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and our journeys — possibly, to enhance our affection
for our country. But more than that, it ought, and I
hope it will, teach many of us a reverent care for the
works that have been handed down to us from our
ancestors — the desire to preserve them against all
dangers, including that which I am bound to call the
peril of architectural restoration. We know the ravages
that have been made by enlightened architects,
in what is called the restoration of the ancient
buildings, and, of course, especially of our ancient
Ecclesiastical buildings. It is not only, as is ordinarily
the case, a smatterino- of Arcliitecture that is dangerous,
but even a knowledge of Architecture, without the
association of whcit I call the historic sense, the historic
sentiment ; that knowledge and that iancy has led to
many lamentable deeds, and the sweeping away of what
were supposed to be incongruities in a building, prob ibly
a Church, and in the endeavour to reduce all to some
fa,ncied standard of architectural correctness. We may
hope that things are already very nuich improved in this
i'es])ect ; we may hope that the days have passed in which
sucli things were done, as for example one which is
denounced by my friend Mr. Freeman in that same great



IXArC4URAL ADDRESS. 9

book- — and it lias a connexion witli this neigli])ouihood —
when he tells yon that the tomb of Brightnoth, the hero
of the l)attle of Maldon — the toinb of that hero in Ely
Cathedral was swept away, demolished, and his ashes
scattered, by what the historian calls "the savages of the
18th centnry." Snch a deed as that, I believe, will never
happen again ; bnt I feel convinced that our only security
ao'ainst such mistakes and ravao-es is that historic sense
and feehng to which I have referred. It is not enough,
it seems to me, to feel, with Wordsworth,
'•"The memorial majesty of time,"

in the case of o'reat buildinsfs and noble monuments : one
wants to have the same feehngs carried into all matters,
small and great. One wants a certain tenderness for
" old, unha]Dpy, far-off things," and even for old and ugly
things. Without that feeling, I believe, we shall have
no safety in the work of restoration. Of course there will
be doubtful cases, and ugliness sometimes reaches a point
which becomes unbearable ; but still, upon the whole, the
only safety is to listen to the Muse of history, and she
will always say " Let it alone." In connexion with that
there is a question which I cannot pass before I sit down
without one word of notice. It is the cpiestion of State
interference in the preservation of our national monuments.
This is a matter of practical and, I may say. Parliamentary
interest. It was only to-day that I heaixl from the highest
possible authority, Mr. Parker, that the Government of
Italy has utterly outstripped us in this matter. The
Government of Italy has recognised the duty of the State
to preserve these national monuments, and has fulfilled
the duty in a trenchant manner, which is undoubtedly
ahen to our Engiisli ideas, and which I sliall not attempt
to recommend, at all events in a manner which I should
not have the pluck to stand up and support before either
the House of Commons or the House of Lords. But a
distinguished English antiquary has l^een endeavouring
to preserve our national monuments in an extremely
cautious and prudent way, and I confess I find it impossible
to fill even for a moment the honourable position of Presi-
dent of this Institute without saying a word of appeal on
behalf of Sir John Lubbock's BiU. I do not know what the
object and duty of such an Institution or of such a meeting
vol; xxxiy. c



