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Eit Eofial Strj^aEoIogiral 3:tislit«te of ©rrat Britain antj




Ci)e Carl)) aiiU i^i^tilc Slgrs,






The Council of the Royal Arch.'eological Institute desire that it should ho
distinctly understood that they are not respfmsible fiir any statement or opinions
expressed in the Archreological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and
communications bein" alone answeral>le for the same.




luaugiual of the Right Honourable Lord CaKLI>'GFOKD to the Amiual

Meetuig of the Institute at Colchester . . . . .1

The Land of Moi-gan : its Conquest and its Conquerors. By G. T. Clark, Es<i. . 1 1

Discoveries in the Chit Duen Wilderness. By G. W. Vyse, Esq., B.A. . . 40

Address to the Historical Section of the Annual Meeting of the Institute at

Colchester, 1876. By E. A. Freeman, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D. . .47

On the llouian Inscriptions at Colchester. By W. T. Watkin, Esq. . . 76

RemarLs on the Exhibition of the Etched Works of Rembrandt. By the Rev.

C. H. MiDDLETON, M.A. . . . . . . .83

The Siege of Colchester. By C. R. Mark ham, Esq., C.B. . . .107

M'inuments of the De Burgh and Ingoldsthorpe families, in Burgh Green Church

Cambridgeshire. By the Rev. C. R. Majnwing, M.A. . . 121

Britanno-Roman Inscriptions discovered in 1876. By W. T. W*atkin, Esq. 130

Muckross and Inisfalleu, Franciscan Abbeys. By G. T. Clark, Esq. . . 149

Roman Loudon. By the Rev. W. J. Loftie, B.A. . . . .164

What is a Town ? By T. Kerslake, Esq. . . . . .199

St. Peter's-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-juxta-niare. By F. Chancellor, Esq. . 212

On the Wall Paintings discovered in the Churches of Rauuds and tSlaptou,

Northamptonsliire. By J. G. Waller, Esq. . . . .219

The Antiquities of Scandinavia. By Professor BUNNELL Lewis, M.A., F.SA. .242



The Mural Paintings fit Keniploj* Church, Gloucostorshirc. By C. K, Keyskr,

Esq., M.A. . . , . . . . . .270

Notes on an Effigy attributed to Richard Wellesborne de Montfovt, and otlier
Sepulchral Memorial.s in Hughenden Church, Buckinghamshire. By Albert
Hartshorne, Esq. . . . . . . . .279

Dr. Schlienuuui's Tnjjan Collection. By B. F. HARTbUORNK, E.sq., B.A. . . 201

Hereford Cathedral. P.y Sir G. G. ScOTT, B.A. ..... 323

Uouian Herefordshire. By W. T. Watkin, Esq. ..... 3-19

The Family of Lingen. By J. T. Burgess, Esq. ..... 373

On the Discovery of the Remains of John, First Earl of Shrewsbury, at

Whitchurch. By Stephen Tucker, Esq. {Rouge Croix.) . . . 386

On the Roman Milliaries found in Britain. By the Rev. Prebendary ScARTH, M.A. 395

On Certain Sepulchral Effigies in Hereford Cathedral. By M. H. BloXam,

Esq., F.S.A. . . . . . . . . .400

Materials for a History of Herefordshire. By the Rev. C. J. ROBINSON, M.A. . 425

Notes on the Dates of the Paintings in the Roman Catacombs. By J. H.

Parker, Esq., C.B. . . . . . . . .431

Original Documents :—

Of the time of Edward I. By J. Bain, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. . . 87

Charter of Confirmation by Richard Earl of Cormvall and Poictou, of
Grants of Land in the Honour of Berkhampstede, 1256. By G. T.
Clark, Esq. . . . . . . . .180

Concerning Guildford Castle, temp. Edward I. By J. Bain, Esq., F.S.A.

Scot. . . . . . . .297

Relating to Hereford and the Western Counties, tenqi. Edward I. By

the same ........ 443

I'roceediugs at Meetings of the R')yal AreliLCological Institute : — February, 1877,

to July, lb77 . . . . . . . 187, 298, 448



Abstract of AeoouutK and Auditoi'ri' lloport for 187G .... 307

lloport of Annual Meeting liokl at Horoford, 1877 . . . , 4G7

Notices of Arch-'eological Publications : —

Annals of Wiiichcumljc and Sudeley. By Emma Dknt . . . "3

The First Book of the Parish Registers of Madron, By GiiORGK Brown

MiLLETT . . . . . . . .99

Notes on the Etched Works of Rembrandt, with special refcreuwi to the
recent exhibition in the Gallery of the Burlington Fine Asiri Club.
By the Rev. C. H. MiDDLETON . . . . .192

