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The first volume of the long expected work of Mr. J. H. Parker, C,B.,
giving to the public the result of his archseological investigations into the
evidences of ancient Rome, — which have been carried on by him for many
years at great cost and with great labour under many difficulties, — has
been published by Mr. Murray. It is illustrated by a volume of photo-
graphic views. When the work is more advanced, the pages of the
•' Journal " will doubtless contain a full notice of so important a contribu-
tion to archaeological knowledge.

Part VIII. of the •' History of the Deanery of Trigg Minor," by Sir
John Maclean, F.S.A,, is now published. This portion fully sustains the
interest of the work, which has been previously referred to in the Journal,
One of its most valuable sections is that treating of the parish of Lanow,
or, as it is now called from the patron Saint of the church, in accordance
with a prevailing custom in Cornwall, St, Kew. This is a large, and, it
seems to have been in former times, a very important parish, inhabited by
several families of sufficient local importance to have their pedigrees regis-
tered at the Herald's Visitation of 1620. In addition to a description of
the pre- historic remains and ancient roads, &c., the author gives a very
interesting account of the manor of Lannvho, mentioned in the Great
Exchequer Domesday Book as being part of the ancient demesne of the
Crown ; and he shows how King Henry I. gave the demesne lands of the
manor to the Bishop of Exeter, who granted it as part of the endowment
of the Priory of Plympton, which he founded. This portion became known



ARCH^OLOaiCAL INTELLIGENCE. 93

as the manor of Lanoweseynt. The services of the church were at first
performed by the brethren of the Priory, but in 1283 Bishop Bronescombe
assigned a regular vicarage. A chantry chapel founded in the churchyard
was the occasion of many disputes with the vicar, relating to which the
author has given an interesting series of documents from the National
collection and local sources. To Family History much care and attention
has been devoted, and it may be mentioned that, among many others, the
ancient houses of TrefFry and Prideaux are very fully treated of, represent-
ing a large amount of labour and research, fully entitling the work to
special commendation to all who are fond of topographical and genealogical
studies.

An excellent translation of Sir John Lubbock's " Pre-historic Times "
has been made into German. It is accompanied by a recommendatory pre-
face by Professor Virchow, who describes the work as a pattern of cautious
and temperate research, and as filling a gap in the literature of Germany,
where the fruits of pre-historic research are not as yet to be found in a
collective form.




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^fje ^rcljaeoloflical Journal.



JUNE, 1874.



BAMPFYLDE nOUSE, EXETEE.

By ROBERT YMOXD, F.S.A.

Throughout its long eventful history the City of Exeter
has always occupied the position of a local metropolis. This
position dates from the time when it was the capital of the
Kingdom of Wessex. It had been an important military
post long before King Athelstane surrounded it with a wall
of hewn stone, and from that time to the termination of the
civil commotions of the seventeenth century it remained the
miUtary key of the Western Peninsula. Its pre-eminence
as a centre of ecclesiastical government dates from the reign
of the Confessor. Thenceforward a group of monastic esta-
blishments and the town residences of Abbots and Priors
clustered within its walls round a noble cathedral. Thus,
the Abbot of Buckfast had his town house in the Cathedral
Close. The head of the wealthy monastery of Torre occu-
pied a more obscure abode in Paul Street. The Prior of
Otterton reserved an occasional lodging for himself in the
same quarter. The Abbot of Tavistock resided in a house
in South Street, which afterwards became the Bear Inn,
whilst the Prior of Plympton occupied a tenement in the
same street, now known as the Black Lions Inn. After the
country had recovered from the depressing influence of the
contests between the Houses of York and Lancaster and
the monasteries had been dissolved, Exeter rapidly attained
prominence as a nucleus of mercantile activity. It became
the emporium of an enormous foreign trade in the woollen
fabrics of the surrounding country, and for a long time
Leeds alone surpassed it in the magnitude of this commerce.
In the value and amount of cloth traffic it had no rival in
the West of England. As the point from which the south-