10 TNAUC4URAL ADDRESS.

as this is if we do not do something in behalf of that
measure. I am sorry to say, and I do not think it
creditable to the House of Commons, that that measure
has failed again ; it has not been rejected, and there-
fore there is every hope for the future ; l)ut it has
not succeeded. Of course one knows the difficulty
with the noble British sense of the rights of pro-
])erty, l)ut we know that the wholesome feeling can
be, upon occasions wliich seem to the pul)lic sufficient,
inade to give way to the pul)lic interests, and whenever
one fiftieth jmrt of that feeling, which over-rides the
rights of property for the sake of a new railway, a roaxl,
or a drain, shall be apphed to oiu' national monuments,
this measure of Sir John Lubbock will pass without any
difficulty. In the meantime I hope that we, at all events,
all in this room, will give it the support it deserves. I
am not going to detain you any longer. I have en-
deavoTu-ed to fulfil the duty of making a sort of ceremonial
address upon these subjects, the interest of which, little
as I know of them, I feel very strongly, but I now have
the pleasure of handing you over to the severer discipline
of the Vice-Presidents, and I trust that as they will find,
as I l)elieve they will, much in this city and its neigh -
boiu'hood to interest them, so we shall find much to learn
from them ; and I sincerely hope that the week which
has begun so successfully to-day will be one of pleasure
and profit to its end, and that neither the Institute, nor
the jjeople of Colchester and its neighbourhood, will then
have any other feeling than one of mutual congratulation.



THE LAND OF MOEGAN: ITS CONQUEST AND ITS
CONQUEROES.

BY G. T. CLARK, ESQ.

Of tlie forty shires of England there are certainly not a
score of which good histories have been written, and not
above five or six and twenty of which there are any
tolerable histories at all. Even Yorkshire, so rich in
antiquities of every kind, ethnological, ethncjgraphical,
architectural, and genealogical ; in pra3-historic tuniidi ;
in proper names given by the Briton, the Roman, and
tJie Northman ; in march dykes ; lioman and other
encampments ; military roads and moated mounds ; in
the ruins of glorious abbeys and mighty castles ; in its
noble cathedral and grand parish clnu'ches, upon two of
which the brevet rank of cathedral has been imposed ; in
its venerable and splendid country seats, and in its
ancient and often historic families : even Yorkshii-e, so
rich in all these varied and tempting subjects, and rich
too in material Avealth, has yet met with no liistorian.
Divisions of the C()unty, as llichmondshire and Hallam-
shire, Doncaster and Sheffield, are the subjects of works
quite of the first class, but neitlier the great Shire, nor
even one of its Ridings, has been placed upon record. If
such be the case in wealthy and cultivated England, it
is no great shaine in Wales to be, as regards county
histories, in a still more unprovided condition, as indeed
the Principality must be admitted to be. There is but
one history, Jones's " Brecknock," of any Welsh county,
at all worthy of the name, for assui-edly neither Fenton's
" Pembrokeshire" nor Mey rick's " Cardigan" merit that
title. And yet, as is abundantly shewn in tiie volumes
of the '■' Archceologia Cambrensis," and in the copious
though incidental notices of Wales in Ey ton's excellent
" History of Early Shropshire," it is not the material that



12 THE LAND OF MORGAN :

is WLiiitinu'. Cambria, thouofh not tlie cradle, the latest
home of the Cymric people, has no reason to complain of
her share of the gifts of nature or of their adaptation to
])roduce material prosperity. The incurvated coast, whence
the country is thought to derive its name, abounds in
bays and headlands of extreme beauty and grandeur.
In the North its scenery is bold and striking ; in the
South it is of a softer character, and celebrated rather for
its valleys than its mountains, its meandering rivers rather
than its dashing torrents. In mineral wealth the North
is not deficient, but tlie South has the lion's share, nor
does any part of it approach in value the division of
Glamorgan. Here, in the centre of the Welsh coal field,
that mineral is not only abundant in quantity, easy of
access and convenient for transport by sea, but it is of a
character equally removed from the bituminous varieties
of the east and the anthracite of the west, so that it
produces unusual steam power in proportion to its weight
and bulk, and does so without raising the usual accom-
paniment of smoke — qualities which render it valuable
in commerce and still more in request in naval warfare.