The Churches of Kent. By iSir S. R. Gltnnu, Bart. . . .193

History of the Dunmow Flitch of Bacon custom. By William Andrews . 194

Inductive Metrology. By W. M. F. Petrie . . . .309

The Visitation of the County of Warwick. Edited by John Fetiiebston 310

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic series, temp. Charles I. Edited by
W. D. Hamilton . . . . . odl

Notices of the Historic Persons buried in the Chapel of St. Peter ad

Vincula in the Tower of Loudon. By D. C. Bell . . o07

Arch-eological Intelligence .... luo, )9G, 311, o09

Index TO Vol. xx.\iv. . . . . . . . .511



Chit Uucu Wikleniew.s. T< nub in the .... Tu face 4'2

Autiquitiutt from . . . . ^^ 44 ^

Figiu-e of a Roman Centurion . . . . . „ 81 •'

West view of Embattled Tower, Sudeley ..... 93

Seals of Otuer and Ralph de Sudeley ...... 94

Poitmare Tower, Sudeley . ..... To face 95 r

Seal of Abbot Ancelme . ...... 96

Monuments in Burgh Green Church ..... To face 124

Muckross Abbey. Ground Plan of . . . . . „ 152

• Upper Floor of , . . . . „ 156

Diagram of 2)atteni on Old Needlework iu Cogenhoc Church . „ 18S

Thurible found at Pershore . . . . . . ,, 191

The Eastness Sarcophagus . . . . . . .196

Bradwell-juxta-mare. Plan of Roman Remains at . . .To face 213 -

Chapel ..... ,,217 ^

Pride and her Sis Daughters, or the Seven Deadly Sins : wall pain ling in Rauuds

Church, Northamptonshire ..... To face 221^

Scene in the Life of St. Catherine, ditto . . , . „ 281 "

Bucket handle and ears, from Trondhjem . . . . „ 247 ^

Bronze Vase of Farmen, and Sword from Einang . . . „ 249 '-

Effigy in Hughenden Church . . . . . „ 286 /

Crescent containing Lion's face ...... 288

The Porticus Ingressus, Monkwearmouth Church, and Sepulchral Slab found at

ditto ........ To face 299 -

British Sword and Bronze Weapons from the bed of the Thames . To follow 300 '

Arm* of Digby . . . . . . .To face 310

Fragment of a " Tabula lloncstic Missionis" found at Walcot, near Bath, in

1815 ........ To face 318 ','


General Plan of Hereford Cathedral.
Norman Cathedral at Hereford, Plan of

Interior view of

Elevation of West end of

Doorway of North Porch of Hereford Cathedral and Piscina
Portrait of John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury. From th

A.?hby .....
Skull and Jaw-bone of ditto .
Hereford Cathedral. Effigy of Bishop Mayo

Effigy of Bishop Coke

Effigy of a Dean ,

Effigy of Bishop Stanbury

Effigy of Bishop Charlton

Anglo-Saxon Bone Comb

Examples of Leather Vessels

Stirrui) and Horse shoes

Effigy at Moccas ....

it Gros:


. To faro

323 ^




328 ,


329 .

mont ,,

340 .

e at Castle


389 ^


To face

41.5 ^




418 ■•

419 ■'


422 ^


To face

452 t/


464 ^

.502 v^


P. 197, 1. \7, for 'Mr. Basil Montague" read " Mr. Bai^il Montague Pickering."
P. 402, 1. 8, /or ''Jude" read "Jade."


P. 140, 1. ^9, for "Williams" rend "Wilbraham." P. 303, to the names of Members
of tlie Council who signed the address to Dr. and Mrs. Sehliemann shoidd be added
'■ the Rev. R. P. Coates." Page 318— The Additional Remarks on a "Tabula Honostn?
Missionis " wei-e contributed by Mr. W. T. Watkin.

Cije ^rcljacologifal Sjouiual.

MAECH, 1877.


