contributed by the Rev. J. H. Austen.
These illustrations are contributed by Mr. \f. Laurie, of Downham Market, the owner of
the object



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. vu

PACK

Slioc of tho rrinccss llildcganl, at Ziiricli 353

Gold Armlet, fouud at Kertcli ; Britiah Museum 355

Rings from Lord Braybrooke's CoUoctiou.* (Five woodcuts.) . . Tu face 353

Dimiuutlvc Sepulchral Brass f 894



Eleven wood-cuts from Sussex Arcliaoological Collections, Vol. X. View of
Gravetye, Sussex, to face p. 100 ; Fictile Vases iu form of animals, to
face p. 103.



* For thcso illustrations the lustituto is indebted chiefly to the kindness of Lord Braybrooko.

f The diuien.sions of the original plate aro only 17 in. by lOi. It exists iu the i>rivatc cliapcl
(if the Supci-ior of the Uu^aiiuage at Bruges : this illustration is kindly suiiiilied, through ;Mr.
G. ^Yaller, by Jlr. AVcalo of lJru;,'cs, and the curious miniature memorial will be described iu hLs
forthcoming •work on Monumental Brasses on the Continent.



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.



Page 82, Hue 2, for 1843, read 1858.

Page 85, by an inadvertent oversight a \roodcutof a cross-slab at Laon, of the fifteenth
century, has been here given in lieu of a memorial bearing date 1268, which will be
found at p. 304 in this volume.

Page 88, line 25, for 'Woodstcck, rea'i Wokingham.

Page 97, line 1 2 from foot, for Hertford, read Hereford.

. . . The curious seal of Kicliard de Peshale here described, and figured in the
Sussex Arch. Coll. from a very imperfect impression at Magdalen College, Oxford,
appears to be the same which is given in perfect state in the notes on Job. de Bado Aureo,
p. 90, appended to Upton de Studio Mil. It is there stated that the family was a branch
of the Swinertons of Stafi'ordshire, and was seated at Peshale in that coimty ; that they
retained the coat of Swinerton, a cross patonce, differenced by the lion on an inescutcheou,
taken, as had been conjectured, from the arms of Ranulph, Earl of Chester. A younger
brother of Richard de Peshale, whose seal is also there figured (date 3 Rich. II.), bore
the cross patonce without, the inescutcheou, but with a wolfs head erased, crowned, in
canton.

Page 210. — In illustration of the subjects on the curious brass from Ypres exhibited
by Mr. J. G. Waller, see the Memoir by Mr. J. Winter Jones on the Origin of the
Division of Man's Life into Stages ; Archa;ologia, vol. xxxv. p. 167, plates 6 and 7.

Page 253. — Since the publication of this Memoir on the Gothic Regalia, a beautiful
work has been produced in France, with coloured representations of all the crowns, crosses,
&c. It is thus entitled, — Description du Trdsor de Guarrazar, accompagnee de recherches
sur toutes les questions archeologiques qui s'y rattachent. Par Ferdinand de Lasteyrie,
4to.,. Paris, 1860.

Page 355. — The weight of the armlet from Kertcb is lA oz. Troy, 1 gr.




MARCH, 1859.



THE TUMULUS OF HANAI TEPEH IN THE TROAD.

The tumulus, whicli is the subject of the following obser-
vations, is situated on the extreme angle of a low flat range
of hills of tertiary formation, abutting on the plains of Troy
opposite Bounarbashi, and about 1^ mile distant from it. Its
foundation rests on a stratum of rock that runs not far
beneath the natural surface on the upper side ; and it is
nearly washed at its lower base by the River Kemar, or
ancient Andreios, a little before its junction with the Simois.
In nearl}^ all that has been written on the Troad, to which I
have had access, I find that this tumulus is considered as a
natural hill. Dr. Forschammer, in his observations on the
topography of Troy, published in the Journal of the Geogra-
phical Society for 1842 (vol. xii.), remarks that "the three
tepehs near Akchekioi are natural — some doubts may exist
as to the character of Hanai Tepeh in the direction of Bou-
narbashi, but its immense size rendei's it being artificial
improbable ; excavation alone can settle this point."

