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guished as the heroic standard. With regard to Nollekens, he was
not an antiquary or a poetic sculptor.

Mr. Waller considered that the restorations to the Venus di Medici
were not admirable ; he thought the head was by a sculptor of the
decadence, an opinion in which Mr. Oldfield did not coincide, the ears
of the figure being pierced,

Mr. Greaves, speaking generally as to the idea the Greeks had of
great size and stature, said, they ever considered these attributes as
an excellence, as much in women as in men. This ^vas clearly
shewn in the works of Aristotle, Theocritiis, and other Greek authors.
In the "Odyssey" Minerva is described as making Penelope taller
and plumper, in order to make her more admired, and Eurymachus
afterwards lauds her for excelling other women in size, amongst other
endowments.



THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 191



Antiquities anti Movks of ^rt ISiIjibitctj.

By Mr. A. HAIlTSHOE^'E. — Four original drawings of tlio Venus
de Medici, by Nollekens, with, autographic attestations.

By Mr. Henderson. — A Persian shield of steel, damascened iu gold
with horsemen engaged in the chase. An Indian shield of rhinoceros
hide, formerly in the collection of Lord Canning. A battle-axe from
Oude of great beauty, and five similar weapons from Delhi.

By Mr. W. NivEX. — A thurible of bronze found at Pershore in
18.56, among a heaj) of old metal in a founder's yard, and said to have
been dug up near the Abbey church. This had been considered by
some antic[uaries as of Danish origin, but Mr. Micldetliwaite thought
it was English work of the twelfth century. He called attention to its
general characteristics, and particularly to the special and unusual
arrangement of its details, to prevent the entanglement of the chains.
It does not appear that the directions of Theophilus (De Diversis
Artibus seu Diversarum Artiam Schedula), written pi'obably in the
early half of the 11th century, have been adhered to in this particular
example. There must have been a vast number of thuribles in
existence in the middle ages, and, although their workmanship is
often rude they are always thoroughl}^ practical, considerable ingenuity
being exercised in adapting them for their special purpose.

By Mr. S. Tucker (Eouge Croix). — Three small Roman intaglios in
cornelian, viz. : a head of Bias set in a ring ; a head of Hercules, and
a fine head of a female, in gold seals ; and a cameo in amethyst of a
comic mask perforated at the mouth, and set in a gold ring.

By Mrs. Jackson Gwilt. — Rubbing from a brass at Isleworth, with
the following inscription : "Margaret Dely, a syster professed yn Syon,
who decessed ye viii. of October, loGl," and an engraving of the City
Arms of Grosseti, from the church of 8. Lorenzo in Florence.



i^oti'ces of ^rcl^accilogtcal publications.

NOTES ON THE ETCHED WORK OF EEMBRAXDT, WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO THE RECENT EXHIBITION IN THE GALLERY
OF THE BURLINGTON FINE ARTS' CLUB. By the Rev. C. U.
MiDDLETox. London : Johx Wilsox.

The collection of Eembrauclt's etchings, which was held this year at
the Burlington Fine Arts' Club, formed a very remarkable exhibition,
and one which every one ought to have seen. It is probable that,
although it included several works of doubtful authenticity, a more
complete collection was never brought together. By the juxtaposition
of different " states" it was made specially interesting and instructive,
and while it served to spread a better knowledge of Eembrandt's work
amongst amateuis generally, a rare opportunity was afforded to experts
of pursuing their study of the master. Any one of the more important
plates of the great artist who " rendei-ed even darkness visible" is, no
doubt, sufficient to astonish and to fascinate, and to illustrate, in the
fullest manner we can imagine, the capabilities of etching; but to study
seriously the master himself it is necessary to trace the chronological
order of his work. If Eembrandt had dated and signed all his works
a great deal of time and labour would have been saved to his admirers ;
but, out of about 350 plates that have been attributed to him, at least
half of them are undated; 152 are not signed, and three or four
different modes of signature were adopted in the remainder. The
comparison of works of dubious authenticity with those undoubtedly
genuine, the examination of signatures, and the collecting of all avail-
able evidence in order to distinguish the work of Eembrandt from
that of his followers, and originals from copies, and to fix with some
accuracy the dates of the undated plates, is no light or easy task, and
one which is by no means accomplished yet.