My biLshiess and duty, and my pleasure, is to open
the Congress, by what the programme cpJls an Address
from the President of the Tvoyal ArchoGological Institute
of Great Britain and Ireland. Having undertaken
many months ago to perform the responsible duty
that now lies before me, I, with the usual folly of
human nature, at the eleventh hour began to consider
what these duties were, and I confess that that veiy late
consideration has left me in a state somewhat of per-
plexity. At aU events, the position of temporary and
local President of the Poyal A rch^ological Institute
is one of a somewhat complex and peculiar nature : I have
the honour of finding myself for a moment at the head of
this great Society, which makes Archaeology its object,
and i find myself there without any of what may be
supposed to be the necessary queJifications for the post —
with nothing more than an ordinary country gentleman's
smattering of History, Archaeology, or Architecture. But,
as an old politician, and an old official, I am, perhaps,
less surprised at finding myself in tliis position than
some other people v,-ould have been. As a politician and
a Parliament man, I know very well, as you probably
do, that a pohtican at all events, nnay wake up in the
morning and find himself Minister for War, without
knowing anything about guns or soldiers, or First Lord
of the Admiralty, without knowing anything about
SJiips or sailors, and that is very much my position upon

1 Delivered Augu-t Ist, 1S7C.
VOL. XXXIT. (No. 133). B


the present occasion. But I am liound to say that my
tenure of office is even shorter than that which prevails
with Secretaries of State, and First Lords, and
Presidents of the Board of Trade, because it is hmited
to a week, in which I am afraid there is not very
much professional knowledge to be acquired. I have
been consoled a good deal in my position by being assured
l^y my Archaeological friends that very little is expected
of their local President in the way of A.rcha3ology and
Architecture. That expectation is founded, I believe,
upon 33 years of experience in all parts of the British
Isles, and highly as we may value the good City of
Colchester, I do not suppose, at all events, I do not feel,
myself to be an exception to that experience. More
than that, T am bound to mtike a confession to you.
I think I have detected in the faces of some of my
Archfeological friends belonging to what, in official
language, I may call the permanent Archaeological
ser^'ice, a certain dismay at the idea of their temporary
President poaching upon their preserves, or venturing
upon a professional Lecture upon the subject of
Archaeology and Architecture. Well, I can assure you
that you need be under no feelings of dismay on that
account. I am not going to inflict upon you a
lecture upon the antiquities of Colchester or the
neighbourhood ; but I have another character to fill
here, which I shall do my best to discharge. I am
not merely a sort of First Lord of Archaeology, with
a week's tenure of office, liut it is my business to
endeavour to play a double part : I not only im-
wortliily represent the Boyal Archaeological Institute,
l)ut I also represent the C/Ounty of Essex, in an official
capacity, and, especially on the present occasion, Col-
chester and that part of the CJounty of Essex or land of
the East Saxons, which lies within a few miles of us. I
represent not only the visitors, Ijut the visited ; not only
the Antiquaries who come to inspect us, but the
antiquities that are to be inspected ; not only the
learned, but the ignorant ; and in spite of some kind
tilings that I have heard in the course of our varied
proceedings of this day, I feel, I am bound to say, I am
much more at home in the latter capacity, and I do


not tliink you will dili'er from me wlien I say that in
that capacity I have the larger body of constituents.
Upon the one hand, in this complex character I am trying
to fulfil, as the representative for the moment of the Royal
Archaeological Institute, I venture to say, and I am
sure my noble friend Lord Talbot will bear me out when
I say it, that the Institute has gladly and thankfully
accepted the invitation to Colchester, that the Society is
so well aware of the historical and architectural interest
of the place and its neighbourhood, that it w^ould have
been ashamed of itself if it had omitted, in its
])eregrination round the great centres of historical
interest in these Islands, to visit the City of Colchester,
the ancient Camuloclunum of the Romans, On the other
liand, in my other honourable capacity as representative
of the County of Essex, I say in your name that we
are well aware ourselves of the objects of interest which
are to be found here. We Ijelieve it is well worth
while for the central Institute of Archa3ologists to pay us
this visit ; we know very well what a long train of
historical memories and associations gather round the City
of Colchester and its neighbourhood, and we feel a proj^er
pride in theii' possession. The truth is that in and around
this City — within a few miles — there are many most
interesting memorials of the long and glorious history of
our country, mainly, I must say, confined to the earlier
])ortions of that great history. Here, in this City and its
neighboiu-hood, the early races who inhabited our country
played a great part, Briton and Roman, Saxon and Dane,
There are many other parts of England in wliicli the later
history of the country is more fully and remarkably
illustrated than it is here, but as to the earlier history of
the Island I think my scientific friends around me wdll
agree that there are fe^A^ places of gi'eater intei'est in the
British Isles than the City and neighbourhood of
Colchester. It is difficult, as one glides in the railway
train through this rich, and peaceful, and smiling Essex,
almost upon the track of the Roman road, to realise the
scenes wliich have been enacted in this region ; it is
difficult to throw one's imagination back to that remote
age when ;dl that Britain, as it was then Biitain, not
England, all that Britain kncAv of Enghshmen ^vas that