Wales moreover, and especially Glamorgan, was for
centuries the scene of romantic and sjDirit-stirring events,
and has had a large measure of ecclesiastical and military
renown. To Pelao-ius, t]iou2:h tlieir names have the
"merit of congruity," the land of Morgan cannot indeed
lay claun ; and too many of her early sons, like the Greeks
before Agamemnon, slumber unrecorded beneath her
cairns and barrows. Of others notices have survived,
and tlieii" sweet savour is found in the churches whicli
they have founded, in the records of LlandafF, the earliest
of British bishoprics, and in the fragmentary, but ancient
literature, of the people. Bede relates how " Lever
MaAvr," " the great light," better known in translation as
King Lucius, moved Eleutherius, a.d. IGO, to send over
from Home Fagan and Dyvan to preach the gospel to his
people. They settled at Avalon, but seem to have laboured
much across the Severn, where their names are yet pre-
served in the Churches of St. Fagan and Merthyr Dovan,
the latter indicatino: the manner in which its founder
bore testimony to his faith.

Gildas, an author of the sixth century, whose name



IT8 CONQUEST AND ITS CONQUEROKS. 13

is prefixed to the treatise " De excidio Brituniiii\3, "
written certainly before the time of Bede, is associated
Avitli Glamorgan frcjm having ])aid a visit to St. Cadoc
at Llancarvan, wliere, before either Saxon or Norman
had profaned the banks of the Carvon, the Siloa of
Glamorgan, were educated, and thence sent forth many
of those holy men who gained the appellation of " terra
sanctorum " for the land in which they laboured. Tlie
monastic school, or " Chorea Sanctorum" of Llancarvan, is
said to have been founded by the saints Germanus and
Lupus to counteract the Pelagianism of the district, strong
in the name and heresy of Morgan ; but the claim of Ger-
manus in this respect is challenged for Dubricius, a saint of
the close of the sixth century, and for Cadoc, or Cattwg, a
saint and j^i'hice, whose name survives in the adjacent
Cadoxton, whose triad has gained for him the appellation
of " the wise," and who, with St. David and Nennius, claims
to have shared in the instruction of St. Finnian, one of tlie
apostles of Christian Ireland. It was at Llancarvan, towards
the middle of the twelfth century, that Caradoc, named from
thence, penned that account of the Principality known as
the "Brut-y-Tywysogion," which, expanded and continued
by the successive labours of Price and Lloyd, Powell and
Wynne, still holds the chief place in Welsh historical
literature. In Llancarvan also, upon his patrimony of
Trev- Walter, or Walterston, was probably l;)orn Walter
Calenius, or de Map, a son of Blondel de Map, chaplain
to Fitz-Hamon, and who acquired the property by marriage
with Flwr, its Welsh heiress. Walter became chaj^lain
to Henry I, and Archdeacon of Oxford, and was one of
those who, during the reigns of the two Henries, and
under the protection of Robert Earl of Gloucester, Lord
of Glamorgan, pronicjted the growth of English literature,
and was besides celebrated for his lively and pungent
satires upon Becket and the clergy of his day. He
also seems to have added largely to the stocks of
Arthurian llomance, and to have made popular those
legends upon which his friend and contemporary Geoffrey
of Monmouth founded his well-known volume. These
well-springs of Cymric history are indeed scanty and
turljid, and must be drawn from with great discrimi-
nation ; but it is from them, from the " Lifr Coch," or



14 THE LAND OF MORUAN :

of Llaudatt', and from the lives of St. Cadoc, St. Iltyd,
and other of the Welsh samts, that is derived all that is
known of the history of Glamorgan before the Normaii
invasion. Nor is the testimony of the " Book of Llaiidatt'"
confined to Llancarvaii. Both Llan-Iltyd or Llantwit,
under the presidency of St. Iltutus, and Docunni or
Ijlandoch, now Llandougli upon tlie Ely, were celebrated
as monastic colleges early in tlie fifth centiuy, and even
now, in the churchyard of each place, are seen those
singular obelisks or upright stones rudely but eftectively
adorned with knot- work in st(jne, and of very ancient
thouo-h inicertain date.

