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the must imp(jrtant of tbeni are quoted -^ Olbia was also called Borj-stbenes,

in tbe Dictionanj of Classical Gtograjilnj, Herodotus iv, 17, 18, 53, 78. It seems

S.V., Oceanus Septentrionalis. liighly probable that tbe Father of His-

- Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxxvii, c. 3, s. 44. tory visited this city, and derived bis

Feminismonilium vice sucina gestantibus, ,information about Scytbia from the in-

etc. Juvenal vi, 573. In cujus manibus, habitants of that country and tbe Greek

ceu pinguia sucina, tritas Cernis epbe- traders, who met at Olbia for the puri)oses

meridas. of c(jmmercial intercourse : Baehr's edi-

The dame whose il/n««o?o/Jsr('oZo(7.v tion of Herodotus. Excursus ad iv, 18,

Still dangles at her side, smooth as chafecl gTim, „i /-< „,„.,,,<„<•„ j- ..•< < • ..■ rr j >•

And fretted bv her everlasting thumb. nnd Commeutatudi vita ct scnptts Herodott

GiFFORD's Translation. vol. iv, p. 395.



246^ THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA.

along this line of conntry at a period antecedent to
Alexander the Great. The central route beginning- from
Pomerania, j^i'oceeded by the lower Vistula and Upper
Oder ; having traversed Silesia, it followed the course of
the Waag and reached the Danube a little below
Vienna. Kecent investigations have brought to light
at Hallstatt, near Tschl, a remarkable combination of
industrial jDroducts from the North and the South —
articles in amber from Prussia and bronzes from Etruria;
hence we infer that the communication between the
Danube and the Adriatic was carried through this place,
in accordance witli Pliny's statement that amber was
brought by the Germans into Pannonia and received
thence by the Veneti.' The western route may be
easily traced from Jutland and the mouth of the Elbe
alons: the Phine and the Phone to Marseilles. Thougfh
the coast of Denmark was visited by Pytheas, a Greek
navigator sujDposed to be contemporary with Alexander
the Great, his countrymen do not appear to have
emulated his enterprising voyage, for Greek coins have
not been discovered in the west of Germany. On the
other hand, Poman coins of the first and second centuries
of our era show that after Caesar's Gallic conquest trade
in this direction was considerably developed.^

I. In a paper I had the honour to read before this
Society last summer, I noticed some antiquities dis-
covered in Brittany as proofs of the vigour and extent of
Poman civilization, but I now direct your attention to an
illustration of the same subject, far more striking when



' Pliny, xxxvii, c. 3, s. 43. I/j., s, 45, in the classical writers, the south of

we are informed that the German coast Euroi)e seems to have been colder in

from which the Romans obtained amber ancient than in modern times. " The

was about 600 miles from Carnuntnm in Grecian colonies to the north of the

Pannonia, which would agree with the Euxine . . . drew supplies of peltry,

situation of Samland. In the same chai)ter the skins of the otter and beaver, from

Pliny, describing a show in the amjjhi- the very interior of Russia, and possibly

theatre, says that all the objects exhibited even inmi the shores of the Baltic."

during one day consisted of amber exclu- Heeren, Historical liesearches, Asiatic

sively (totus unius diei apparatus . . . Nations, \, i2. Com\YAve Herodot. iv, 109,

e sucino). vii, 67. Tacitus, Gcnnaniu, c. 17, im-

2 The trade in fm', as well as that in plies that a trade in furs with Germany

amber, diffused some knowledge of the was cari'ied on l)y the Scandinavians, as

northern regitnis amongst the Greeks and he mentions skins that were imported

Romans. Their requirements in this from the outer ocean and the unknown

respect were, of comvse, restricted by the sea (exterior Oceanus atque ignotum

warmth of their climate ; however, as far mare).
as we can draw an inference fi-om allusions




liucl^ct Handle aiul I'.ns, from i'l-oiullijcm.
KroDi Lorange " Saniliuscii af Norske Okls.iger i Ijcrgens Mur.cui:



