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the custody of which was included in the grant. Sir John Huddleston
died soon afterwards, and it was doubtless some incident during
his brief occupation which led to the inscription referred to by

1 Tut. KoUs, 21bt Uuury YII, part 3, m. IG.



Mrs. Deut. We may also add to Mrs. Dent's accouut tlao fact that
the lands of Sudele}'^, as above described, being' again in tlie king's
hands, by letters patent dated 29th March lo08-9,- were gi-anted, in
mortmain, to Eichard Keddermynster the Abbot and the Canons of
the monastery of St. Mary and St. Kenelm of Winchecombe, which
grant was vacated and the patent surrendered on 13th November 1510,
from which time the lands remained vested in the crown until granted,
together with the then lately dissolved monastery of Winchcombe,
to Sir Thomas Seymour, afterwards created Ijord Seymour of Sudeley.
AVe must here briefly advert to the Abbey of Winchcombe. Among
the most able of her abbots was Kichard Kidderminster, the last
but one, whom we have just mentioned, who was appointed in 1488.
Willis says: "He was a learned man, and by his wise govern-
ment and his encouragement of virtue and good letters made the
Monastery flourish so much that it was equal to a little University."
Abbot Kidderminster was an elocpient preacher, and he vehemently
opposed the statute of 4th Henry YllI depriving the clergy of certain
privileges, preaching against it at Paid's Cross. AMiat, however, is
more to our present purpose, he wrote a History of the Monastery
from the time King Kenulph founded the Church to the Abbot's own
day. The history of this work is very singular. After the dissolution
of the Abbey it fell into the hands of a farmer, who produced it at an

assize at Gloucester in
support of some claim
he had made. Sir
William IMorton, the
then Lord of the site of
Winchcombe Abbey,
was present, who, by
some means, got it
out of the farmer's
liands, and taking it
to his chambers in tlje
Temple it was even-
tually destroyed in
the Great Fire of
London, but fortu-
nately Dugdale had
previously made some
extracts from it. To
Abbot Kidderminster
succeeded Eichard
Ancelme, who with
his monks in 1539
surrendered the Ab-
bey to the King, the
revenues being valued
at £759 lis. 9d. per
annum. The Abbey
being included in the
grant to Sir Thomas

.Seal of Abbot Aucclinc.

- I'at. lioU, 2-lth Henry
Yll, part l,m. 18.


Se3MD0ur, tlie whole of the buildings, except the Abbot's house, were
by him taken down and destroj-ed, so that scarcely a fragment now
remains to mark the site of this once famous house, one of the three
mitred abbeys in the county of Gloucester.

We must not omit to notice the tomb of St. Kenelm. Leland says
that : " There lay buried in the east part of the church of the Monastery
of Wincheombe Kenulphus and Kenelmus, the fatlier and sonne, botli
Kings of JMerches." In 181.3 Mr. Williams, then of the Abbey House,
made extensive excavations on what was supposed to be the site of the
ancient abbey. The foundations of the church were clearly traced,
and several ponderous stone coffins, containing the remains of human
skeletoas, were discovered, but the circumstance which attracted the
most attention arose from the examination of a small stone coffin at
the east end of the interior of the church, close to the side of another
of the usual size. Upon the removal of the stone which covered it
there appeared a skull with a few of the other larger bones, and a very
loTig-bladed knife, which was a ma^s of rust and fell to pieces on being-
handled. These were believed to be the remains of the j'oung king
Kenelm, murdered, as stated in the " Golden Legend," at the instance
of his wicked sister Quenrida, and of the instrument with which the
bloody deed was perpetrated ; whilst the larger coffin was thought to
contain the remains of his father King Kenulf, by whose side, some of
the chroniclers tell us, the body of his son was buried.

There is no portion of the history of Sudele}' of greater interest than
the short time in which it was in the possession of Sir Thomas Seymour.
Handsome, courth', courageous, ambitious, bold, and, like most of his
contemporaries, unscrupulous, he was one of the most prominent
personages of the period in which he lived. A great favourite with
King Henr}' YIII, he was entrusted, not only with important com-
mands both by sea and land, but was also employed in difficult and
delicate missions, all of which he accomplished to the entire satisfaction
of his capricious master. So great was the king's favour towards him
that in the dissolution of the religious houses, like other members of
his family, he shared largely in the pkinder of the Church, and the
king not only designated him for a peerage, but appointed him one
of the executors for carrj'ing out the provisions of his will. In 1547
he was created Lord Seymour of Sudeley, and received, by the gift)t
his nephew, Edward VI, the Castle and Manor of Sudeley, and the
possessions of the dissolved Abbey of Wincheombe. His ambition
led him to aspire successively to the hands of the Princesses Mary and
Elizabeth, and failing in this, he made advances to the widowed
Queen Katherine, by whom, as appears from her letter to him, now in
the Sudeley collection, which is given us in fac-simile by Rh-s. Dent,
he Avas more than readily accepted ; the Queen avowing, '' My mynd
was fully bent the other tyme I was at libertye " (that is in her
previous widowhood) " to marye you before any man I know."

