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on the subject of " Wide-jointed and Eine-jointed Masonry." I have
long been accustomed to consider this to be a distinguishing feature
between the eleventh and twelfth century, according to the words of
AVilliam of Malmesbur}'-, wlio wrote in the early part of the twelfth
century, and in describing the buildings of Roger, Bishop of Salisbury,
the greatest bviilder of his time, sa3^s, the walls were so admirably
built that they appeared to he all of one stone, clearly showing that the
writer was not accustomed to see fine-jointed masonr}'. Prof. Willis
also showed the members of the Institute the same thing in his lectures
at Canterbury and at Winchester, especially the latter, where the outer
walls of the transepts, whicli are of the eleventh centur}', are all wide-
jointed, and the parts rebuilt with tlie central tower, after it fell upon
the body of William Eufus, and therefore early twelfth century, are
fine-jointed. I have found the same thing in scores of other instances
both in England and in Normandj'-, where I was generally accompanied
by M. G. Bouet, who made me drawings of them, and we had an
Itinerary given to us by the late ]\I. Arcisse de Caumont, my mucli
valued friend for many years, and the best Norman anticpiary of his
day. I was the first to give this clue to them, and they verified it on
many occasions witli the French Archreological Societ}^, especially in
the two celebrated aVjbey churches at Caen, which they examined with
much care, and ascertained by means of the jointing of the masonry
tliat the vaults and clerestoreys are additions of the latter half of the
twelfth century ; they originally had flat wooden ceilings as at Peter-
borough. It is therefore evident that this is a useful distinction
between early Norman and late Norman buildings, and these are usually
the one of the eleventh century, the other of the twelfth.

Nevertheless, Mr. Irvine has proved his point as far as it goes ; but
none of the buildings that he cites are Norman ; they are all of the style
or type usually called Anglo-Saxon, and the buildings of this hind aie
more often of the eleventh century than any other period. The Norman
Conquest made no immediate change of style of building in England.
For a generation after that to the end of the eleventh century there
was an ororUtppiny of the .styles ; the Norman had been introduced into
England he/ore the Concpiest by Edward tlie Confessor at Westminster
(as we can still see by the remains of his buildings), but this was the
tietv fashion; many old f/shioned people continued to build in the stjde
of their fathers; perhaps the Saxon prejudice against the Normans
added t ) this old fashion. It is certain that many of the buildings
called Anglo-Saxon are of the time of the Conquest, or oven later.
The churches in the lower town at Lincoln are well known examples ;


tlipy arn strictly of the Ang'lo-8axon typo, tlioiig-li Imilt aft or tlio
Conquest. A larg'o jtroportion of tliis class of l)uil(liiigs is in the
eastern counties, wlilch were tlie Danes' land in the eleventh century,
and tliere is every prohability that when the Danes first became
( 'hristians they were very zealous churcli huilflers, and followed the
example set hy the King Oaniito (or C'uut), who ordered a stone
church to be built where a wooden one had been burnt in his wars,
at Asliington in Essex. But the truth must be acknowledged tliat
to call the styles of architecture by the names of the centuries, though
very convenient, and in the main correct, is sometimes misleading, and
is so in this instance. The width of the joints is a useful distinction
]>etween early and late Norman buildings ; but a large proportion of
the building.? of the eleventh century in England are not Norman, and
the distinction does not ajiply to the Anglo-Saxon buildings.

Eormerl}', it is true, I did not acknowledge that there was any
Aiifflo-Sd.t'O/i sfi/Ie. but I am not ashamed to acknowledge that further
observation during the last forty years has made me see that this was
an error, tin. ugh the best informed people of that time agreed with
me, and considered all these pre-Normau buildings as debased Eoman
onl}'. Itickman and his friends considered these buildings to be hffore
the year 1000, and overlooked the eleventh century altogether, which
was a very important building era.' The best authorities in foreign
countries consider that the debased Iioman continued to the year 1000,
and after that time the national characters began to be introduced, and
this seems to be equally the case in England. In the (\arly part of the
eleventh centuiT tlie buildings were usually small, rude and cliunsy ;
but a rapid inq)rovement was going on hcforr \\\e Norman ( 'onquest,
and was stopped by the introduction of the Norman style in England,
b'lt not so iu (rermany for a much longer period.

Your obedient Servant.


Oxford, Nov. 22, 1877.

