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brass represented him in armour without a helmet, his
head resting on a bull's head couped, in a coronet, (his
crest)^ with a Latin inscription, part of which was as
follows :

Thomas Bracbtone, Walter Poole, Burgh iucle Johannes,

His militibus heres fuit ille venustus,

Sponsavit Comitis de Wyrceter ille sororem

Anno milleno qiiater et CCCC quoc^ue deno

Ecce dies bina Septembris quando trina,

Militis hujis erat.''

He died 145G.

Tlic arms of Burali of Bureli Green were Aro'ent, on a



1 Ciough and Blomcficlil. - Bloinclicld, vii, 127.

aiy. paper, Kutlitrfurth Cull. pcuc8 me (11. Gfougli).



DE BURGH AND INGOLDSTlJOKrE. 127

fes.s indented, sable, three bezants ; and those of Iiigolds-
thorpe, Gules, a cross engrailed, ai'gent. The dra^ving in
the College of Arms shows this brass, with the arms on a
bainier, and also those of Neville, Waldegrave, Engain,
Cromwell, Bradstone, De la Pole, and France and England.

Gough adds to his account that Mr. Waterton of Walton
Hall, Yorkshire, (a name since well known 'to a-nti(|uaries
and naturalists) is one of the heirs general of this family,
which expired in codreiresses, one of whom married Sir W.
Assenhall, and the heiress of Assenhall married Waterton,
temp. Henry VI, who, on the division of tlie Burgh
property, had the manor of Walton. (See Pedigree.)

There are stones in the Chancel at Burgh Green to the
following persons : — Anthony Gage, D.D., rector, died 15
December, 1G30 ; Anns — 1, a saltire ; 2, two birds
(swans ?) ; 3, three bulls' heads, couped ; 4, two birds'
claws and legs in saltire. Vv illiam Wedge, died 29tli
April, 1850, aged 21. Mary Ann, wife of Rev. C.
Wedge, rector, died 20th June, 1863, aged 75. Rev.
Charles Wedge, G9 years rector, born 9tli September,
1780, died 28th March 1875. In the Nave :— Richard
Holt, gent., servant to Sir John Gage, Knight, and Sir
Anthony Gage, Knight, his son, both lords of the manor ;
died about Gth March, 1G37, in his 77th year, leaving his
master, Sir Anthony Gage, his sole executor.



128



DE BURGH AND INGOLDSTHORPE.



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BRITANNO EOMA.N INSCEIPTIONS DISCOYERED IN 1876.

By W. THOMPSON WATKIN.

Carrying out the plan which I first proposed to the late
Mr, Albert Way, who strongly advised its being put into
practice, I now publish the first of an annual series of
papers on the discoveries of Britanno Roman inscriptions
during each year.

The late year (187G) has not, with the exception of the
great "find" at Frocolitia, been very prolific of discoveries
of this nature. The first one, with which I am acquainted,
took place near the site of the Roman station at South
Shields, where, on the 1 9th and 20th February, several
tombs were exhumed, formed of stone slabs, on ground
belonging to Mr. James Pollard, near the end of Bath
street, — which contained bones, &c. Near to these was
found a portion of a Roman tombstone bearing an inscrip-
tion. All that could be deciphered was

D. M.
IV

the rest being worn away.

At Charterhouse on Mendip, two inscribed pigs of lead
were found, the first in June, and the second in July.
The first bore on its upper surface the inscription

IMP VESPASIAN AVa.

On the side was also the following inscription : —

BRIT. EX. ARG. VE.

The length of the pig was ]ft. Sin. ; its width at the
base C) inches, and at the top 5 inches — the slope from the
inscribed upper side to the base 6 inches, and the weight
about 143lbs. This is the first pig of lead found entire,
bearing the name of Vespasian on/y. In the others the
name of Titus also occurs. We learn from this that the
date of the pig is early in the reign of Vespasian, l)etween



BRITANNO-ROMAN TNSCIlirTIONS. 131

A.D. 69 and a.d. 71, in whicli last year Titus became
associated with his father in the empire. The abbrevia-
tion VE has not before occurred on any of these pigs.
Dr. McCaul proposes, for the last three words, the expan-
sion ex arg(entaria) ve(na) which is probably correct.
The second pig found in July was of similar weight and
size to the other, but was only inscriljed

IMP. VESPASIANI AVG.

i.e., Impevatoris Vesjxisiani Augustl.