THE ANTIQUITIES OF ^^CAXDIXAVTA. 2-17

we consider the locality from which it is derived. The
province of Trondhjem, which is as far north as Iceland,
has yielded no unimportant supply of Eoman bronzes.
The most interesting of these has found a resting place in
tlie Bergen Museum, and has been figured and described
l)y Monsieur Lorange, the Curator of that collection.
This object consists of a handle and ears that l^elonged to a
bucket, which is lost ; they are well executed and in good
preservation. On the upper part of the handle there is a
thick ring, and both its ends have the form of a serpent's
liead ; the ears exhibit in the centre a female head of a
somewhat Egyptian type, with long flowing locks, a neck-
lace and fan-shaped collar, while on each side a long
animal's head projects/ The snake as a finial frequently
occurs in remains of Roman and Gr?eco-Roman art — in
rings, bracelets, patera3, mirrors, ladles for sacrifices,
(simpula), fibulae, lamps, candelabra, and water-taps ; the
heads of rams, swans, and other birds are similarly used
for decorations.- There can be no question about the
E/oman character of this object, as examples of the same
kind have lieen found all the way from South Italy to
Trondhjem. Some closely resembling tlie one under
consideration are engraved in Montfaucon's Antiquitee
Expliquee ; he also gives what is of rarer occurrence, an
instance of a head with the fan-shaped collar, which, he
says, was an amulet worn suspended from the neck, like
a bulla.^ With reference to tlie serpents' heads, it may
1)e observed that they are simple imitations of nature in
the classical style, not grotesque or symbolical, as is the
case with mediaeval dragons. The Museum of Bergen



' Loi-iuige, Samling af Xomke OUhancr iJi retro hlcu ; Roacli Smith, Ilhtstrritioxs

i Bergens j\[i(seHi)i,\). \\2 \ Nordiske Old- of Jioiiian London, steel for sliarpeiun<^'

sagcr idvt KoHfjelige Museum i KJnhenhavn, knives found in Princes-street, with

ordncdc o:j forhlaredc af J. J. A. Worsaoe, liandle consisting of a horse's head

p. 75, No. 307. This catalogue raisonne springing from the leaves of a lotus

i.s most useful, and even indispensable, to ]>. 141; conii)are tlie bronze cock of a

the student of Scandinavian antiquities ; fountain found in Philpot-lane, ib., p. li't.

it contains upwards of 600 well-executed Rich, latin dictionary, s.v. simj)ulum.

engi'avings of objects belonging to the These specimens show how ancient art

Stone, Bi'onze, Iron, and Middle Ages, lavisheii ornament upon the must common

with introductions to each period. The utensils of domestic life,
price is only two kroner, or little more ■' ]\Iontfaucon. Antlrjxilii E.cpliqufi^,

than two .shillings. Tome ii, ]). 147, PI. Ivii, nos. ], 2, R,

- Paderni, liaecolin di Diphtti, Mo- handles of vases. Tojue iii, p. 71, PI.

Knie', Sfe., Xapoll, 1865; Bronzi, Pis. 130- xxxviii, No. .3, fan-shaped collar.
134 : Oggetti Preziosi, 136, 137, T'cfcra

VOL. XXXIV. 2 K



248 THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA.

contains also the following articles in bronze :— a strainer,
wbicli seems to have come from the Roman frontiers ; a
vessel holding burnt bones, and a hemispherical cooking
utensil, like a saucepan ; ^ and in Roman glass : — drinking
bonis with rings round them, like the natural horn ; cups,
of which the most remarkable peculiarity is the rows of
ovals on the sides, and draughtmen — some black and
others blue — round, flat on the lower side, but slightly
curved on the upper,""'

As far as I am aware, a denarius of Antoninus Pius and
a gold medallion of Yalentinian are the only specimens
of Roman mintage found in Norway, l)ut the barbarous
imitations are more numerous. The Museum of the
University at Christiania possesses a very cuiious example
of the latter class ; it was discovered in 1872 in the large
chamber of a tumulus near Aak, a place well-known to
English tourists from its picturesque situation at the
western extremity of the Romsdal ; this niedal is of gold
and copied from a coin of Magnentius, who reigned a.d.
350 — 353. In the preceding year an imitation of a coin
of Honorius was found at Gimheim, in the Lower
Telemark.^ These fticts assist us to explain the deriva-
tion of the bracteates, i.e., thin pieces of money with a
device upon one side, which are of frequent occurrence in
the Norwegian series.''