' Son Viollft 1p Due, •• Diftionnairc Inral Styles," translated by "S\' f'oUett-
(le rArohiteetin-e,'' tnr Franco, and Sandais, for Oermanv.
Roseng-arton, '' IlandlirHilv- i>f Aiehiti e-

(l\)t 9(vfl)CFalagical 3founial,

JUNE, 1877.



The authorities for the history of the memorable Siege
of Colchester, in the summer of 1G48, are not, on the
whole, so complete as those for some of the other great
events during the Parliamentary War. The only eye-
witness who has told tlie story in anything like satisfac-
tory detail is Matthew Carter, the Quarter -Master-
General of the insurgent forces, under the command of
the Earl of Norwich. He, of course, gives an account of
the siege from the point of view of his own side. The
people of Colchester have a very different story to tell,
which is condensed into the curious tract entitled " Col-
chester's Teares." This tract, with its quaint title, was
re-printed in 1843 by Mr. W. Wire, of this town. Three
tracts, describing separate events in the siege, will be
found among the King's Pamphlets in the British Museum.
The particulars of the siege, from the Parliamentary jDoint
of view, may be gathered from the pages of Pushworth,
and some additional facts of importance from the Tanner
MSS., from letters in the Fairfax Correspondence, and
from Lord Fairfax's own short memorial. The real searcher
after truth will confine himself to these contemporaneous
sources of information. I fear that it is too frequently the
case that Goldsmith or Hume are the authorities of those
who form and express opinions on events of the Civil
War, If we desire to do justice to both sides— to the
besiegers as well as to the besieged— we must banish from
our minds all political bias ; the two sides must be to us,
not Royalists and Poundheads, but the forces of Lord
VOL. XXXIV (No 131). Q


Norwich and Lord Fairfax, botli ruled by the practices of
civilized warfare — both enjoyiiig the privileges, and
subject to the recognised penalties, of martial law.

In order to understand the positure of afiiairs when tlie
siege commenced, it will be well to cast a glance at events
which immediately preceded it. Essex had, with the
other associated counties, escaped almost entirely from
the misery of being the theatre of war. Tlie mass of the
people and many of the chief men, such as Sir Thomas
Honywood, Sir Harbottle Grimston, and others, had
taken the side of the Parliament, and the King's jDarty
had never succeeded in making any head in the county.
The citizens of Colchester were staunch Parliament men,
and made short work of the Royalist leanings of the Lucas
family, which had hitherto possessed considerable influ-
ence in the tov/n. In 1G44 the zealous townsmen seized
upon Lord Lucas, destroyed his house on St. John's
Green, and even broke open the ftunily vault. Tliis
family of Lucas had been much connected with Colchester
for nearly a century. John Lucas, the Town Clerk,
])ought the site of St. John's Abbey after the dissolution,
and his son, Sir Tliomas Lucas, was Recorder of Colchester
in 1575. The grandson of John Lucas, also Sir Thomas,
had fiur children, the eldest born before marriage. The
rest were, John, created Baron Lucas Ijy Charles [ in
1G44, whose heiress, Mary, married the Earl of Kent, aiul
is the ancestress of the present C'Ountess Cowper and
Baroness Lucas; Sir diaries Lucas, whose name is in-
dissolubly connected with the siege of Colchester ; and
Margaret, the literary and eccentric Duchess of New-
castle. With the exception of the Lucas family and a few
others, Colchester and the county generally were for the
Parliament ; and, before the insinrection l:)roke out in
Kent, in the spring of 1041, it was supposed that the
arbitrament of battle liad been decided, and that peace
had been restored to tlie country. The question had been
fully fought out and settled.

In calling the men v/ho disturbed this settlement, and
renewed tlie disturbances, insurr/cnf.'^, T use the word in
no disparaging sense. I simply wish to express a fact,
and to make a clear distinction between tliem and the
l)ellig6rents of the war that had come to an end. This