Glamorgan extends about fiity-tnree miles along tlie
northern shore of the Bristol Channel, here broadening
into an estuary. From the seaboai'd as a base it passes
inland twenty-nine miles in the figure of a triangle, the
northern point abutting upon the range of the Beacons
of Brecknock. Its principal towns, Cardiff and Swansea,
are placed near the southern angles of the triangle :
Merthyr, of far later growth, stands at the northern angle,
and near the head, as Cardift' is near the opening, of the
Taft', and Swansea of the Tawe. Aberdare upon the
Cynon, and Tre-Herbert upon the llhondda, tributaries
of the Taff', are the centres of immense nebul?e of popula-
tion, at this time condensing with more than American
i-apidity into considerable towns. The actual boundaries
of the county, east and west, are the Afon-Eleirch or
Swan river, now the Ilhymny, from Mcmmouthshire, and
the Llwchwr or Burry from Caermarthenshire. The
episcopal village and Cathedral of Llandaff stand upon
the " Llan " or mead of the TaflP, a little above Cardiff'.

The great natural division of the county is into upland
a-iid lowland, called by the old Welsh the " Blaenau "
and the " Bro," the latter extending, like the Concan of
Bombav, as a broad margin along the seaboard, and
covering about a third of the area; the former, rising
al)ruptly like the Syhadree Ghauts, and lying to the
north. The Bro, though containhig sea cliffs of a hun-
dred feet, is rather undulating than hilly ; the Blaenau
is througliout mountainous, and contains elevations wliich
rise to'l^OU, 1 GOO, and at Carn Moysin to 2000 feet.
From this high ground s])ring the rivers of the county.



ITS CONQUEST AND ITS < 'OXQT^EEOrvS. 15

Besides the four already, iiientioned, are the Nedd, on
which are the town of* Neath and the dock of Briton-
Ferry, the Ely with the dock of Penarth, the Ogwr
flowing through Bridgend, and the Cowhridge Thawe,
whose waters roll into the sea over a field of Mater-worn
lias pebbles, in repute as an hydraulic limestone, in great
recpiest among engineers, and as celebrated as that of
Barrow on the Soar. Besides these are a multitude of
smaller streams bearing Welsh names, some of whicli, as
the " Sarth " or Javelin, and the " Twrch " or Boar, are
hio-hly sio'nificant.

The Llwchwr is the only Glamorgan river admitting, in
any degree, of navigation, and that to a very small extent.
The northern streams are rapid and uncertain, sometimes
foaming torrents, sometimes dry beds of shingle, but
more commonly with a moderate flow. They descend
through those wild and rocky but always verdant vallies
f >r which Glamorgan is justly famed. Both the Taft'
and the Nedd are celebrated for their scenery, but the
Taff has the advantage not only in tlie conflux of vallies
^\'hich form so pleasing a feature at Pont-y-Prydd, but
in the grand cleft by which that river, guarded by the
ancient castle of the De Clares, and the far more ancient
camp of British origin, bursts from its constraint amidst
the mountains, and rolls in easy and graceful curves
across the ]3lain of Cardiff.

CardiflP, the principal poi't of the county, is formed hj
the union of the Tatf and the Ely, and its roadstead is
protected by the headland of Penarth. S'^vansea, its
western rival, opens upon its celebrated bay : Briton-
Ferry, Port Talb(jt, and Porth Cawl are intermediate
and smaller ports. A cin^ious feature upon several points
of the sea coast are the large deposits of blown sand,
probably an accumulation of the twelfth centur}^ l)ut
flrst mentioned in a charter of Bichard II., 1384, in
which he grants to the Abbot and Convent of Margam
the forfeited advowson of Avene on account of their
lands " per sabulam maritirnam destructam in nimiam
depauperacionem abbatise. " This sand, the movement
of the surface of which has hitherto defied all attempts at
planting, has advanced upon Merthyr Mawr and Kenfig
and some parts of Gower, and, like the dragon of



] G THE LAND OF MORGAN I

VVantley, lias swallowed up iniicli ]3astLire, at least three
churches, a castle, a village or two, and not a few
detached houses.