In "Notes on the Etched Work of Eembrandt," published since the
exhibition in Savile Eow, by the Eev. C. H. Middleton, we find a very
useful contribution to the fund of Eembrandt lore. This is we under-
stand to be followed by a more complete woi*k on the same subject
now in progress ; but we have in these "Notes" the results of much
investigation of the disputed plates, and while awaiting the appearance
of the larger work we content ourselves M'ith a brief allusion to this
first instalment. Amongst the independent tlieories regarding some
of the plates we ma}' mention the suggestion that the portrait of an old
man in Jewish dress marked No. 15 in the catalogue may have been a
portrait of the artist's father Harman. Concerning the " Eesurrection
of Lazarus" (No. 18) Mr. Middleton argues that, as also in the
" Jacob Lamenting," wo have " the design of Eembrandt, and



NOTICES OF AKCILEOLOfJICAL rUBLTCATTONS, 193

probably some of his actual work, but that the greater part of
what we see is the work of Van Vliet. '' " The Good Samaritan " he
believes to have been designed and partly executed by Rembrandt,
and finished by a pupil, differing from Mr. Haden, who attributes the
plate to Bol. In his remarks on the plate traditionally called the
" Great Jewish Bride," and which hay generally been considered a
portrait of liis wife, the author remarks that Rembrandt's genius did
not lie in accuracy of likeness. We confess we do not see that the
fact of his so frequently idealising his models proved his incapacity
for accuracy when that was the equality most to be desired. His large
painted portraits were certainly accurate to the life.

The " Flight into Egypt " Mr. Middleton holds, witli the catalogue,
to be not a work in which Rembrandt has borrowed from another, but
one in which he has taken an already engraved plate raid altered it to
his own purpose, the group of the Holy Family with some part of the
foliage behind them, and parts of the foreground only being his. In
reference to the peculiarity of the foliage in this print, consisting of
" dots more or less thickly spread, differing in their form and tone,
while the few strokes that can be discovered appear rather to have
been added as an after-thought," Wilson's rather wild conjecture is
quoted, namely — " If in spreading the varnish on a plate we bear
hard with the dabber we find, on removing it, that the varnish has been
penetrated, producing an infinite number of minute holes. . . . We
may imagine that Rembrandt resorted to this manoeuvre with effect,
and that the masses of foliage were expressed, in the first instance, by
the movement of the dabber, and completed by a second operation,
preserving the lights from the corrosion of the acid by a brush dipped
in liquid varnish." — [Descriptive Catalogue, p. 21). It is by no means
certain that Rembrandt used a dabber in laying his grounds. He
may have hit on a more convenient plan, as many etchers have at the
present day, but we do not think that it is characteristic of him to trust
to such a very haphazard process for his effects.



THE CHURCHES OF KENT. By Sir SxEriiEx R. Gia-xne, Bart. 1877.
London : MrnuAV.

It was said of Sir Stephen Glynne, that he had visited every church
in England, and those who talked with him on this, his favourite
pursuit, became aware that he had not only visited and accurately
observed a vast number of churches, but that he remembered their
particulars with a readiness and correctness that was little short of
marvellous, and not unfrequently besides the architectural details of
the building he knew the name and something of the character of tlie
incumbent. The note books in which he recorded his observations were
a part of the man. Probabl}' he never left home without one, and it
was understood that he had accumulated a vast number of these
records of his experience. But, though all knew the extent of his range,
and the acuteness and accuracy of his power of observation, it is
probable that few supposed his records to be so full, or were at all
aware that his notes upon above 5,530 churches were so entered up as
to be fitted for publication. Whether he himself contemplated such



194 NOTICES OF ARCHiEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS.

publication is not known, even to his family. He was a man of a
veiy shy and retiring disposition, very averse from any personal display,
and it is not improbable that he merely wrote up his notes, as he did
every tiling else, with a sense that he ought to do his best. However
this may be, all will, we think, applaud his distinguished brother-in-
law, INIr. Gladstone, for the publication of the present volume, which
proves to the world that the reputation enjoyed by Sir Stephen as an
ecclesiastical antiquary, so far as church architecture is concerned,
rests upon a very solid foundation. The selection of the county of
Kent lor the subject of the volume is judicious. Archdeacon Harrison
and the Rev. Scott Robertson have given it the benefit of their revision,
and have added the illustrations by which the work is graced. Mr.
Gladstone's introduction is just what was to be expected from so
loving and so accomplished a kinsman, and all, and no more, than was
suitaible to the occasion.