The marriage having taken place, great preparations were made at
Sudelej' by Seymour to receive, with fitting splendour, his royal bride.
The neglected and delapidated castle was renovated, and suitable
accommodation was carefullj' provided for the expectant infant. Here
Seymour and the Queen lived in great magnificence, but the period of
their felicity was very short. Katherine gave birth to a daughter.
and died in childbed, and Se^-mour, though doubtless turbulent and

VOL. XXXI v. o


ambitions, without trial or proof of crime, was sent to the block by
his weak and jealous brother.

By the death and attainder of Seymour, Sudeley Castle again
reverted to the C-rown, and tliough Marj^, Seymour's infant daughter,
rras restored in blood and honours, she was deprived of all the rich
possessions of her parents, niiich of which, including Sudelcy Castle,
was secured to himself l)y lier uncle the Marnuis of Northampton, but
fell again to the Crown upon his attainder for tlio share he took in the
cause of Lady Jane Grey. By Queen ISfary it was conferred upon
Sir John Bridges, who Avas created Lord Cliandos of Sudeley in lool,
from whom it descended to his grandson, Grey fifth Lord Chandos,
who died in 1621, leaving George liis son and heir an infant of a year
old. He becanie of ago upon the breaking out of the great rebellion,
and was very remarkable for his daring and valour in tlie cause of his
sovereign. Sudeley Castle was several times taken and retaken, and
was, at one period, the head cpuarters of the king, who, from " our
camp at Sudeley Castle," in 1648, addressed his famous letter to the
County of Cornwall. In the following year Sudeley was in the hands
of the rebels, and Lord Chandos, who had behaved with great loj^alty
and bravery throughout tlu^ war, most unexpectedly, and without any
apparent cause, surrendered himself to the Parliament. He was
deprived of liis seat in the House of Lords and comjielled to take the
National Covenant and Negative Oath, and tliough he was admitted
to compound for his estates Sudelej' Castle was not restored to him,
and in 1649 the Council of State ordered it to be "slighted," or
rendered untenable as a military post, and it was soon afterwards
entirely demolished. Lord Cliandos died in 1(!.35, of the small pox,
s.p.m., and was succeeded by his brother AVilliam, but the Sudeley
estate was settled upon Jane his relict, who, by a second marriage,
carried it to George Pitt, whose groat grand^on, in 1776, was created
Lord Eivers of Sudeley Castle.

In 1830 the bulk of the Sudeley estates became the property, by
purchase, of Messrs. John and William Dent, and subsequently they
acquired the castle and remainder of the land from the I)uke of
Buckingham. Through the taste and munificent liberality of the Dent
family, the Castle and Church of Sudeley have, from an almost
shapeless ruin, been restored to something like their former beauty
and grandeur, and Mrs. Dent concludes her annals by saying: " Here
I end my pleasant task, for pleasant it has been to gather up the
records of the past, and retrace AViiuhcombe and Sudelej^'s many
historic paths so often trodden with equal pleasure by those who have
gone before. Equal did I say ? Nay, that can never be ! for who
among them all have had the pleasure and the privilege of building
up the waste places, and seeing life and beauty creep like sunshine
once more over lier crumbling and fallen walls."

Mrs. Dent has exhibited in the compilation of her work, extensive
reading and a vast amount of research, and though we are unable,
wholly, lo agree in some of lier conclusions, and think the mass of
matter she has so industriously collected might have been somewhat
l)etter arranged, we arc gratified in being able to state that we have
read her interesting and superbly ilhistrated book with great satisfac-
tion, and consider it a very valuable and important contribution to local


Geohoe Buwx MiLLETT. Pcnzuuco : 15e;irc and Son.