Being desirous to determine the true character of this
mound, I resolved to excavate, and commenced operations by
sinking a shaft in its centre. Immediately below the
surface were some tombs, evidently Turkish, containing
skeletons in a tolerable state of preservation, — doubtless
those of the inhabitants of the village of Akchekioi, which
existed in the neighbourhood some forty years ago. A little
below these tombs were others of a diftcrent description and
of far greater antiquity, consisting of large earthen jars, and
forming part of an extensive necropolis which stretches to
this point from the south and east. I have discovered

VOL. XVI. B 2



2 THE TUMULUS OF HANAI TEPEII IX THE TEOAD.

similar tombs in other parts of the Troad and the Cher-
sonesus of Thrace, and they have Hkewise been found in
Greece, Ivoumeha, AnatoHa, M3'tilene, the Ionian islands, and
other places, as well as latterly in the Crimea, near Balaklava,
by Colonel J\Iunro. The following description of the tombs
on Ilanai Tcpch ^Yill equally apply to those excavated by
myself in other parts of the plains of Troy (see woodcut).
The jars are of all sizes, ranging from about 2 feet 2
inches long, by 1 foot 8 inches wide, to 6 feet long,
by 4 feet 7 inches wide (the largest found in the tumulus
itself were about 5 feet in length), and constructed of




coarse red clay, intermixed with gravel. Many of them
appear to have cracked in baking, and are mended with
leaden rivets. They are all placed in a horizontal posi-
tion, sometimes within an excavation made in the rock. A
flat micaceous stone covers the mouth, which invariably
faces the south or south-east. Contained within are the
unburnt bones of skeletons, which generally fall to powder
on exposure to the air ; they are found j^laced on a thin
layer of pebbles in the lower side of the jar, reclining on
their backs with upraised knees, surrounded by terra-cotta
penates and painted vases (lecythi and paterae), many ot
them being of the best period of "the art, the fourth century
before Christ, but for the most part appertaining to the
archaic style (these, T may remark, were the first discovered
in Asia ]\Iinor) ; likewise blue, green, and yellow glass vases,
and other small objects. Amphora) are sometimes found
within the larger jars and sometimes without, containing the




j3 O t,

§ S "3

ill

^ ^ ^



CO 2 O

•5 -. 1?



43 .S S



TJIE TUMULUS OF IIANAI TEPEII IN THE TROAD. 3

skeletons of children, accompanied by vases of smaller
tlimensions. Very lew of the large jars arc found in a
perfect state ; in most cases a small portion of the lower
part remains, the upper being destroyed b}' the plough, the
displacement of the surface soil, or other causes.^ Another
variety of tomb ^vas also found among those above-mentioned,
in Hanai Tepeli (chiefly at its base), and apparently belong-
ing to the same period — these consist of large oblong tiles




placed at right angles, under ^vllich the bodies were laid at
full length ; in these tombs bones alone were found (see
woodcut).

Having penetrated to the depth of 5J feet from the
surface of the tumulus, a layer of a light whitish substance,
5f feet thick, was reached, which has since been examined
and proved to be calcined bones, probably human. From
its dry state it did not appear that any rain or damp had
ever penetrated into this substance, which was of such a
loose, powdej'y nature that the dust raised by the workmen
occasionally prevented them from continuing their labours,
and there was some danger of its falling in with the super-
incumbent earth and filling up the shaft. Kounded granite
pebbles, such as arc found in the beds of rivers, and bearing
the marks of violent heat, were intermixed with the lower
part of this stratum. Below this again was a layer of 1-^-
foot of wood ashes intermixed with small pieces of charcoal
as well as fragments of coarse pottery ; and finall}^, reposing
on the solid rock, another layer of earth, 2 /eet thick, in
which a skeleton was found extended at full length, with a
large unhewn stone at its head. It was in tolerable preser-
vation, no doubt owing to the exclusion of air and damp.