The notes themselves are a model of what such notes should be,
they are clear, comprehensive, show a thorough knowledge of church
architecture, a very rare accomplishment when Sir Stephen began his
work, and are besides brief. The following account of St. Peter's
church, Sandwich, is selected almost at random, as an example of the
style and general character of the notes : —

" The church has undergone cousiderable mutilation, and has at
present a very unsightly, patched appearance. It consists now of a
nave and chancel, with a north aisle, and a tower placed between the
nave and chancel. The south aisle is destroyed, but part of its outer
wall is standing, and the arches ai-o visible, built into the south wall
of the nave.

" The walls are mostly of flints ; the tower is large, but the upper
part is modern and built of brick. There is a rectilinear north porch,
embattled; all the windows of the nave have been sadly mutih ted.
The interior is spacious and lofty ; and the nave is divided from its
aisle by three pointed arches with octagonal pillars. The chancel ir
divided from its aisle by two similar arches, and those which support
the tower are of like character. There is no vestige of very early
work about the church. Tlie chancel has a fine curvilinear window on
the north side, of three lights, but unfortunately walled up. In the
nortli aisle is an ogee arch for a tomb, flanked by buttresses with
pinnacles ; there are also the effigies of a man and woman, and a slab
with a cross flory and inscription in Lombard letters. A small altar-
toiub is panelled with trefoils containing heads, and bears the muti-
lated efilgy of a knight. There is one good carved pew-end. In the
west gallery' is an organ."



HISTORY OF THE DUNMOW FI.TTCII OF BACON CT'STOJI. T.y
William Anduews. London : William Tego & Co. 1877.

The author of this little book has brought together with much care
some interesting notes upon this singular custom, and few persons are
perhaps aware that tlie custom of Dunmow has its origin as early as
the time of Robert Fitz-Walter, if indeed it was n, t actually instituted
by tliat famous opponent of King John. There is at any rate certain



NOTICES OF ARCH^OLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 195

evidence that it was well established in the fourteenth century. Allusion
is made to the custom in the vision of Piers Plowman, and Chaucer's
Wife of Bath says : —

" The bacon was not ft for hem I trow
Tliat some men have in Essex at Dotimow."

Mr. Andrews gives some extracts from the Cartulary of Duumow
Priory as to the delivery of the flitch to certain male claimants in the
fifteenth century ; hut the Dissolution seems to have put a stop to the
continuance of the custom until 1701. It would appear that the
character of the proceedings now became considerably changed, and
the boisterous hilarity exhibited in the picture by Ogborne of the
" Dunmow Procession" in 1751, may be contrasted with the simple
procedure when "one Pi chard Wright, yeoman, came and required
the bacon of Dunmow on the 27th April in the 23rd year of the reign
of King Henry VI, and was sworn before John Cannon, Prior." The
revival of the custom in 1855, and subsequently, is characterized more
by levity than dignity — such is the taste of the age — and we cannot
help thinking that it would have been better to have allowed the
Dunmow custom to remam, like its coiinterpart at Wichnor, obsolete,
and well-nigh forgotten, save in such interesting records as Mr. Andrews
has given us.

Like many other mediaeval observances, that of the Flitch of Bacon
has had its day, and we confess our dislike to this revival at Dunmow
as much as to the recurring and senseless travesty of history at
Coventiy.



VOL. xxxvi. 2 A



Sfrdjaeological Untelltgenre.

The Eastness Sarcophagus. — In a copy of Camden's Britannia in
the Bodleian Library, Oxford, the following note occurs : —

"Within a cornefield of Est-Nesse, the lordship of Mr. Crathornes
in the weapon take of Ehydale in the county of Yorke, there was a
coffin of ffree stone 2^ yards in length, 3 quarter's broad, digged up
with a plough about 3 years since, with a cover thereon very closely
fitted 3 quarters deep within the ground, the endes there of standing
North and South contrary to the use of our tymes, within it were
hones of men and the outside there of these wordes engravde very
faire taken out by me Eoger Dodsworthe June 2, 1619."

TITIA PINTA • VTXIT • ANN • XXXVIII
ET VAL • ADIVTORI • VIXIT • ANN • XX ■
ET • VAEIALO • VIXIT • ANN • XV • VAL •
VINDICIANVS • CONIVGIE • T • FILIS •
F C.