VOL. XXXI. (No. 122.) o



90 BAMPFYLDE HOUSE, EXETER,

western highways radiated it was the most convenient centre
of county government, and whilst access to London was
beset with difficulty and heavy cost, the county magnates,
like their ecclesiastical predecessors, resorted to the county
metropolis for purposes of business and social pleasures.
Tlie house of the Blackfriars in Exeter was one of the least
of the ecclesiastical acquisitions of the favoured family of
llussell, and under the name of Bedford House it became
the scene of some of the most striking incidents in the
City's Jiistory. Chief among these events was the birth of
the Princess Henrietta Maria, who was baptized at the
Cathedral on the 21st Jn\y, 1644. Bedford House was
demolished more tlian a century ago, and gave place to a
crescent of brick houses called Bedford Crescent. Later
still another semi-circle was added, and Bedford Crescent
became Bedford Circus, the ground rents of which are still
paid to the Duke. The Colletons had a mansion in Fore
Street, still exhibiting armorial traces of their residence.
The Carys of Cockington had a residence in Paul Street.
The Giffards had a " Crete House " in St. Martin's Lane.
Courtenay House in the Cathedral Close is now ^Yorthily
occupied by the Library and rooms of the Devon and Exeter
Institution. These and others of similar origin have either
been completely obliterated, or so transformed as to have
lost all their distinctive features as private residences. But
Bampfylde House is distinguished amongst its compeers by
the retention of these features with so little alteration that
there is no difficulty in picturing the mansion as it existed
when the ancient race, whose surname it bears, maintained
hospitable state within its walls. The other civic resi-
dences of the county families have long since passed into
the hands of strangers, but Bampfylde House remains to this
day the property of Baron Poltimore, and was occupied by
liis lordship's great aunt. Miss Georgina Sophia Bampfylde,
until her decease in August, 1814.

The building is unmistakably Elizabethan in plan and in
style. It stands in the parish of St. Lawrence, not far within
the East Gate of the City, in Kaden Lane, a carriage
thoroughfare only 14 feet wide, and now called Bampfylde
Street. The Garden, now covered with stabling, abutted on
the City walls. A gateway in Raden Lane leads into a
small quadrangular paved court, one side of which fronts



BAMPfYLDE HOUSE, EXETER. 97

the street, whilst the other three are enclosed by the build-
ing. The rooms on the ground floor had no windows or
other openings facing the highway, their light being derived
from three large mullioned windows, each occupying nearly
an entire side of the quadrangle. Thus, when the entrance
to the court was closed, the inmates were secure from night
marauders or civil broils. They might even hold out for a
time after the City gates had yielded to the sudden incur-
sion of an enemy. One such proof of security was afforded
by Bampfylde Plouse so recently as the 19th July, 1769,
during the residence of Sir Richard Warwick Bampfylde,
when the Duke of Bedford, the newly-appointed Lord-
Lieutenant of Devonshire, as well as of Exeter, came to the
Guildhall to receive the freedom of the city. His Grace had
excited the popular indignation by his supposed concurrence
in an article of the treaty of peace giving admission to the
silk and other manufactures of France, in competition with
fabrics in which the citizens were largely interested. On leav-
ing the Guildhall, the Duke was greeted at its entrance with
the hisses and threats of a furious mob. Under the pro-
tection of the Mayor and his officers he was conducted to the
safe shelter of Bampfylde House. His passage from thence
to the neighbouring castle was attended by fresh insult, but
he afterwards managed to reach the Cathedral in his coach.
Here the Bishop and Clergy waited to receive him with the
customary honours. But there also the incensed rabble
were waiting to give him a reception of a different sort.
His alighting was the signal for a general rush, in which the
attendants of the Duke were borne down, and the Cathedral
dignitaries received rough usage. With great difficulty the
Duke reached the choir without personal injury, and finally
passed by a back way to the Bishop's Palace, to wait till
night, when the popular fury had somewhat abated.

In one corner of the quadrangle of Bampfylde House
stands a curious water tank, cast in lead of great thickness,
and looking as if it had never been delivered over to the
destructive hands of a repairing plumber. Its sides and
front are divided into rectangular panels, the dividing lines
being in relief. The front side bears the letters Sr C.W.B.
[Sir Coplestone Warwick Bampfylde], and the date 1724,
surmounted by a representation of a fat stag pursued by
three hounds and a huntsman on foot, bearing a spear.