The book hero printed embraces the period from 1-577 to about 17U0,
tliough some few leaves are missing, and, notwithstanding that the
parish of iNIadron, which is the mother parish of Penzance, was not of
so much consecjuence during- tlic period over wliich this liegister
extends as it lias since become b_y the raj) id growth and just popularity
of this the Madeira of England, the Parish Eegisters are of considerable
interest, and Mr. Millutt has executed his self-imposed task in a very
complete, conscientious, and satisfactory manner.

The volume is printed verbatim ct literatim, except that the constantly
occurring words, "was baptized," &:c. are omitted. Great care has
been taken to preserve the varying orthography of proper names. In
liis valuable preface Mr. ]\Iillett fully describes the MS. he prints,
which was stated by the vicar of the parish, more than half a century
ago, " to be decayed, worm-eaten, and perishing," since which time
it has sufiered much from damp, and still more from having been
entrusted to an ignorant and unskilful binder, who misplaced the
leaves and so ciaielly cut the edges as to destroy many of the entries.
Mr. Millett also mentions in his preface many unusual Christian names
which occur in the Pegister, and points out that there is now a
tendency to disguise the sound of ( -^ornish names in such a manner
that we (Cornishmeu) do not know them with their " foreign ring,"
and he states, what is worth knowing, that, as a rule, in all Cornish
names the accent is laid upon the second syllable in words of two
syllables, and on the next to the last on words of more than two.

Besides printing the Pegisters Mr. Millett has added an appendix
containing a largo collection of the most important and interesting
monumental inscriptions in the church ; a list of the incumbents of the
benefice from the middle of the thirteenth century to the present time ;
and extended transcripts of various original documents in the Public
Pecord Olhce, relating to the parish ; and he has also supplied, that
which greatlj^ enhances the value of a work of this kind, a very full

Mr. ]\I.illett deserves the thanks of all mIio take an interest in
Cornish genealogy, and we heartily wish that his book may have such
a sale as to compensate him for the time and trouble he has bestowed
upon it, so that he may be encouraged to undertake to edit and publish
in the same manner the Pegisters of some other Cornish parish.

^I'djiPOlogical lutflligrncr.

The remarkable discovery of a Roman castrum at Templeborougli
lias been so well described by Mr. W. TJiompsoii Watkiu in a letter
to the Sheffield Indeijendent that o'e gladly reproduce his observations
for our readers : —

" The uncovering of a Roman castruin at Templeborougli is an event
which should create the deepest interest amongst the antiquaries of
Sheffield and its neighbourhood. For my OAvn part I am quite
sensible that it will be the means of filling up a considerable hiatus
iu the map of Roman Britain. Beyond the fact of the existence of
an earthwork at Templeborougli, generally supposed to be Roman,
Anglo-Roman antiquaries knew absolutely nothing of interest in this
neighbourhood, with the exception of a few isolated discoveries of
coins, and the appearance of small fragments of Roman roads here
and there. The time has, however, arrived when these disjointed
fragments of roads can be connected, and an idea formed of their

"Having long studied Britanno-Romaii topography, I have been
asked for an opinion as to the Roman name of the newly discovered
castrum. With this request I will endeavour to comply, but my
answer must of necessity, at present, be confined to stating proba-
bilities. Nothing but further discoveries, especially of inscribed
stones, can fix the name with certainty.

" In the first place, then, I must at once say that the castruin at
Templeborough cannot be an Itinerary station. Every station named
in the Itinerary as being in this neighbourhood has been long since
identified. Nor does there aj)pear to be any station named in the
geography of Ptolemy which will correspond. There remain, there-
fore, the Nutitia Inqierii and Chorography of Ravennas to be consulted.
In the former there is this remarkable feature noticeable. Its author,
in describing each section of Britain, gives ihe names of the stations
either from north to south, or from east to west, and always gives the
cavalry stations separately (in the same order) excejit upon the line of
the great -nail, where he names the stations in regular succession. It
was upon this principle that iu the Arol/ceoloffical Journal, vol. xxviii,
p. 12t), I allotted the name Concangiuvi to the Roman (Station at Greta
13 ridge. In section Ixiii this author names first the three cavalry
stations under the command of the Duke of Britain, before naming
those garrisoned by infantry. The former are Fraesidium, garrisoned
hy t\io Uquiteti Dabnatanim ; JJanuni, garrisoned by the Equites Cris-
paniorum ; and Morbium, garrisoned by the Equiles CatapJiractariorum.
Now, where were these stations ? We know the site of one of them,
Dan urn, Avhich the Antoniue Itinerary proves to have been at Doucaster.
Of the other two, was one to the north of Doucaster, and the other to