tliey were an inconvenient set of free-booters, infesting
what was called the Saxon shore in this immediate neiafh-
bourhood. That was before the days when England was
England, and what scenes and what figures have this
place and neighbourliood v/itnessed since that distant
day ! It would be tedious to attempt for a moment,
although it would be easy, to go through the list. If
one thinks for a moment, one has, for instance, a Cymbeline,
the British Chief Cunobelin, whose coins we can see and
handle in the Museum here, and which, I believe, have
been du.g up over and over again ; we can see the Emperor
Claudius, with his elephants, tramping along, probably
this very street of Colchester, to the astonishment of the
northern people ; we can see t]ie grim figure of her of
whom we have liearcl in our youth, Boadicea and her
Iceni, sweeping down from what was to be first East
Angha, and then Suffolk and Noifolk, upon the Boman
Colony in Colchester. I have a sort of infantine recollec-
tion of Boadicea, but it seems to me, upon comparing
notes with younger people, that she has rather gone out
of fashion in these days. Nevertheless, I believe that
many men, v/lio have reached that uncertain time of life
that I have, will rememljer some traditions of the school-
room, and certain lines of Cowper that they used to
learn, about

" When tlie British warrior Queen,
Bleeding from the Roman rods,
Sought, with an indignant mien,
Counsel of her country's gods."

Anyliow, it is an historical fact that Boadicea is a greo.t
Colchester heroine, and that the fearful revenge which
she and her British followers took for fearfid wrongs, lias
been in its time one of tlie most extraordinary events
that have been enacted upon British soil. Then Ave come
to the times in which Colchester was secured aQuinst such
dangers by lloman fortifications, and to the days which
seem so short now, but which were long then — the days
lasting for many generations and several centuries, during
which Colclicster Avas one of the foremost colonies and
garrisons in tlie Island. Those times liaA^e utterly passed
away, but they have left here many I'cmai'kaljle monu-
ments, and A\dien Ave see or handle a Boman biick or a


lloman coin, we arc carried back in imagination to those
almost incredible days, and we learn that tlie presence
of the leeionaries here was not a dream. After
we come to the time when Britain became England,
and then during a length of centuries many stirring
scenes were enacted in the neighbourhood of Colchester.
It is well known that tlie East Saxons were among
the very earliest conquerors and settlers of our
race in the land of Britain, and it so happened that
afterwards, in following centuries-, some of the most
bloody and fearful struggles that took place l^etween
the two great races who have formed the ])eople
and the language of England, were carried on Avitliin but
a few miles of where we are now assembled. Anyone who
has looked into that portion of the History of England
will at once remember the names of Maldon and Assan-
dune .(Assingden), those two great battle fields whicli
were the scenes of bloody fights in the days to vv'hich
I am now alluding. One of these, — and one of the most
mteresting, Maldon — you will, if you please, have an
opportunity of visiting during the excursions of this
Society ; and let me remind you that this particular
fight has had the good fortune to be sung in one of
the noblest monuments of the early language of England.
These great struggles were scarcely kno^\1l — I Ijelieve
certainly not in theii* interest and importance, even to
the educated people of England — until within a very few
years ; and the man who has made them known to us I
am haj^py to say is sitting by me now. It is my friend,
Mr. Freeman in his work " The History of the Norman
Conquest," who has revealed to most of us the truth
and the intei'est of that great jieriod of our history. I
ain glad to welcome Mr. Freeman here into tins hmd
of the East Saxons. I have l:)een accustomed rather to
associate him with the land of Alfred and Wessex
than with the land of the Trinobantes, or East
Saxons ; but he has made every j^art of England his o^^'n
in working up the great drama of liis History, and I hiwQ
no doubt he is as much at home at Maldon as at Athelney
or at Battle. Well, after the Norman concpiest, to which
in these desultory remarks I have now arrived, no douljt
the interest of Essex sonlC^v'llat fails. After the