In Gough's Camden (edit. 1789), vol. iii, p. 85, it is said of this
inscription : —

" This inscription was found in a ploughed field at Eastness near
Hevingham, the seat of Henry Crathorne of Crathorne, Esq., and noio
remains there. A drawing of it was taken by Sir William Dugdale at
his visitation of this county in 1665."

Through the courtesy of the officers of the College of Arms we are
enabled to reproduce Dugdale's drawing and his description of the
sarcophagus from his Yorhhire Arms, p. es'' : —

" Crathorne. — Eigura cujusdamvetusti Sarcophagi, inAgris arabilibus
de East Ness, infra Dominium de Crathorne et Wapentacliium de Rye-
dale (ab Austro ad Aquilonem jacentis), circa annum M.D.Cxxiiij'"
Aratro sulcanto, reperti ; et nunc juxta Portam Domus mansionalis
Eadulphi Crathorne de Crathorne prtedicta Armigeri ; existentis.
Juxta quern locum diversa etiam Eomanorum numismata sajpissime
eruta sunt."



1


TITIA PINTA-VIXlT-AhN -XXXVIII




ET VAL ADl VTOR 1 • VIXIT-Am -XX ■




ETVARIALO -VIXIT • ANN -XV -VAL'




VINDICIANVS-CONIVGIE-T-FILIS-


<^.


F c.



I Longitudine septem pedum.

T 1 Latitudine \ -, -, ,

in < . / duorum pedum et

( Profunditate. trium poUicium.



ARCH^OLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE. 197

Mr. W. Thompson Watkin has endeavoured to ascertain whether
the sarcophagus is still preserved in the neighbourhood, but without
success.

The Eev. C. H. Middleton is about to publish a Descriptive
Catalogue of the Etched Works of Rembrandt, giving an accurate
description of every print, or state of a print, and a reference to the
large public collections in which it may be found, the whole forming
an index of all the works of the great master in the British Museum,
at Cambridge, Paris, Amsterdam, and Haarlem. This will be followed
by a similar work on the prints of the Eembrandt school.

The excavations at Templeborough ceased on Dec. 15 until the
spring. We shall look forward to some further particulars of these
important discoveries from Mr. Thompson Watkin.

EoMAN LoxDOX. — We are indebted to Mr. J. E. Price f )r the following
description of some discoveries recently made while excavating within
the precincts of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

" In clearing what was once the site of Pye-corner for the erection
of a new library and museum two stone sarcophagi were exhumed.
They were eleven feet from the surface, situated some fifty feet from
the new buildings in Windmill Court, and at no great distance from
the line of the City wall, they lay east and west, are about seven feet
long, of coai'se oolitic stone, have massive lids or covers, and may be
clearly identified as Eoman. In one, two skeletons were found, the
one of a man with his head to the west, the other a woman lying with
her head towards the east ; both the skulls and also the teeth are in
good preservation. In the other tomb a leaden coffin had been placed.
It is much corroded, and has been considerably injured by the efforts
of the finders to convey it away piecemeal for sale, and ultimately to
the melting-pot. It has, fortunately, been secured, and sufficient remains
to identify the ornamentation upon it. It shows the rope or cable
moulding disposed in a diamond pattern, resembling similar examples
found years ago at Bethnal Green, Old Ford, Stratford, Stepney, to say
nothing of those at Colchester and other places. The sarcophagi are
alike in form to that found a year or two since near Sea-coal Lane, on
the bank of the old Pleet river, and which is now preserved in the
museum of the Corporation of London at Guildhall. At the head of one
of the tombs was extricated a short stone column, with sufficient of the
moulding remaining to indicate its origin. It is such as have been often
foimd among the debris of Eoman buildings, and possibly served as a
head-stone or other memorial of the dead, the forerunner, doubtless,
of the ' shattered column ' familiar enough in our modern cemeteries.
Smithfield has long been known as the site of one of the extensive
cemeteries once attached to Eoman London. The remains, however,
usually found have been charred bones, cinerary uims, and broken
pottery, there not being, so far as I can remember at the moment, any
published description of so important an interment as that now under
consideration.

" As the works are still in progress, further objects of interest may
be revealed."



Cljc 9[rcl)aeologiral HfouruaU



SEPTEMBER, 1877.
WHAT IS A TOWN?

BY THOMAS KERSLAKE.



When it is asked, what sort of a place is some
"Northport," or "Southlnny," or "Mudford," or "Sand-
bridge ?"- is it a city, or a Ijorough, or a town, or a
village ? — if the answer should be that " it is a town," or
perhaps more definitely, " it is a market town," we — at
least, in South Britain — hear the word " town " in the
sense in which it is here proposed to consider it.