Enough has been already said to prove that the Roman
influence had extended much further northwards than is
generally supposed, but this view receives additional

^ These objects were found in the du fer ; epoque byzantino barbare, on

district of North Trondhjem, which also epocjue des bracteates, entre le v^'me et

yielded other Konian antiquities, cj/., two viiif^me siccles. The bracteates are often

glass cups, a bronze strainer and dish, &e. furnished with rings for suspension, and

Lorange, Cittalogue of the Btrgcii Mhschdi, appear to have been worn as ornaments,

p. 111. Some of these vessels came fi-om like bulla? in ancient times and lockets in

the neighb'jurhood of Levanger. our own day. Vi^orfiiiae, Nordiske Ol(hnf;c>-,

- Lorange, /i., pp. 6ti, 68 and 104, with JeriiahhrcH U Guldbractcnter, nos. 399-
engravhigs ; Worsaae, //a, nos. iVl. 317, 409, pp. 9.5-97; 409, Efterligning af en
318, 320. I'oach Smith, Jtonuin Lnndon, kufisk eller arabisk Mynt. Some of these
p. l-'4, mentions among remarkable ex- bracteates have Runic legends, //^ Intro-
amples of Roman glass found in London, duction, p. 93. Stevens' great work on
a drinking cup covered with a pattern Kortheni Antiquities contains many en-
formed of incuse hexagons, and another gravings of this class of coins, coloured
with incuse ovals and hexagons ; compare so as to represent the originals very closely.
Plate xxxi, figure 7. Norijcs Myiiter i lliddftn/derm samJide og

^ Lorange, ib., j). 99, note. beskreveiu' af C. J. Schive, tab. iv, sqq.,

■■ ]''ngelhardt. Guide Illusin: du Musce shows the Norwegian bracteates from the

des AiUiqnitis du N'ord a CopenJiague, ])]>. twelfth to the sixteenth century.
26, 27, and figs. 1,2, 3. Deuxieme periode



ITBZRTIiv/VS^ET'/PPKVS -

cvRArorC3cr,;yERV7j.T»



^i^jj^K|j«^j^„.. ^Jayj








Bronze Vase of Farmen, and SworJ from Einanf^.
From Lorange " Om Spor af romers'k Kiiltur i Norges ocldre JemnlJer.'



THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA. 249

coiifirinatloii t'roiii the statements made by Monsieur
Lorange at the Archaeological Congress held at Stockholm
in 1874. Summing up the results of his investigations,
he divides the tumuli of the Iron Age in Norway into
three classes — I. Those which have no chamber and
exhibit no traces of Roman influence. II. Those which
have a small chamber sometimes containing ol)jects of
Roman origin. III. Those which have a large chamber,
where such objects are almost invariably found. There
were ninety examples of the second class and eighty of
the third, as far as known at that date. In 1872 twent} -
eight Roman bronze vessels had been found in Norway,
ninety- three in Denmark, and twelve in Sweden. Of
glass vessels, the numbers for these three countries were—
twenty-four, thirty-six, and nine respectively, but these
figures must be considered as approximate, because some-
times the attribution is doubtful.'