98 BAMPFYLDE HOUSE, EXETER.

Fortunately for the stag, the dogs and man are equally well
favoured.

In the opposite corner of the quadrangle is an open porch,
supported by moulded oaken columns at its angles, and sur-
mounted by a roofed closet or muniment room, its overhang-
ing windows supported by carved brackets, after a fashion
common in old Manor houses. The angle posts supporting
the superstructure are enriched with lions' heads, of Eliza-
bethan character, carved in relief, and coimected by a carved
frieze on the two external sides. The centre of each side is
occupied by a shield, that in the front bearing Bampf/jlde
impaled with Clifton (Sa. semec of cinquefoils, a lion ramp,
arg.). The other bears Bainpfijlde only (or. on a bend gules
three mullets arg.).

The construction of this porch w\as apparently an after-
thought, for it overlaps and partially obscures one of the
upper mullioned windows overlooking the right-hand side
of the quadrangle. The carving and details, however,
correspond in style with the rest of the house. The
porch opens into the hall, an apartment of comparatively
ample proportions, having in the upper panes of its
6-light mullioned window the six coloured glass armorials
of which an illustration accompanies the llev. F. T. Colby's
memoir on Tlie Heraldry of Exeter} On the side of the hall,
opposite the window, formei'ly stood a handsome chimney-
piece, occupying the entire height of the apartment. This
very remarkable piece of w^orkmanship was placed here by
Sir Coplestonc Bampfylde, second baronet, soon after the
restoration, but was removed by the late Lord Poltimore to
his country mansion near Exeter. An equestrian figure of
King Charles I. occupies the upper part of the centre.
Peace and Plenty stand personified on either side, while a
Cavalier and a Puritan occupy the pilasters at the extreme
edges of the composition.

Underneath the Hall is a large cellar of the same dimen-
sions, with a plain biick groining springing from a squai'e
brick pier (1 foot flinches on face), having a plain red
sandstone base and chamfered stone abacus 5 inches deep.
External access to this cellar is gained through an opening in
the paved court of the quadrangle by a flight of stone steps,

* aS'cc Arcli. Journal, vol. xxx. p. 235.




Baiiipfylde House, Exeter. Mantel-piece.



BAMPFYLDE HOUSE, EXETER. 99

The cellar is no doubt original work, but it has been divided
into compartments at a later date.

From one corner of the Hall the principal staircase ascends
by a broad and easy flight. An oaken newel, 5h inches in
diameter, and perhaps the side panelling, are the only original
parts now remaining. For the domestics there was a nar-
rower winding stair in the rear of the building. In this case,
too, the stairs have been removed, but an octagonal oaken
newel, of the original work, 4 inches in diameter, still re-
mains. On the first landing of the principal staircase a door
surmounted by a shield, bearing Bampfijlde and Clifton
impaled, gives access to a truly noble apartment. Its walls
are lined throughout with rich panelling, extending from the
floor to within a foot of the ceiling, and divided into com-
partments by shallow fluted pilasters, of Ionic character,
resting on panelled and carved pedestals, 2 feet 4 inches high.
Above the pilasters are brackets of graceful form, each
bearing a mask in bold relief and of most spirited design.
Between the brackets, and ranging with them in height, is a
series of carved panels, consistent with each other in cha-
racter, but freely varying in design. A narrow carved panel
serves as a skirting, and between these bands the panelling
is plainly moulded. The brackets are surmounted by a
wooden cornice of bold projection, having small moulded
brackets at frequent intervals. Over all comes the plaster
frieze, which, if not originally of rude and coarse design, has
certainly been disfigured by repeated coats of whitewash.
It represents the human figure with its extremities terminat-
ing in foliage repeated all round the room. Being at a safe
height from the street, this apartment has three external
windows, the one at the end of the room being recessed in a
deep bay, projecting oriel-wise over Raden Lane. The longer
external side is lighted by the two other windows, between
which stands the richly-decorated mantelpiece shown in the
accompanying illustration. The shield of eight quarterings,^
once brilliant with tinctures and metals, is now overlaid by

- 1 Bampfylde: Or, onahend gu.tliree a lion pass, rjuard. arg. 7. St. Maiir;

mullets arg. 2. Hastings: Or, a maunch Arg. Uoo chevrons gu. overall a label, az.