In tlie metropolis, during the demolition of some old
houses in Camomile street in October, a portion cf the
Rjman wall of London and a bastion were laid bare.
Built up into the wall were many interesting sculptured
fragments, and a fragment of an inscribed stone, but un-
fortunately the only letters visible on it were

Y

F.v

M

Whilst pursuing his researches at Carrawburgh, (Pvo-
colitia) during the summer, Mr. Clayton unearthed the
upper portion of a small altar inscribed

MAT
KIEV

S. Co.



and has probably read when entire Matrihus Coli(ors) I.

Batavorum, C(ni) F(raeest) V(otum) Sfolvit)

L(ihens) M(erito). Two small fragments of inscribed
slabs were also found, but the lettering was too faint to be
legible.

In the month of October Mr. Clayton commenced the
excavation of a small well or reservoir, about 150 yards
distant from the western rampart of Procolitia, and
which had been noticed since the days of Horsley (1732).
It was lined with massive masonry, measuring inside
8ft. 6in. by 7ft. 9in., and was a little over 7ft. in depth.
Horsley describes it as being filled with rubbish, nearly
to the surface, but the water risinaf in it was " a e'ood
spring.

A few years ago owing to some mining operations in a
lead mine about two miles distant, the spring and a
rivulet flowing from it suddenly disappeared.

VOL. XXXIY. T



132 P.RITANNO- ROMAN INSCRirXIONS,

Within a foot of the surface, the excavator came upon
a mass of copper corns of the lower Empire spread over
the whole surface. " Part of a human skull, the concave
part upwards, was found here filled with coins." Im-
mediately underneath were a numljer of small altars, with
broken bowls of 8amian ware and o-lass ; also bones of
animals.

At three feet in depth were found two ornamental in-
scribed eai'thenware vases, and the coins had reached the
period of the higher Empire ; with them was a sculptured
stone representing three water nymphs ; below this were
more altars, vases, brooches, rings, dice, mixed with
quantities of coins, continuing to the very bottom, and at
the bottom was a large inscrilDed votive tablet. The
earliest coin was one of Claudius, a.d. 42. Many
thousands of them were secured by Mr. Clayton, but
visitors attracted to the spot carried away several
thousands moi-e. They were considerably corroded with
the exception of about sixty of Hadrian and Antoninus
Pius, which seemed quite new, and had been preserved
in the clay at the bottom of the well. The coins of these
emperors greatly preponderated amongst those of the
higher Empire, and from their newness seemed to prove
that the deposit commenced at that period. The coins of
Claudius, Nero Vespasian, &c., seemed considerably worn.
The deposit extended as late as the reign of Gratianus,
and embraced three gold coins and a few score of silver
ones. Those of the Constantino family and of Gratianus,
&c., were at the upper surface of tlie deposit, and on each
side of the votive tablet at the bottom was found a small
altar. Twenty-four altars in all were found, of which
eleven bore inscripti(.)ns. Two vases and tlie votive
tablet were also inscribed. The inscriptions were as
follows : —



(1) (^) {■')

T> I E C ( ) V E D E A E C O D E A E N I M

N T r N F. A V E TINE Ci R F A E COVEN

V li E L I V S O T V S V T L 15 T I N E Jt A D

G R T ^' S E 8 S L V I P R O V H V S . G E R M

GERMAN MS^ TO S . P R O . SEET S V

V S L M



BRIT ANNO -ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS.



133



D E A E C
y E N T I N E
COHICVBE
li N O R V 31

A V R C

EST

VI

(7)
DIEM
I N E R
VE VE
NICO
PRS
POSS

(10)
D E A E C O V ^' E N

TINE V

N V V S V



V Y.



. . .1
MU



COVE
T I N A . A
G V S T A



(5)
U E C N Y E
NT

O V T I C II
GERMAN



(8)

D 1 1 A 1 1

COXVENTI

N A E B E L L I C Y S

^' . S . L . M . P



(11)
CO



(13)
V O T V
MAX
I * Y S S Y



(6)
DEAE.SANCT
COYONTIXE
VIXCEXTIYS
PRO SALYTE SVA
Y . L . L . M . D



(^)
DAIICOA'EN
T N O M A T I

A^S A'SLM



(12)
PEAE
C Y Y E N T I X A E
T.D COSCOXIA
NYS PR COH
1. BAT. LM



S AT Y
RX I
X YS



(H)



C Y I



S A



T Y



XI



FECIT
G A *I
X I Y S



G A
^ IX



I Y

S



Of these I would read No 1 as Dc(a)e Coventine
Aurelius G)utU6 German{us) : 'To the goddess Coveiituia
AureUus Grotus a German.'