Among the monuments of this class a prominent place
is due to the bronze vase of Farmen, in the j^arish of
Vangs and district of Hedemarken. It was discovered in
18G5 in the small sepulchral stone chamber of a round
tumulus. The vase was cast in a mould, but the bottom
of it was fastened to the foot by a row of nails, wliich
form a pleasing decoration, like beading. We remark at
first sight a great difi:erence in colour between the upper
and lower part ; the former looks as if it had been covered
with green enamel, while the latter is blackened with
soot. The feature, however, which most attracts oiu*
attention here is the inscription, both for other reasons
and because it is unique in Norway. Betw^een the neck
and the middle of the vase the following sentence is
engraved in large, legible and separate characters : — •

LIBERTIXVS ET '^' APllVS " CVRATOR VEKVNT

The words are divided by small circles on a level wdth
the middle of the letters, just as a leaf is often used for
the same purpose.'* A hole in the urn has produced a



^ Lorange, Om Spor nf romersk Ii'ulfur S\veclir;h and Danish archa-ologi.st.s.

i Xorfffs (c.ldre Ji>uilfh');i-)p. i, [). Mons. ^ Mr. A. S. Murray, of the British

Lorange, as a Norwegian, h;is defended Museum, ha.s c;ille<l my attention to the

the antiquities of his own country with fact that a circle is used to divide the

patriotic enthusiasm against the dis- words because it could be conveniently

paraging misrepresentations made by made on a metallic substance, as in the



250 THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA.

lacuna, v/liicli, however, may l^e easily supplied, at least as
far as the meaning is concerned, so that we should read
cviiATORES " POSVERVNT, and the translation is, 'Libertinus
and Aj)rus, guardians of the temple, have placed in it
this offering.' Some have conjectured that the urn once
contained the ashes of a Roman, but this is highly
improbable, because the deceased is not mentioned. Nor
can we suppose that eitlier of the names, Li1)ei"tinus and
Aprus, belonged to a native Roman, for the former
signifies a freed-man, while the latter is an irregular
variety of Aper, unknown to classical Latinity, and
accordingly i-ejected liy the grammarian Probus ; ' the
appellations tlierefore must designate provincials. There
is some difficulty in determining exactly the manner in
which the final word should be supplied, as there appears
to be room for a letter Ijetween S and V, so that it might
have been posivervnt, though an objection may be raised
against this form as too archaic.^ ' This vase, having been
conseci'ated as an offering in a temple, should be con-
sidered in connection with tlie Apollo -vase found in
Vestmanland, Sweden, as their origin, destiny, and
inscriptions are similar. Devoted by their first possessors
to the worship of Roman divinities, in all probability
they l^ecame the property of barbarous chieftains, were
employed by them as household utensils, and were finally
applied to the purposes of sepulture. That the Farmen
vase was so used before its deposition in the grave is
proved b}^ the soot on the lower part of it, as well as by



present ease ; on tlie other haiul, a triangle of Clasnicul Bioyraphi/, but Aprr in well

or a leaf freiiuently occurs as a mark of kno\\ii as one oi the speakers in the

separation, when the inscrii)tion is earxed Dudogue on Orutori/ ascribed to Tacitus ;

on stone. J)r. Bruce, Ilomait IVall, gives, other persons of the same name are also

]i. 'Hi, many examples of the triangle in mentioned ; Voi)iseus, Nunurian^ cc. 12-

an insciiption discovered at Carvoran, 15 ; Oruter, Inscriptions, p. dcxii. No. 8.
which i.s identified with the Roman station - roscivci is found in Orelli's Inscrip-

Magna, and p. 24.5, of the leaf also on tions, No. 3308 ; posivi in Plautus.

another stone from the same s[)ot, crmf. I'seudolus X, 1, 4.5 ; ef ppsivcris, Id.

ib.,Yi.\7. Huhnay, I/iiciip(iuiit:sllrit(nuiU/c Trinununus 1, 2, lOS; Smith's Latin

Lnthifr, passim. J)lcti( nari/, s.v., jJOno. These old forms

^ M. Valerii l'rol)i Grammatics Iiisli- sometimes reappear after a long intei'val,

^;<<w<t'.v, s. .38, ijuoted )iy Lorange ; this and many words, which are not Augustan,

reference 1 have been unable to verify, are at once a)ite and ^;o,s^Augu.stan.