The suj^erficial features of the county are largely
affected by its mineral composition. The mountain
districts contain the coal field, of late years so extensively
woi'ked : the lowlands are mainly old red sandstone and
mountain limestone, more or less eroded by water, and
covered up by the unconformable and nearly horizontal
beds of the magnesian congL^merate, the new red, and
the lias. The county contains no igneous rocks, nothing
known older than the old red, and no regular formation later
than the lias. The gravels, however, are on a large scale,
and their sections throw much light upon the origin
and dip of the pebbles, and upon the measure and direction
of their depositing forces.

The charms of Glamorgan have not wanted keen
appreciation. An early triad asserts of it : —

"Tlie Bai'd loves this beautiful country,
Its wines, its wives, and its white houses."

Its wines are, alas ! no more ; not even the patriotic efforts
of Lord Bute, in his vineyards nt Castell Coch, have as
yet been able to raise a murmur from the local tem-
perance societies ; but the white cottages still glisten,
nestled in the recesses of the hills ; and if its wives no
longer enjoy a special preeminence in Wales it is only
l)ecause the fair sex of other counties, emulous of the
distinction, have attained to the same merits. The
following lines by Dean Conybeare seem Avorthy of
preservation here : —

Moi'^anwg ! thy vales are fair,

Proud thy mountains rise in air ;

And frequent, through the varied scene

Tliy wliito-walled mansions glare between:

May the radiant lamp of day

Ever shed its choicest ray

On those walls of glittering white ;

Morganwg ! the Bards' delight.



ITR CONQUEST AND ITS CONQUERORS. 1 7

]\[oro:anwff ! those wliito walls hold
A matchless race ia warfare bohl ;
111 peace the pink of courtes}',
In love are none so fond and free.
May, etc.

Morganwg ! those white walls knon'
All of bliss is given below,
For there in honour dwells the bride,
Her lover's joy, her husband's pride.
May, etc.

The glowing description of Speed has l^een r)ften quoted
and is well known ; a modern and more proiaic writer,
following in the same school of geography that has
compared Italy to a boot, and Oxfordshire to a seated
old woman, has employed a sort of " memoria teehnica "
for the general form of Glamorgan, which he likens to a
porpoise in the act of diving : " Roath represents its
mouth, Ptuperra its prominent snout, Blaen-Khymny and
Waun-cae-Gerwin its dorsal fins, the peninsula of Gower
its outstretched tail, and the Hundred of Dinas Powis
its protuberant belly."

Glamoro'an received a -western addition and became a
regular county in the reign of Henry VIH., but the
ancient lunit still divides the sees of Llandaft* and St.
David's. Both districts, by some accounts, were in-
cluded in the ancient Morganwg. " Glamorgan," says
Kees Meyric, " differs from Morganwg, as the j)articulars
from the general," Morgan^vg being the older name and
far more comprehensive territory. " Morganwg," says
the same authority, " extended from Gloucester bridge
to the Crumlyn brook near Neath, if not to the Towy
river, and included parts of the later shires of Gloucester,
Monmouth, Hereford, Brecknock and Glamorgan, and it
may be of Caermarthen." Glamorgan, on the other
hand, seems to have been confined to that part of tlie
present county that lies along the seal3oard, south of
the portway, or road, probably Koman, from Cardiff to
Cowbridge and Neath, and this it is which is said to
have been ruled by Morgan Hen, or the aged, in
the middle of the tenth centuiy. To this Prince has
been attributed the name of his territory, Gwlad-Morgan
or Moro'an's countrv, and there is no evidence for its

VOL; XXXIV. D



18 THE LAND OF MORGAN :

earlier use. The rule of his clescendauts, however, under
the same name, seems to have included the northern or
hill country, and finally Fitz-Hamon and his successors,
although of the ancient Morganwg they held only that
small part between the Rhymny and the Usk, always
styled themselves "Domini MorganisG et Glamorganise" in
their charters, nor v/as the style altered even when the
Monmouthshire lands passed away for a time by a coheir
to the Audleys.