ga. 3. Huxham : Arg. a lion ramp. sa. 8. Pedertou : Or, semee of cross crosslets,

4. Faber : Arg., on a fessesa. three crosses a lion ramp. az. Crest, a lion's head

crosslet or, all loithin a bordurc az. 5. erased sable, ducally crowned gules. On

Pederton : Arg. a bend gu. between three a small shield below are Bampfylde and

lions' heads erased sa, crowned of the second. Clifton impaled.
6. Pederton : Gu, scmee of cross crosslets,



loo BAMPFYLDI5 HOUSE, EXETER.

the repeated coats of plain stone colour oil paint, wliicli dis-
figure all the oak panelling and other adornments of this
and the other apartments of the house. But the rich orna-
mentation of the principal room culminates in its elaborate
ceiling — a fine example of the designer's taste and the modeller's
skill. The two other rooms on this floor are only partially
panelled, while their ceilings, though decorated in the same
style, are less elaborated. One of these rooms has a pro-
jecting oriel corresponding Avith that just mentioned. The
little muniment room over the porch retains its lining of oak
panelling, and similar framing is still to be met with in other
parts of the house.

The second, or topmost, floor contains several bedchambers,
presenting no features calling for special notice. The roof
has been more than once renewed, but retains its originally
bold and massive form.

Of the domestic offices, which were approached by a door
on the right side of the principal entrance, and had also an
external access from Raden Lane through a courtyard, few
original features remain, with the exception of a large 4-light
window, opening into the quadrangle, two smaller windows
overlooking a narrow side passage, another lighting the back
staircase and looking into the courtyard in the rear, and a
large gable window on the second floor, facing in the same
direction.^

At the time of the visit of the Royal Archaeological Insti-
tute to Exeter last year, Mr. Parker, C.B., assigned the date
of the erection of Bampfylde House to the year 1590. Richard
Bampfylde, the then head of the famil}^ died in 1594, and
it was probably commenced in his lifetime, but completed by
his son and heir, Sir Amias Bampfylde, who was knighted in
1603, and whose arms, impaled with those of Elizabeth
(Clifton) his wife, are displayed on a shield over the door-
way of the principal room. The six coats of arms in the
coloured glass windows of the hall refer only to this knight's
great grandfather, and great great grandfather and their
wives, and they were probabl}^ transferred or repeated from
the windows of an older town residence of the family on the
same site. There is, indeed, some ground for believing that
the lords of the Manor of Poltimore (otherwise Clist Moys)

'' Tlie writer is indebted to P. B. Hay- aid in the tecluiical description of the
ward, Esf^., architect, for much valuable building.



13AMPFYLDE HOUSE, EXETEK. 101

had a town residence here at an even earlier date than the
acquisition of that Manor by the Bampfyldes. At least four
generations of the knightly family of Poltimore had held this
^Ianor when Sir Richard of that ilk, having no issue, granted
it to Simon Lord Montacute, who, in turn, sold it to William
de Pointingdon, Canon of Exeter, by whom it was bestowed,
in 1298, on his pupil John Baunfeld, or Bampfylde, the re-
presentative of an already well-established County family.
Amongst the Exeter archives is the Will, dated 1394, of John
Soth of " Northyetestrete " (now North Street), in that city,
who bequeathed to his grandson, John Bolle, the house in the
parish of St, Lawrence which had belonged to Richard de
Poltimore, junior, knight. Like most of the numerous parishes
into which Exeter is divided, St. Lawrence is of very limited
area, so that the house referred to must have been very near,
if it did not actually form part of, the site of Bampfylde
House and its garden.