No. 2 I read, Deae Coi'c(n)tiitc (Jrotus V(o)t{it)u)

L{i)he{n)s S{o)lri{t) Fro the close of the mscrip-

tion being obliterated, though it was probably Se et Suis :
' To the goddess Coventina Grotus willingly performs his
vow for (himself and his).' Mr. Clayton reads the end of
the third and commencement of the fourth lines as Utihes
and the remainder as S{oIvit I{ibens) i'{otiom) pro [salute).
It will, I think, at once be seen, that this is an error. The
dedicator is doubtless the same person named in No. 1,
Aurelius Grotus.

No. 3 has one or two peculiarities. I read it as Deae
Nimfae (for Nymphae) Coventine Madwnus, Germianus)
Po6((uit) pro se et su{is) V(otuin) S{olvit) L{ibens) M(erito).



134 BRTTANNO-ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS.

Ill English ' To the goddess Nymph Coventina, Madunus,
a German, places (this) for himself and his (family). He
j^erforms his vow willingly to a deserving object.'
Nimfae frequently occui's in epigraphy as an abl3reviation
for Nijmpliae. Mr. Clayton reads the name of the
dedicator as Ma{iillus) Duhus. I think that there is
little doubt of his name being Madunus, especially as we
find the name gamidianvs spelt as gamidiahvs in
an inscription at Birrens, in Dumfriesshire, where the
first cohort of the Germans were stationed.

No. 4 I think should be read as Deae Coventine Coli(ori>)

I CugeDiorum Aiir(eliana) C{ui) {Prae)est Mr.

Clayton does not venture upon a reading beyond the
word Cugernorum, which in the original is erroneously
spelt as Cubernorum. The only other known inscription
left by this cohort in Britain is on a milestone found on
the line of the Antonine wall. From the Malpas and
Biveling diplomas we find, that it was m Britain in a.d.
103 and in a.d. 124. The discovery of this inscrijDtion
seems to enable us to give the true reading of part of the
inscription on the altar to Minerva found at the same
station in 1875. {ArchcBoJogicalJournal, vol. xxxiii p. 34).

No. 5 appears to be De[ae) Conventine. Optio

Cohiprtis I) German{orum). As Aurelius Grotus and
Madunus are described as Germans, they probably be-
longed to this cohort, of which we also find traces at
BuTens, (as I have said previously), at Netherby, and
near Bowness, on the wall of Hadrian.

No. 6 is plainly Deae Sanctae Covontine Vincentius
2)ro salute sua v{otum) l(aetiis) l(ibe)is) m[erito) d(icavit).

No. 7 is somewhat obscure at its termination. The
commencement is Deae Minevvae Venico; the next lines
may be read as j)^'o salute The last line is pos{tiit) but
the s after it, unless again followed by v (as Mr. Clayton
considers it to be) is puzzling.

No. 8 reads plainly Deae Conventinae BelUcus V[otum)
Siolvit) L^iheiis) M(erito) P{osuit). The use of two I's
for E is common. .The name of the dedicator " Bellicus "
occurs on an altar found at Tretire, Herefordshire,
(Hlibner, No. 163).

No. 9 is D{e)ae Covcnt(inae) Nomatius V{otum)
S{olvU) L(ibens) M{erito). Mr, Clayton gives the dedi-
cator's name as Nomatcus.



BRITANNO-ROMAN IXSCRIPTIONS. 135

No, 10 can only be read as far as the middle of the
second Ime — i.e., Deae Covventine.

No. 11 is still more obliterated, D{eae) Co(ventinae),
being; all that is visible.

No. 1 2, wliich is on the large votive tablet fbmid at the
bottom of the well, is plain, and reads Deae Covventinae
T(itus) D{omitivs) Cosconianus, Pr{aefectus) Coh{ortis)
I Baticivoriun) Liihens) m{erito). The first cohort of the
Batavians by inscriptions and the Notitia hst, appear to
have been for several centuries at ProcoUtia.

No. 13 occm-s on one of the vases in four compartments,
and the lettering is very rude. The second letter in the
third line of the second compartment and the third letter
in the second line of the fourth compartment are identical,
and seem hke an s reversed, with the lower extremity
widened into a leaf shaped form, which Dr. Hiibner,
to whom a copy of the inscription was sent, reads as b.
Dr. Hiibner reads the whole as Covetina A{v)gusta Votu
Manihus Su{is) Saturninus Fecit Gablnius, and thus
makes the vase to be dedicated by Saturninus Gabinius,
and to be the work of his own hands. The chief objection
to this is, the interpolation of fecit between the two proper
names, but which ever way the inscription is read there
appears to be a difficulty. Possibly this is as good a
reading as can be obtained, but I am not satisfied with
it, or with my own as pubhshed in the Newcastle Daily
Chronicle, Dec. 27th, 1876.