tlie south; or Avas one to the east of it, and tlie other to the west?
Since the Templehorough discovery, I incline to the former hypothesis.
" The great station at Malton is known to have heen a cavalry station,
from an inscription on a tombstone found there, commemorating a
soldier of the Equitcs Sinrjulares. Some antiquaries have recently
given to it the name of the Dervenfio of the Itiuerar}^ from the fact of
its being situated on the river Derwent, but this is in total contradiction
to the Itinerary itself, which places Derventio at only seven miles from
York. This Derventio has generally been previously i)laced near
Stamford Bridge, but wherever it was, it appears to have been only a
small intermediate station or midatio, and cannot have been as far
from York as Malton is. I am inclined to consider Malton to be the
Prccsidium of the JSfotitia, esjiecially as the Emperor's body guard of
cavalry (Equites Sinffidarc^) were at one time stationed tliere. But
where was the station south of Doncaster, Jlorhium ? Was it at
Templeborough 't Singularly enough the great Ilorsley ( though
apparently on different grounds from those I have mentioned), in
his "Britannia Eomana," published one hundred and fortj'-fivo years
ago, placed it there ; and for the reasons above stated I am inchned to
think there is a prohahilit]! of the newly discovered castrum being the
site. The Equites Cata2:)hractariorum^\-\\o garrisoned i/o/•3/««^ were a
body of cavahy, clothed in armour from head to foot. They were
chielly Sarmatians, i.e., Poles, and their weapon was the spear or
lance. Their modern counterpart was to be found in the Polish
lancers serving in the armies of Napoleon I. Should an inscrii^tion
naming this corps be found during the excavations, no doubt can exist
as to the name of the castrum. Mr. Poach Smith has correctly read
the inscription on the tile discovered as Cfohors) IIII G(aUonun), but
this merely shows that it was the 4th Cohort of the Gauls which built
the fortress.

"There is, however, another view which may be taken as to the name
of the fortress, based upon the Chorography of Paveunas. This author,
apparently proceeding /VoCT east ^0 west, gives the names of the fol-
lowing stations between Lincoln and Manchester : — Bamwvalhun,
Navio, Aqua', Arnemeza, Zierdotalia. In the Archimlogical Journal,
vol. xxxiii, p. 54, I have shown, from the evidence of an inscription
on a Poman milestone found near Buxton, and mai-king eleven miles
from Naoio, that the station bearing that name was probably at
Brough, near Castleton, Derbyshire ; whilst as to the name of the next
station, Aqua (The AVaters), there is but one place in the neighbour-
hood to which it would apply — Buxton. There several Poman roads
centre, many Poman remains have been found, and the Poman baths
were only finally destroyed in the last century. The castrum at Brough
is a fine one, many Poman remains have been foimd, but it has never
been excavated. It is connected b}' a direct Poman road with Buxton.
But what of the station (Bannotallum) immediately preceding Kavio in
the Paveunas' list ? It must have been situated between Lincoln and
Brough. AVas it the castrum at T'empleborough ? Mr. J. D. Leader
has shown in his interesting lecture on "Poman Potherham" (and by
a study of the Ordnance Map, I can confirm his statement), that
Brough and Templeborough were connected by a Poman road, similar
to that between Brough and Buxton. There is here strong evidence
iu favour of JJannovulluin being the Pomau name of Templeborough.


The termiuatioii of tlio uauie, VaUuiii, (Wall), is siguifioaut when
viewed iu the light of the receut discoveries.

' ' It is therefore most proLable^that the name of the station at Temple-
borough was either Jlorhium or Jyannovallum, bnt the only certain
method of arriving at the right name will be l>y the discovery of an
inscription in the castrum itself giving us further particulars.

"The question may, however, arise, Wliy was not the station named
in the Itinerary ? To this it may be replied that, of tlie many stations
named in the Notitia, only toi occur in the Itinerary'. In fact, in
tracing some of the Iters, especially the first and second, we find some
very large walled stations existing, of which the Iters take no notice,
such as Eisingham, Lanchester, Pierse Bridge, and Greta Bridge.
Why was tliis ? fSimidy because these stations did not exist at the
time the Itinerary was compiled, circa a.d. 138-140, but were built by
Septimus Severus at the commencement of the third century. I have
dwelt upon this at some length in the Arclicvolof/ical Journal, vol. xxviii,
p. 121. The station at Templeborough ma}'^ have been built by
iSeverus, or possibly even existed at the date of the Itinerary, but as it
does not stand upon the route of any of the Itinera (like many other
Roman stations), until it yields its own history nothing can be said.