' The largest and most perfect jar little earth wbicli had filtered into the

was found near the site of the ancient tomb. An idea may be formed of the

Dardanus in an extraordinary manner. size of the jar from tho fact that, when

Some bee-hunters in search of honey emptied, six persons entered it together,

traced a bee to a hole in tho gi'ound ; and it contained them all in a sittiu"'

they were surprised ou digging to find jiosture.

the jar, and the interior of it filled with Some of the above particulars, with a

honeycombs. They removed their prize, sketch of the interment in the large jars,

but overlooked some vases which I wa.g appeared in the Illustrated London News

so fortunate as to discover, buried in a of the 26th April, 1856.




-J- THE TUMULUS OF HANAI TEPEH IN THE TEOAD.

Tims it appears that this mound served as a place of inter-
ment at three, if not four, different periods.

My next step was to commence a trench on the southern
side of the tumulus, towards its centre. A wall was soon
exposed to view, and was traced all round the mound, 5 feet
in thickness, and 95 in diameter, consisting of large rough
stones without cement, which repose on the rock. The pur- .
pose of this wall seems undoubtedly to have been that of
enclosing the calcined bones, which are found heaped up
within it, rising gradually from the sides towards
the centre. Three or four vases of coarse pot-
tery and rude form were found within the wall
and close to it. (See woodcut.) The height
of the specimen figured is 9 inches.

In the construction of this tumulus there
is certainly a perfect analogy with those in use
in the heroic age of Troy, as more particu-
larly described by Homer in reference to the funeral pile of
Patroclus : — •

TopviocravTO 6e a?]}xa, dqxeiXia re TrpojiaXovTo
'AjiK^i TTvpy'jV elOap 6e )(yTi]v iirl yalav ^x.'^vav.
Xei/arres h\ to arjixa, ttoXlv kIov.

lA. -v//'. 25.5.

" Next they marked out the tomb, and threw the founda-
tions round the pile ; then cast upon it the dug earth, and
filled up the tomb.'"' (Iliad, xxiii. v. 255.)

It appears that the wall must formerly have stood higher
than at present, judging by the remains of trenches still
discernible over it, and by the appearance of the top of the
wall itself ; and it may be presumed that the inhabitants
of A kchckioi* carried away the materials for building pur-
poses.

Having thus described the situation, construction, and
contents of Ilanai Tepeli, its origin and the relation it bears
to the ancient Troad now remain to be determined.

I shall premise by assuming that in the Iliad is preserved
to us the main design of certain historical facts of compara-
tively recent date at the time of its composition, and unani-
mously concurred in by every nation and people of antiquity
within the sphere of the events it records. Some partici-
pation in this faith, however disciplined and qualified, seems














I II'



Painted ficlilia and other relics, found in the tumulus of Hanai Tepeh.
' Small Vase of coloured glass.



B



\'.v^



TJIE TUMULUS OF IIANAI TEPEH IN THE TllOAD. 5

to mc a necessary condition oi" the utility of" researches into
periods beyond authentic history, for, if we reject such a
mass of broad and concurrent testimony, in overturning:^ it
— ^Yhat can we hope to fmd of suflicient weight, at this
distance of time, and with the meagre facts that have come
down to us, to estabhsh in its stead ? The internal evidence
of Homeric truth so universally admitted, though in a
restricted sense, and however embellished and harmonised
by poetry, is certainly found to be illustrated and confirmed
in all that relates to topography, by the most admirable
exactness.

AVriters on this subject mention only the "common tomb
of the Greeks," and nothing about that of the Trojans,'^ wdien
the truce was concluded between the two contending armies.
That the Trojans did not burn their dead on the same pile
with the Greeks is shown by Nestor's speech to his country-
men in the seventh book of the Iliad, v. 331, Avliere he
recommends " brinoinir the bodies of the Achtoans with oxen
and mules to burn them at a little distance from the ships
that they might each carry home the bones to the children
on their return, and raising one connnon tomb."