The story of the west- country clown, wdio was laughed
at because he " could not see the town for the houses," is
very unjust to the clown. His blindness is unconsciously
shared, not only by the Ijroad majority of his betters, but
even by the learned themselves. The " town is to be
found neither in books nor in houses, but in the streets :"
and has thus been hitherto undiscerned by those who have
sought it. In one respect the countryman was wiser than
the learned : he saw the mote that caused his blindness.
The houses must be abstracted from our thoughts before
we can perceive the original town. The houses have been
replaced many times over and over again. Even the
most ancient churches, abl^eys, or cathedrals, are often
comparatively late additions to the town. It is the
ground plan of the highways and l^yeways \yhieli is the
greatest antic[uity of the typical or proper town.

Indeed, tliis particular class of our social concentrations
seems to have been the very one that has been hitherto
ignored by those who have professed to give us any
account of the origin of the various kinds of our con-
densed populations that are usually included luider the

VOL. xxxiv (No. 13.3). 2 D



200 WHAT Tfi A TOWN.'

broader sense of the word " town." The learned seem to
have come to what they deem to be a settlement of the
etymology and meaning of the word, which has entirely
excluded from their consideration the limited use of it
that is heie referred to. They have decided that it
is the *'tun" of the Anglo Saxon Dictionaries, having
the sjDecial meaning " an inclosed place ;" and that it not
only therefore describes fortified towns or boroughs,, but
is still visible in the very many names of English places
which end in " ton." In this last position they are
probably right; but the names so labelled are far too
numerous, and the great majority of the places are too
unimportant, to have ever belonged to that class here
proposed to be looked at as being specially called
"towns." Most of the places ending in "ton" are, and
always have been, the merest rural villages, or more often
hamlets. Inclosures they may have been from the be-
ginning, being, in fact, the homesteads of the clans, or
families, or tribal settlements, of the original colonies.
Such places do not, however, satisfy the more conspicuous
and limited meaning of the word " town " above defined ;
as when it is used to distinguish a community of the
second class from one of the first class — a city or borough
— on the one hand, or from one of the third class — a
village or hamlet— on the other.

Our political and social antiquaries seem to have been
content to look no farther back than to the military con-
dition of the colonists for the earliest motive or initial
principle of a town : that towns were first of all either
themselves the fortified inclosures of governing powers, or
that they sprang up under the shelter and protection of
some baronial stronghold. To this they add that, in after
times, the cathedral, or great monastery, became another
attracting centre or cause of such communities ; offering,
as these no doubt did, a protecting and fostering influence,
which by that time had become at least the rival of
physical mihtary protection. Mr. Kemble, in the chapter
headed " Tlie Towns," in his most instructive work, TJie
Saxo7is in England,^ altliough, as might have been
expected, he has developed them with the great store of
learning at liis command, has been content with these

> Vol. ii. pp. 2G2— 341.



WHAT IS A TOWN. 201

tliree sources of* the existence of our towns, which may
be shortly described as the municipal, the baronial, and
the ecclesiastical.

With deference, however, it is presumed to think that
the unmixed ideal " town," as distinguished, on the one
side from cities and walled boroughs, and on the other
from the inclosed settlements of early rural colonists,
now. perhaps villages and hamlets, or the homesteads of
manors ; had an actual existence — must from a natural or
social exigence have existed — independent of these three
artificial causes. That, although in aftertimes the original
town has in many cases had one or more of these other
causal ogents grafted upon it, or has even been absorbed
into them — has become fortified because of its strategic
value ; or its privileges have been both protected and
overawed by the stronghold; or nourished and aggrandized
by the growth of its missionary cell into a rich and power-
ful religious college — in its natural or unmixed state it
was essentially uninclosed. In fact, its chief cause or
initial purpose required that it should be a neutral spot
and open to all comers.

But this state of it must not be expected to be found
in books or records, all of which it pre-existed. Early
written history almost entirely deals with war and defence.
But the booty of w^ar and the objects of defence must
have preceded war and defence tliemselves. If war fills
the pages of history ; both the many antecedent ages, and
the centuries of years themselves from which history has
been gleaned, must have been filled in with a broad back-
ground, diapered with the variously checjuered though
uniformly recurrent incidents of ordinary life : not per-



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