The Britons, both of East and West Britain, seem,
when fairly conquered, to have accepted the Roman yoke
with equanimity, a,nd it is evident, from the remains of
Roman villas all over Wales, that tlie intruders lived
there in peace. This was never the case with the
Englisli. The Welsh never accepted tlieir rule, and
their language contains many expressions indicating their
deadly and continued hate. Even in the Herefordshire
irchenfield, where many parishes bear English names, and
^vliieli pr(jbably from the time of Alfred was ]3art of an
English county ; and along the Shropshire border, within
and ab<^ut OPra's Dyke, all the English dwellings were
fortiiied. The points of contact between the Welsh and
the various tribes of Northmen were numerous, sometimes
on the Enodish border, where a laro-e infusion of the names
are English, sometimes along the sea coast, where such
names as Skokholm, Holm, Sealm, Gresholm, Gatholm,
Strumble Head, Nangle, and Swansea savour strongly of
the Baltic, and it seems probable that to those early vikings,
and not to the later settlements of Flemings or English, is
due the Teutonic element which prevails in the topography
of Lower Pembroke and Gower. In Glamorgan, however,
the Welsli in the eleventh century seem pretty well to
have recovered their territory, and to liave disposed of
their invaders as they disposed of Harold himself when
he attempted to erect a liunting lodge for the Confessor
at Portskewit.

Gwrgan, the penultimate Welsh prince who ruled over
Glamorgan, is usually called by the Welsh Lord of
Morganwg, which liowever he certainly never held in its
extended sense, his rule having been confined to the tract
from the Usk to the Crumlyn, and from the Brecknock
border to tlie sea. His name is said to be preserved in



ITS CONQUEST AND ITS CONQUEROIIS. 19

Gwrgciiistowii near Cowbridge, but lie lives chiefly in the
menKjry of the Welsh as having laid open the Common
of Hirwaun, thence known as " Hirwaun-Wrgan," or
" Gwrgan's long meadow," near Aberdare.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, his son and successor, had a jiowerful
and ambitious neighbour in R-hys ap Twdvvr, Lord of
Deheubarth, or the shires of Caermarthen, Cardigan, and
Pembroke, with whom, as was natural to his race, he was
at war ; and getting, or fearing to get, the worst in the
struggle, he dispatclied Einion ap Collwyn, a refugee from
Dyfed, Avho had lived much with the Normans, to Ilobert
Fitz-Hamon for aid, Fitz-Hamon was a friend and
follower of Rufus, and lord of the Honour of Gloucester,
the m.apfnificent heritaofe of Brictric, who is said t(j have
refused the hand of Matilda, who afterwards married
William the Conqueror, but ]iever forgave the spretce
injuria for nup. The Ivoman de Brut says —

" Meis Lrictrieli ]\[aiKlo rcfusa
Dunt elo mult se corii(;a."

Fitz-Hamon, not insensible to the attractions of a
Marcher lordship, crossed the Severn with his tioops, and
landed, it is said, at Porthkerry in or about 1093.
Joining his forces to those of Jestyn, they met, attacked
and conquered Rhys at Bryn-y-beddau near Hirwaun,
within or close upon the border of Brecknock, and slew
him on tlie brow oi an adjacent hill in Glyn Rhondda,
thence called Pern-hys. Goronwy, a son of Rhys, also
was slain, and Cynaii another son was drowned in a large
marsh between Neath and S^^'ansea, thence called Pwll-
Cynan.

The Normans are said to have received their subsidy at
the "Fill-tir-awr," or Golden Mile, near Bridgend, and
to have departed by land. Einion, however was refused
his guerdon, the hand of Jestyn's daughter, on which he
recalled the Normans, who had a fray at Mynydd Buchan,
^\'est of Cardiff, at which Jestyn was slain.



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