was a new insurrection. The outbreak in Kent was
promptly suppressed by Lord Fairfax, but there were
plots in other parts of the country, and the time of
C/olchester's sufferino- liad arrived. Hitherto the war
clouds had kept clear of Essex, but now, at the last
moment, they burst suddenly and fiercely over its chief
city. There was little warning. It was not until the
middle of J\Iay, 1G48, that the tumults broke out in
Kent, and in the beginning of June the Earl of Norwich,
beaten and baffled, fled across the Thames and made his
way into Essex. At Chelmsford he was joined by Lord
Capel, Lord Loughborough, Sir Charles Lucas, Sir George
Lisle, and Col. Farre, witli reinforcements, collected in
Hertfordsliire and Essex ; and here ten Parliamentary
Commissioners were seized as hostages. On the lOth
of June, 1G48, Lord Norwich marched from Chelmsford
at the head of 4,000 men. This was on a Saturday.
Late in the afternoon of the following Monday they
approached tliis city by the Lexden road, and found the
gate closed, and a body of armed citizens drawn up across
the road. Sir Charles Lucas, with the advanced guard,
galloped forward, followed by the main body, forced his
way through the obstructing citizens, killed one of them,
and then the gates were thrown open. The intention of
the insurgent leaders was only to remain at Colchester a
day or two, and then to march into the Midland Counties,
where they hoped to receive reinforcements. But the
rapid approach of Fairfax made them alter their plans.
They conceived it would be impossible to continue their
march with so active an enemy in their rear, and resolved
to stand a siege. This decision was fatal to their cause.
All the leaders of the insurrection were thus entrapped,
and the prolongp^tion of the siege only added to the
suflerings of the people, without in any way rendering
the prospects of the insurgent leaders more hopeful. In
a military point of view, the decision to await the result
of a siege was a gross blunder. A retreat to the Midland
Counties, even if ending in a hurried flight, would have
been wiser.

George Goring, the old Earl of Norwich, was a man of
wit, and Avas excellent company. But he was no general;
had been abroad with the Queen during the greater part


of the civil war, and had little military experience. Nor
were his officers able to supply the deficiencies of their
chief. Capel was an honourable and chivalrous nol^lenian,
who had joined the insurrection at the urgent request
of the King. He had seen some service in the West
Country ; and Lord Loughborough headed a regiment of
" blue coats " at Naseby. But neither had ever shown
any capacity for command. Sir Charles Lucas had served
for a short time in the Low Countries, and was at the sack
of Breda. " Thouo-h brave and a cjallant man to follow in
battle, he was at all other times of a nature not to be lived
with, rough and proud, and of an ill understanding. He was
a mere soldier, unfit for any society but that of the guard
room." At least so says Clarendon, and we gather much
the same account from his sister. Yet as a soldier he had
always failed. Beaten and taken prisoner at Marston
Moor, he made a weak and unintelligent defence of
Berkeley Castle ; and was again beaten and taken prisoner
at Stow-in-the-Wold, on the 23rd of March, 1G4G. He
then gave his parole of honour never again to take arms
against the Parliament until regularly exchanged. Sir
George Lisle, judging from his antecedents, was the best
officer in Colchester. He was knighted for his gallantry
at Newbury, and led a brigade at Naseby with some
ability, where he was wounded, being afterwards taken
prisoner at Leicester. Clarendon says of him that to his
fierceness and courage he added the softest and most
gentle nature imaginable. Subsequently he was Governor
of Farringdon, and surrendered that town on the same
terms as Oxford, on June 24th, 1G4G, the officers under-
taking never again to serve againsfc the Parliament.

With reference to the events after the surrender of
Colchester, it must be borne in mind that Sir Chas. Lucas
and Sir George Lisle had given their words of honour, the
former at Stow-in-the-Wold on the 23rd of March, and
the latter at Farringdon on the 24th of June, 1G4G, not
again to take up arms against the Parliament. They
had deliljerately })roken faith, and received the punishment
which, by the laws of civilized warfare, now, as then, was
due to such an offence. Moreover they were acting in
this way, witli their eyes open to the consequences.
Early in June, when Lord Fairfax was at Canterbury,


he distinctly excepted men who had broken their parole
of honour from any amnesty. Later in the same month
he directly warned Lucas, by letter, that he had forfeited
his honour, being a prisoner on parole, and, therefore,
was not capable of trust in martial affairs. Lucas could
not deny the fact. The excuse he made was, that
he had compounded for his estates since he gave his
parole. But this act was merely to enable him, by pay-
ment of a fine, to retain his possessions, on condition that
he lived peaceably under the new order of things. It was
an agreement with the civil power, and in no way released
him from his military obligations.

Another leader was Colonel Farre, who was a deserter
from the Parliamentary army. The other leading officers
of insurgents were Bernardo Guasconi, a foreign adven-
turer ; Sk William Compton with the remains of the
Kentish fugitives ; and Colonels Slingsly, Culpepper,
Tilly, Tuke, and Bard. Matthew Carter was the quarter-
master-general and liistorian of the siege. The garrison,
thus assembled, numbered 3,400 foot and GOO cavalry, in
all, 4,000 fighting men. The ten Parliamentary Commis-
sioners captured at Chelmsford were retained as prisoners,
to he made use of as occasion might suggest.