The last of this sei-ies of inscriptions is still more rude.
It occurs upon another and similar vase. The first com-
partment 1 have rendered c v, as the first letter seems
too curved for an i, otherwise this and the letters of the
next compartment resemble mostly i v | s s i. The first
letter in the second fine of the seventh compartment is
the pecidiar one rendered as b in the last inscription.
From the thu-d to the seventh compartments, inclusive,
is doubtless to be read as Saturni Gabinius. Is the first
of these names in the genitive ? If so, and the true
reading of the first two compartments is i v s s v, we get
lussu Saturni (iii) Gabinius -with. fecit understood, shewing
that Gabinius made the vase by order of Saturninus.
This would imply a different reading for the last inscription,
which the position of the yyox^ fecit in it seems to justify.



loG BRITANNO-ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS.

It will be noticed that various forms of the name of the
goddess occur in the inscriptions. It is spelt Covetina,
Coventina, Conventina, Covontina. and Covventina ; in
one she is called a nymph, in another she has the title of
Augusta. The former title only occurs in one other
inscription found in Britain, conjoined with the name
of the goddess, which is Dcae Nijmpliae Brigantiae
(Hiibner, No. 875). The title of Augusta has not been
found previously in Britain as applied to a mjuipli, Init
several examples occur upon the Continent.

In his account of the discovery lead before the Ne"\v-
castle Society of Antiquaries, Mr. Clayton described the
numismatic portion of this find as the contents of a Koman
military chest whicli had l^een deposited in the reservoir
as a place of safety. I immediately published my own
views of the subject, Avhich were that the Avhole of the
coins, altars, vases, fibular, lings, &c., were offerings to
the goddess Coventina. Both theoi'ies had at the outset
numerous partisans, and this led to a lively correspondence
in the Newcastle press, but the result, I am glad to say,
has been in my favor. The number of discoveries exactly
similar in their nature is considerable, and it requires but
a knowledge of them, to ascertain at once the meaning of
the contents of the reservoir at Procolitia. In 1852, in
clearing out the reservoir at the watering jDlace of Vicarello
a few miles from Bome, there was found an immense mass
of Boman copper coins from the earliest Etruscan times to
the Imperial period. Upwards of 24,000 pounds weight
were sent to the Etruscan Museum in the Vatican. Out of
a great quantity of gold coins found, a considerable number
found their way, I believe, to the British Museum. Votive
offerings of various descri]3tions occurred, medals bearing
inscriptions to Apollo as the presiding god of the spring,
and a series of gold and silver va;Ses, the former being
preserved in the library of the Vatican, and the latter at
the Kircherian Museum at Bome. Three of the latter
^vere inscril^ed with the Itinerary from Bome to Cadiz, at
different dates. ^ In 1875, at the French Spa of Bourbonne



^ The culobratcd "Rud^e Cup," found was probably tbrown in as a votive offer-
in a well at liudf^e in Wiltshire in the ing of this nature. A number of Iloman
last century, bearing the names of five coins were with it.
Eoman towns inscribed around its rim



BRITANXO-ROMAX INSCRIPTIONS. 137

les Bains, in cleaning out tlie reservoir 4,000 bronze coins,
300 of silver, and a few of gold were found at the bottom in
the mud, together with rings, statuettes, l^ronze pins, and
a number of stones inscribed to a god Borvo and a goddess
Damona. The coins ranged from Nero to Honorius (see
Times, February 2nd, 1875), Inscriptions to those deities
had previously l^een found in the neighbourhood (Orelh,
No. 1S74, and Henzen, No. 5880) and, like Procolitia,
the foundations of a temple were visible round the spring.
At the source of the Seine, similar discoveries took place
some thirty five years ago, a goddess S(-(iucma being
worshipped there (Journal of British Archaeological
Association, vol. ii, p. 404). In June, 1875, at Horton in
Dorset, at the source of a small brook, a number of vases
containing coins were found. And at the "Abbot's Well,"
near Chester, where the celebrated altar to the " Nym2:>hs
and Fountains" was discovered in 1821, vases and coins
have frequently been found. But these instances of spring
and river worship were not confined to reservoirs, where-
ever there was a bridge, a ferry, or a ford, coins, &c. were
invariably thrown in as offerings to the presiding god or
goddess of the stream. In this way it was that the
enormous masses of coins, fibula?, statuettes, &c. found in
the Thames when new London Bridgfe was beinof built,
some forty-seven years ago, were formed. Great masses
of the same nature were found in removing the old bridge
at Kirkby Thore in 1838, and the ford of tbe Eomanroad
at Latton near Cirencester has aftbrded a similar yield.
The sources of the Exe and the Slea have received many
oft'erings, if we may judge by the coins and vases dis-
covered, and the site of the old bridge over the Tyne at
Newcastle has produced a large number of coins. Many
other instances might lie adduced, but the above will, I
think, sufiice.' A representation of the goddess seated,
floating on the leaf of a water lily, is sculptured on the
votive tablet. She has a l:)ranch of palm in her hand.