"In the meantime I would press upon those conducting the exca-
vations tlie importance of exploring the gateways. These were sur-
mounted by a slab bearing the name of the emperor reigning at the
time the fortress was constructed, the name of the imperial governor
of Britain for the time being, and the name of the cohort which erected
the buildings. These slabs have generally been found at other stations
either just inside the gateway or amongst the debris in the fosse in
front of it, and sometimes a little further on the opposite bank of the

" Such are a few of the suggestions Avhich have forced them-
selves upon my mind, when reading the account of the excavations
already made. I shall be glad to hear of further discoveries, which
certainly cannot fail to be most interesting."

Since the above remarks were written, a large building, colonnaded
on two sides, has been discovered ; the excavations are still pro-
ceeding, a portion of one of the gateways with the remains of a
guard-house have been laid bare, and more tiles inscribed C IIII G
have been found. Wo shall look forward with interest to further
communications from Mr. AVatkin on the subject.

Mil. Biriix, the author of " Kome and the Campagna," proposes, if
a sufficient number of subscribers can be found, to publish a relievo
map of Rome in embossed papier machc, shewing the configuration of
the site of the city and the course of the Tiber through it. The size
of the map will be '22 x 2.3 inches, and it will comprise the district
enclosed by the Aurelian walls and by those of the Trastevere and
the Vatican. Subscriptions, twenty-five shillings, will be received by
the Rev. R. Burn, 15, lirookside, Cambridge, up to the end of the
present year, when the list M'ill be closed.

^Iii. W. H. IIamiltox Rogers has published by subscription, in
medium quarto, price thirty- five shillings, "The Ancient Sepulchral
Eifigies and Monumental and Memorial Sculpture of Devon," from
12-50 to 1550, illustrated by engravings of about 100 ettigies and monu-
ments, with 280 smaller illustrations of brasses, details of costume,
badges, iuscriptions, iS:c. This comprehensive work was begun some


years ago, and forms a valuable addition to the history of this well
favoured count}'. With the exception of Yorkshire and Northampton-
shire no English county contains so large a number of monumental
effigies as Devonshire, and vre welcome their publication.

" The Miseheres" of Beverley Minster are in course of publication
by Mr. T. T. Wildridge in twelve parts, price eleven shillings each.
Subscriptions will bo received by the Author, Dock Co., Hull.

A New Archfrological Society for the South West of Scotland, with
the title of "The Ayrshire and Wigtonshire Archajological Associa-
tion," has been lately established under the presidency of the Earl of
Stair, for the purpose of publishing illustrated descriptions of the
Pre-historic and Medircval Eeniains in these counties, and printing
Early Charters and other Documents relating to the History and
Antiquities of the District.

So little appears to be known now about the artists. Price, who
restored the window in St. Margaret's Church (see vol. xxxiii, p. 4o4),
that we venture to give our reader? a copy of their modest advertise-
ment : —


" Whei*eas the ancient Art of Painting and Staining Glass has been
much discouraged, by reason of an Opinion generally received. That
the Eed Colour (not made in Europe for many years) is totally lost ;
These are to give Notice, that the said Red and all other Colours are
made to as great a degree of Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages
by William tmdJo.i/iua Price, Glasiers and Glass-Painters, near Ilatton-
Garden in Holborn, London ; where Gentlemen may have Church-
History, Coats of Arms, &c. Painted xipon Glass, in what colours they
please, to as great Perfection as ever ; and draws Sun-d3'als on Glass,
Wood or Stone, &,c., and cuts Crown Glass, with all sorts of ordinary
Glass, and performs all kinds of Glazing-work."

We have evidence that Joshua Price restored the painted windows
in Denton Church, near Bungay, iov Archdeacon Postlethwaite, in
1716-19, and like restorers of all periods, he appears to have been
more anxious to put in his own work than to reinstate the old glass.
Ho was nevertlieless described as '' the notest man for that art."


To the Editor of the Archccoloyical Journal.

Dear Sir, — In the "Journal" of the Archooolog-ical Association
(vol. xxxiii, part o) Mr. Irvine has made a friendly attack upon me

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