At the outset. Lord Norwich had the advantagfe of a
large superiority in numl^ers, and a very strong position.
Standmg on the summit and side of a steep hill, looking
to the north and east, with the river Cohie making a
circuit round its northern and eastern side, Colchester is
a place of considerable natui-al strength. The walls were
then complete, forming a parallelogram Mdiich enclosed
118 acres. They were, and what remains of them are,
seven to eight feet thick, of large flints imbedded in lime,
with several courses of Koman bricks, the whole having
become, in the course of centuries, one solid mass. In the
centre of the western v^all there was, and still is, a semi-
circular bastion, called the hallvn ; in which was the
principal inn of Colchester in those days, with the sign of
the " King's Head." The north wall, running along the
base of the hill, and facing the Colne, was of the same
massive character ; and the eastern wall had small semi-
circular flanking towers, intended for musketeer or for
light ordnance. The south wall also appears, from the


plan in Cromwell's " Hi.stoiy of Colchester," to liave had
flanking towers. A ditch was carried along the swampy
meadows at the foot of the north wall, and up the \vestern
hill side.

There were four gates and three ])osterns in the walls of
Colcliester. Near the western corner of the south wall,
at the end of Head street, was the Head Gate, whence a
lane turning sharp to the west, called Crouch street, leads
to the London road over Lexden common. In about the
centre of the south wall was the Sclterde Gate Postern,
whence a lane led to St. John's Gate House. Near the
east end of the south wall was St. Botolplis Gate, which
opened on to Magdalen street, and the road to the Hy the.
In the centre of the east wall, at the end of High street,
was East Gate, whence the road, crossing the river by a
bridge, led to Ipswich. In the north Avail were the North
Gate at the foot of the steep North Hill, and the Hye Gate
Postern, leading to a ford over the Colne, near a water mill
called King's or Middle Mill. There was also a postern in
the west wall, opening on St. Mary's Churchyard. On the
highest part of the town, overhanging the west wall, is
the Church of St. Mary's ad muros, with a strong square
tower of the same materials as the town walls themselves,
havinof massive buttresses at its ano-les. The old castle
is some distance within the walls, and therefore did not
come within the plan of the defences.

The defenders were strong enough to occupy the exten-
sive ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of St. John's, outside
the Scherde Gate Postern, and the ruined house of Lord
Lucas. They also held the Hythe, the port of Colchester,
and fortified St. Leonard's Church there. They had time
to scour the surrounding country, and bring in stores of
provisions ; besides securing large supplies at the Hythe.
But Fairfax was not a man to let the grass grow under
his feet. He was close at their heels. On Sunday, the
11th of June, the day after they left Chelmsford, he
crossed the Thames at Gravesend, and advanced to Brent-
wood. Leaving the main body to follow, he then galloped
across the county to Coggeshall with an escort of ten men,
where he found Sir Thomas Honywood at the head of
2000 Essex Volunteers. He was reinforced by Colonel
Whalley's regiment, and on the 13th, only a day after the


arrival of Lord Norwich in Colchester, Lord Fakfax
inarched across Lexden Common, and summoned the he-
sieofed to surrender.

A large body of Suftolk Volunteers had occupied Ney-
land bridge, and the other j^asses over the river Stour, to
oppose any attempt of the besieged to escape northwards.
For the siege Lord Fairfax eventually had four troops of
horse, under Major Desljorough, six troops under Colonel
Whalley, five troops under Major Coleman, three troops
under Commissary General Ireton, and two troops of dra-
goons, in all about 1,200 cavalry. His foot consisted of
a complete regiment of ten companies, commanded by
Colonel Barkstead, seven companies under Colonel Need-
ham, some companies of Ligoldsby's regiment, and half a
regiment led by ^Vdmiral Kainsborougli. On the 18th,
Colonel Eure arrived from Chepstow^ with four companies.
This brought up the ninnber of regular infantry to nearly
3,000 men, besides the Essex and Suftolk Volunteers.

Thus commenced the siege of Colcliester, wliich lasted
from the 13tli of June to the 28th of Auo-ust, an interval
of 75 days. It may conveniently be divided into three
periods : — -

1st, the period duiing wliieh Fairfax was taking up his
positions froin June 13th, when he summoned the to^^^l,
to July Gth, wdien tlie besieged made their great sortie l)y
the East Gate.