During tlie six centuries which intervened between tlie
days of the first Bampfylde who held tlie manor of
Poltimore and the time of the present Baron Poltimore, his
heir in direct male succession, this ancient race had been
closely connected by family ties with the West of England.
A glance at the pedigree appended to this memoir will be
sufficient to prove the manifold extent of these alliances.^
The ante-Norman name of Coplestone of Coplestone, ap-
pears more than once. The Bampfyldes have also matched
Avith the Carys of romantic Clovelly, with Clifford of Chud-
leigh, Bassett of Ileanton Court, near the mouth of the Taw ;
with Pole of Shute, Drake of Buckland, St. Maur of North-
Molton, and Kirkham of Blagdon by Torbay. These were
heiresses of Devonshire blood, and many of them brought,
as their marriage portions or by inheritance, fair estates
in every part of the county. From Cornwall a Bampfylde
won a Carew of Antony ; from Somerset, a CHfton of Bar-
rington, a Warre of Hestercombe, and a Sydenham of
Brimpton. Poltimore is distant only four miles from the
east gate of Exeter, and though the matrimonial alliance
of the Bampfyldes include no names of strictly Exeter origin,

■* This pedigree is compiled from a inscriptions, parish registers, and other

careful comparison of the evidence afforded sources of information. It is brought

by Pole, Westcote, Prince, Betham, Col- down to the time of tlie last of the Family

lins, the Heralds Visitation of 1620, the who resided at Bampfylde House,
Post-mortem . Incjuisitioos, monumental



lOa DAMPPYLDE HOUSE, EXETER.

they have for centuries been more or less closely associated
with the history of the city. On twelve different occasions,
between the years 1G56 and 1807, five of its members were
elected to represent the citizens in Parliament, and on all
these occasions the hospitality of Bampfylde House was
dispensed with a liberal hand. Thomas Bampfylde, youngest
brother of the first baronet, was Recorder of Exeter from
1G54 to 1660, and of him it is stated that he made a
voluntary restitution of the profits of the office for the time
he held it to the poor of the city. The Recorder's elder
brother, Sir John Bampfylde, M.P. for Penryn, had been
created a baronet by Charles I. in 1641, but he subsequently
adopted the cause of the Parliament, and, in 1645, when
Fairfax arranged his forces along the line of the Clist for
the reduction of Exeter, Sir John gave up his seat at Polti-
more on that river as a garrison. Here, in the following
year, the Commissioners for the citizens on the one part and
the army on the other met to arrange the Articles under
which the Parliamentary forces occupied Exeter on the IStli
April, 1646. Sir John's eldest son and heir, Sir Cople-
stone Bampfylde, one of Prince's " Worthies," was a
Royalist, and on his presentation of a Petition of Right on
behalf of the gentlemen of Devon and Exeter, was com-
mitted by the Rump Parliament to the Tower. On his
release, at the restoration of monarchy, he was rewarded by
election to the county shrievalty, an office which he upheld
with more than usual splendour. In 1675, when Monk,
who had reached the dignity of Duke of Albemarle,
came into his native county to organize the militia. Sir
Coplestone Bampfylde was amongst the gentlemen of Devon
who tendered his services to the astute general. Again,
on the arrival of the Prince of Orange, the then aged Sir
Coplestone was one of the first to testify his adherence to
the cause of the Protestant deliverer, by sending his con-
gratulations through his son. Colonel Hugh Bampfylde.

Passing by such of the rich materials of family romance
in the history of the Bampfyldes as have no special bearing
on the subject of this paper, it may be noted, in conclusion,
that since the decease of Miss Georgina Sophia Bampfylde,
in 1814, their town house has been let to a succession of
tenants. It was for some years the place of meeting of
the Devon County Club, founded in August, 1816, " for the



BAMPFYLDE HOUSE, EXETER. 103

Propagation of tlie Principles of the Britisli Constitution
and the maintenance of Civil and Ileligious Liberty." The
Duke of Bedford ^Yas the president, and among the stewards
figured the names of Fortescue, Chichester, Bampfylde, and
other leading Whigs of Devonshire. Here, in August,
1821, the late Reverend John Pike Jones, of North Bovey,
an ardent politician and antiquar}^, was presented vvitli a
silver salver at the hands of Lord Ebrington, whose elec-
tions for the shire he had eloquently promoted. After the
dissolution of the club, Bampfylde House was for some
time tenanted by a keeper of billiard-tables, but it has since
been devoted to professional offices. As a member of the
firm which has for many years past occupied in this way the
town mansion of the Bampfyldes, the writer of the present
memoir enjoys the half-yearly privilege of tendering to the
worthy steward the rent which his lord is now pleased to
accept in lieu of other suit and service at the Courts of his
manor of Poltimore.



VOL. XXXI.



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