Tw ce XP'} 77oAe//oy [x^v ajx' tjol iravaai A^ai^v,
AvTol b'aypoixevoL KVKXi]ao[X€V (v6db€ v^Kpovs
"Bovarl Kol ijixiovoLCTiv' arap KaTaKyjofxev avTovs
TvtOov aiTo TTpu rewr, ojs k oore'a Traialv kKaaroi
OtKuS' ayji, vTav avre viMH^Oa iraTpiba yaiav'
Ti'ju/^oj; 6' a[j.(JH TTvp^jv 'iva x_€voiJ.€V ^^ayayovT^iy

AKpLTVV iv TTihliO'

Farther, in the same book, v. 41G, it is said that men were
sent on either side to collect the dead, and that it being difficult
to distinguish each man, they washed them Avith water to
enable them to do so. The fact of such separation precludes
the idea of a funeral pile common to the Greeks and their
enemies. If the counterpart of the " one common tomb " of
the former is sought for, the tumulus of Hanai Tepeh, being
situated but 1^ to 2 miles from the site of Ilium (Bounar-
bashi), fExr removed from the ground occupied by the Greeks,
and visible from many parts of the Troad, appears a most
suitable place to have been selected by the Trojans for such

2 Except Chevalier, who in-esumes that this tomb exists on the Pergamus of
Troy.

VOL. XVI. C



(» THE TUMULUS OF HANAI TEPEH IN THE TKOAD.

a purpose. The marvellous quantity of calcined bones con-
tained therein induces the supposition that it was the funeral
pile of a very great number of bodies, and is suggestive of
that most probably raised by the Trojans after the first truce
mentioned in the Iliad.

FEANK CALVEET.
Dabdaxellks, Sept. 8, 1856.



The Institute is indebted to the kindness of John Anthony, Esq., M.D.,
for the communication of the foregoing memoir, the first fruits of the
interesting researches wliich Mr. Frank Calvert, in the course of his
residence with his brother, H. B. M. Consul at the Dardanelles, has
prosecuted with unusual advantages. We hope to place before our readers
at no distant period further results of his valuable investigations.



THOUGHTS ON ANCIENT METALLURGY AND TUNING A'NFONG
THE BRIOANTES AND IN SOME OTHER PARTS OF BRITAIN,
SUGGESTED BY A PAGE OF PLINY'S NATURAL HISTORY.

BY JOHN PHILLIPS, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.,
Presideut of the Geological Society, Reader in Qeologj' in the University nf Oxford.

To one Avho meditates on tlie progress of natural know-
ledge, the difficulty of penetrating to a true estimate of its
condition in past ages often appears unconquerable, except
in cases which admit of the interpretation of ancient results
by modern laws and theories. Once in firm possession of
such laws, we enclose the old phenomena, so to speak, in a
field to Avhich are only such and such possible avenues, and
thus can sometimes declare the very mode by which the
alchymist was led to his golden error, and the Chaldean shep-
herds were guided to brighter truths. Without this principle
of interpretation many almost modern writers, nay authors of
this very century, can sometimes not be understood. The
laws of modern Geology and Zoology, for such there are and
well-founded too, are as much required to put a true con-
struction on some of the writings of Lister and Linnaeus, as
the methods of Ray, Linnaeus, and Cuvicr are required for
the just estimation of Aristotle. We shall probably find the
darkest pages of antiquity to be precisely those wdiicli refer
to subjects where our own knowledge is least clear, least
collected into laws of phenomena, and most removed from
laws of causation. Ought we not, before declaiming on the
ignorance of the ancients, to be careful to make allowance
for the differences of form in which knowledge presents
itself at different periods, as well as for the incompleteness
of their records, and the imperfection of our inter2')retations ?

Pliny's Natural History appears to me to be precisely in
the position of difficulty which has been already alluded to.



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