2nd, from July Gth to July 20th, when all the outposts
of the besieged were driven in.

3rd, the period of the close blockade, from July 20tli to
August 28th.

l.sf Period. Tahnfj up Positions.

June l3fA to July 10th.

On the Kith of June, after Lord Norwich had refused
to surrender, the advanced brigade consisting of the regi-
ments of Needham and Barkstead, with Whalley 's horse,
and some Essex Volunteers, assaulted the Head Gate
with great fury. The defenders, gallantly led by Colonel
Farre, the deserter, came down Crouch Street to defend
the approaches, and there was a fierce hand-to hand fioht
which lasted several hours. The besieged had occupied
ground called Sholand and Borouc/hjield^ hut at last they


were driven back, and retreated within the Scherde Gate
Postern, and the Head Gate, closely followed by Bark-
stead's men. There was a desperate struggle to close the
Head Gate, Lord Capel bravely leading on his men on
foot, pike in hand, and he fastened the gate for the
moment with his own cane. It was late at night before
the action was over, when several hundred slain were left
under the walls. Among those who fell was that gallant
Yorkshii'eman, Colonel Needham, the companion of Fair-
fax at Selby and Marston Moor, and in many a hard
fought skirmish beyond Trent.

After a careful reconnaissance, and taking into conside-
ration the formidable defences and tlie great numerical
strength of the besieged. Lord Fairfax resolved to take
the place by a regular siege. He, therefore, fixed his
head-quarters at Lexden, and commenced the besieging
works by throwing up an earthwork in the Sholand, facing
St. Mary's Church, which was named Essex Fort. His
plan was first to open ground along the west side of the
town, from Essex Fort to the Ptiver Colne near the North
Bridge, and then to occupy points along the left bank of
the Piver, and on the south side of the town, finally
closing in on all sides. After completing Essex Fort,
Lord Fairfxx steadily continued his siege operations,
breaking fresh ground every night, and running his
trenches from one small sconce or redoubt to another,
until he had completely closed up all approaches to the
town on the west side, between the Lexden Poad and
the river.

The besieged certainly showed great want of enterprise
in not coming out and giving Ijattle to the Ijesiegers
before the arrival of Colonel Eure and other reinforce-
ments. After the General had been ten days before the
town, the Colony of Flemisli hay and say makers, which
had been established at Colchester in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, petitioned to have free trade with London
during the siege. Fairfax, always anxious to mitigate
the evils of war, considerately agreed to allow these
industrious cloth workers to hold a market on Lexden
Heath, \\ith freedom to sell or take their goods back, as
the case might be.

On the 20th June the works on the west side were


completed, and o]>erations were commenced against tlie
north and south walls. Colonel Eure crossed the Colne
near a hamlet called The Shepen, and threw up a work in
front of the North Bridge, called Fort Ingoklshy. Fort
Ralnshorongh was next thrown up, ojjposite the ford at
Middle Mill. The hesiegers thus gained a footing on the
left bank of the river, Avhere they were joined hy 2,500
Suffolk Volunteers, who encamj^ed on Mile End Heath.
At the same time Colonel Barkstead was ordered to throw
up a redoubt across the road to Maldon, facing the Head
Gate ; and here the defenders made desperate attempts
to hinder the works. On the 26th they sallied out in
force, but were driven back beyond their own guard house,
where the liour glass for setting their watches was cap-
tured, and carried oft in triumph. By the end of the
month Lord Fairfax v\^as strong enough to extend his
operations and occupy the chief positions on the left bank
of the Colne ; and on the 1st of July Colonel Whalley
took Greenstead Cliurch, opposite the Hythe, and erected
a battery in the chm'chyard. The Suffolk volunteers also
seized 'a water mill at East Bridge.

'2nd Period. Drlvimj in of the Outposts.
Jidij 6th to Jidy 20th.

Lord Norwich now found himself nearl}' surrounded,
and, in consultation with his officers, a great sally was
resolved upon from the East Gate. Accordingly, on the
Gth of July, Sir George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas, with
200 foot and 500 horse, marched out of the East Gate and
down the long hill to the bridge. The Suffolk men fired
upon them from behind a breastwork at the bridge head
as they advanced, but their jDosition was carried by a rush,
and Lucas led his men across the rivei', some running over

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