Nornicin (Joii<[uest our nionumeuts ai'e less remarkable,
and our liistorical associations less exciting. But still,
during the long period of the Middle Ages, we have
monuments which are good specimens and good records
of the two great cliaracters Avhich sti'ike the eye
in that ao-e — I mean the feudal Baron and the mitred
Abbot. We have two great religious houses, or rather,
the relics and remains of them, which you will no doubt
visit, in Colchester itself ; and we have, at all events,
two magnificent and first-rate specimens of the keep of
the Norman Baron — the one being that great Castle which
lies within a few yards of us in this room, which I believe
to be one of the most intei-esting l^uildings of its kind in
the lireadth and length of this island, made out of the
aljundant resources of the Roman materials which lay at
the hand of the builder, within a very few years of the
great events of the Norman Conquest, The other great
Norman keep, which you will have the opportunity of
visiting if you please, is tlie magnificent Castle of
Hedingliam, the head quarters of the great family of De
Vere. I need hardly remind you of the burning-
times which succeeded this period — a very considerable
interval — the time of the Civil Wars, in which Colchester
played a, great part. I have myself been visiting
to-day the s]3ots which saw the painful scenes of
the siege of Colchester enacted ; and I have seen that
]3lace especially in which one of the very few deeds was
done by an exasperated conqueror — one of the very few
cruel and unnecessary deeds which disgrace our civil
wars — I mean the execution under the Castle wall, of the
gallant defenders of Colchester. Many years elapsed after
that terrible time, before Colchester I'egained and
recovered its former aspect. There is a very interesting
l)ook — I don't know whether it is known to you or not —
written l)y De Foe ; a little book of travels over England,
a large portion of which he devotes to Essex and
Colcliester, written about the year 1722, and in that he
describes Colcliester as it then met his eyes, and he says
that Colchester "is still muuniing in the ruins of the civil
war." That certainly is not the case to-day ; and let me
say that it is a grea.t luq)pincss and great good fortune for
this country, and for this Institute which is meeting here


to-day, that .siicli an interval of peace and cahnness has
elapsed since those days, as enables us to deal with these
questions, I hope with intense interest, but with im-
pait Jality and cahnness. 1 take it that whatever our his-
torical sympatliies may be, there are few who do not find
tliemselves able to give credit both to Cavalier and
Koundliead of those days. There are few, at all events,
wlio would feel like that very original and eccentric man
wh(^ died lately, and whose memoirs w^ere written the
other day, the Vicar of Morwenstow, in C/ornwall,
who refused to admit tliat Milton was a poet ; and liad
such a liatred of the Puritans that he said the only man
who ever estiinated hhu at his right value was the l)()ok-
seller who offered liim £10 for "Paradise Lost." I think
tliere are few of us wlio will look upon the past witli such
heated minds as tliat, and tliat A\^e sliall l)e a1)le to afford
our pity and oui" pride, l)oth f )r the C-avalier and tlie
Ironside. Tliese few remarks Iuia'C referred, as you will
see, to two of tlie l)ranches ^\liicli constitute the
programme of this Institute ; I mean History and
Arclia3ology. AVitli resjject to Architecture, I believe
that we liave not quite so much to say for ourselves in this
County of Essex. I believe we are not very ricli in great
S]3ecimens of the Architecture of England, either in the
round-headed or ])ointed styles ; and tliat, perhaps, not
through any fault of our own, but from the important
fact that in Essex we have ah\'ays had a great deal of
wood but no stone. And, as many of you know well, we
have — I don't know whether in the immediate neiolibour-


hood or not — a great many interesting C-hurches, in
which timber, and magnificent ancient timl)er work,
plays a great part ; but I believe it to be true that in
specimens of architecture we are not very rich. At the
same time I am certain you will find quite enough
to interest you in that department. At tliis point tliere
is an observation I should like to make before I sit down.
I should like to point out to you the value of the lesson
read to us Ijy the combination in the programme of this
Institute of Architecture wdth History, and \\'itli Archaeo-
logy, f )r, as Tennyson says on another subject — ■

" Tlieso are three sisters friends to man,

AVliiih never (-an 1)0 sundorefl witliniit tears."


And while, on the one liand, History gets on very badly, and
has made many Inlanders without the help of Archaeology,
tliat is to say, the study of documents and books has got
on very badly in the hands of men v/ho have not had
eyes to see, or who have not taken the trouble to examine,
the records left on the flice of the land by oui- forefatliers :
On the other hand — and tliis strikes me. most forcibly —
Arcliitecture has done a good deal of mischief Vv^hen
separated from History and Archaeology. I know, from
Avhat I have heai'd in the coiu'se of tlie day, 1 am getting
on ratlier delicate ground ; nevertheless, I must sa,y what
I have to say on this point, and it seems .to me tliat one
of the foremost duties of this Institute is to endeavour
to propagate, thi'ougliout the length and breadth of the
land, what I may call the historic sense — the historic
sentiment — a reverent feeling for the works of our fore-
fathers. That propagandism seems to be our especial duty,
and I hope the effect of such meetings as this will be to
add new interest to our homes, fresh interest to our walks

Online LibraryBritish Archaeological Association. Central CommitThe Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) → online text (page 1 of 54)