Mr. Clayton, also, recently discovered in a turret of the
wall between Procolitia and Cilurnum a centurial stone,
inscribed rudely : —

' Dr. SlcCiiul, in a letter to me, says, Procolitia. I have never had a doubt

" You rather surprise me by stating that that they were thrown in, as an oflFcring

there has been a doubt about the mode to C'ovc/tfina."
in which the coins got into the well at



138 CRTTANNO-ROMAN INSCEIPTIONS.

0. A D A V C I
P VI)

apparently c(enturia) Adauct[ii) Pud{entis)}

In the fifth vohime of the Proceedings of the London
and Middlesex Archaeological Society (Evening Pro-
ceedings), just published, Mr. C. Poach Smith engraves
and treats of a Roman leaden seal, found amongst the
ruins of buildings at Combe Down near Bath. It bears
on one side, apjDarently, the figure of a deer at rest, round
it are the letters —

PBR-S

Mr. Poach Smith reads it F{Iumhum) Br{itannicum)
S{ignatum). I do not think this correct, but will at
present (until we have more light thrown on this class of
objects) refrain from giving a reading.

Two other inscriptions have also been recently found at
York, as follows : —

(1) (2)

M

N L I V. S

CRESCES CANDID VS

A • V E T

VIC

The first is the right hand upper portion of a tombstone,
and apparently has commemorated Manlius Cresces, a
veteran of the sixth legion. The second, which was
presented to the York Museum (where the first is also
preserved) by Canon Greenwell, was found a few years
ago, but has remained unpublished. It is on a fragment
of a small tablet of slate or green stone, finely polished,
which seems to have been originally enclosed in a frame
of wood. A most interesting sarcophagus, inscribed to
the wife of Verecundus Diogenes, has also been found,
but as the discovery took place in 1877 I must defer an
account of it to my next.

A few other previous discoveries remain to be noticed.
In the Lincoln, Eutland and Stamford Mercury (pub-
lished at Stamford), July 18, 1845, is an account of some
excavations in High street, Lincoln, where Poman coins

^A tombstone and ccntuiial stone aic deferred until my paper on this year's
have been found on the line of the wall discoveries,
since the year 1877 eommenccd, bnt they



r.RTTAXXO-rtO:srAX IXs^•T^T^TT0X^5. 139

and bases of pillars were found. It is said ; "On Wed-
nesday afternoon (July 16) the workmen discovered some
huge worked stones at about four yards from the present
surface ; these have evidently been plinths to some pillars
supporting a Koman building. On one is an inscription
which, as vvell as it could be traced, consists of the follow -
ino' letters : —

— VIC II R V r jM E R C V R E S IVM

Most probably this is incomplete, as in all likelihood it
was continued along the fellow plinth. All the earth
above the level at which the stones were discovered is
made ground." Immediately upon seeing this I conjec-
tured that another portion of the same inscription was
that found in the last centurv, readino- —

P L L I X E S

and described by Gough in his edition (1800) of Camden's
"' Britannia," vol, ii, p. 392. It Avas said by Gough to be
"On the hollow moulding of a stone found in the east side
of the old Ronian wall l^elow the hill at liincoln, on
making the new road, 1785, lying near a number of large
stones, in a situation which seems to imply that they had
been thrown down from a considerable building." These
stones were three or four feet below the surface, and some
had mouldings. I had also no doubt but that the letter
T was ligulate with the H in the 1845 inscription, so that
the second word would read thrvpo, a name found in
several inscriptions in England. On communicating my
views to Dr. Hiibner, he replied, " If measures, form of
stone, &c. are corresponding, there is no reason why
the fragments (a)pollixes(ivm) and vie thrvpo
MERCVRESIVM should not have been parts of the same
epistyle of a building belonging perhaps as schola to
some coll eg ia or sodaliti a Mercuriesiiun et AjooUinesium ;
societies for the worship of Apollo and Mercury. If it
was a large epistyle there is no hope to find out a probable
restitution, vie may be an abbreviation for (deae)vic-
(toriae). Thrupo thus can be the name of the dedicant



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