Ijut in his Catholica, p. 1457, ed. Putsch, ('omi)are Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry,

I'n^bus gives the f<jrms aper, apri for the p. 21. So Horace says, Ars Poet., v. 70.

connnon n<)(u\ signifying a hoar. Tlie Midta renascentur, quie jam cceidere ;

]>ropor name Apni.s does not occur in cadentque, (^uie nunc sunt in honore

Forccllini's Lexicon or Smith's iJicilonari/ \ocabula.



THE AXTl<v>UrnE.S OF SCANDINAVIA. 251

the traces of an iron band round its neck, which seems to
have been placed there as a fastening for a handle.

It was a practice at this early age to convert into
cinerary urns sucli domestic vessels as were most con-
venient, whether of clay or of metal, and to this custom
we owe many proofs of the spread of Roman civilization,
which are also records of a period concerning which the
historians are silent. It seems almost idle to speculate
about the province from which these objects originally
came, but the discovery of two Roman burial places at
Hiiven and Grabow, in Mecklenburg, suggests the pos-
sibility that they may have been carried across the sea to
Norway from that part of Germany, especially if we adopt
the view of Dr. Lisch, who regards these cemeteries as
indications of a Roman trading factoiy in Mecklenburg-
Schwerin. The form of the letters inscribed belongs,
according to Professor Ussing, to the first or second
century of the Christian era, and this would prove the
date of the manufacture of the vase; secondly, the denarii
discovered in Scania and Denmark, being chiefly of the
second and third centuries, enable us to fix the time, at
least approximately, when this work of Roman art arrived
in the north, allowing, of course, some interval for the
passage of the coins from their place of mintage to
countries beyond the limits of the empire. This vase
was full of burnt bones, so that there can be no doubt
about the use to which it was applied. It only remains
for us to explain its mutilated condition. By its side
was found the up^^er part of a. similar bronze vessel,
crushed and bent by the w^eight of a stone, which, in its
fall, pressed the one first mentioned against the wall of
the chambered tumulus. Thus the fracture on both sides
is clearly accounted for.'

Next in importance to the Farmen vase is the sword
from Einang in Vestre Slidre, Valders. It closely re-
sembles those which were dug out of the Nydam peat-
moss, described and figured by Dr. Engelhardt, Plates
VI, vii.^ It bears two stamps, one wheel-shaped, the

^ This account u£ the Fanueii ^'a.s■,? is weapons, Hword.s, lances, &c. Dr. Engel-

deiived from Lorauge's treatise, (jiinted hardt is mistaken in sayuis^ that the

above. stamps are sfjuarc ; they are lung, and

" Eugelliardt, Dcuiii'tik in the Earbj rectangular.
hon Affc, c. iii, s. 6, ii[). o'l, 53, offensive



252 THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA.

other rectangular, and containing the letters kanvici. . . ;
a circumstance worthy of remark, since only eight or ten
stamps have been found on one hundred swords at Nydam.
This sword is bent like the one in Plate vii, No, 13, with
this difference, that the curvature is made in the lower
part of the Norwegian example, but in the upper part of
the Danish, Many objects, especially weapons, have been
brought to light by excavations in an imperfect condition,
either broken or bent, in order to render them useless.
Their withdrawal from all piu-poses of human life was
probably intended to symbolize consecration to some
deity. So Tacitus, in his account of the war between the
Bermanduii and Catti, relates that the conquerors devoted
their enemies to Mars and Mercury (Odin and Thor), and
that all the property of the vanquished was utterly
destroyed,^ (jrosius also informs us that when the
Cimbri defeated the Romans near Orange, garments were
torn, gold and silver cast into the Rhone, and coats of
mail cut in pieces, so that there was neither booty for the
conquerors nor mercy for the conquered.- As some of
the subject nations, e.<j. the Spaniards and the people
of Noricum, were very skilful in the manufacture of
swords,^ the Latin letters ranvici do not prove the
Einang example to be of Roman workmanship, though
they, of course, imply a certain amount of intercourse
with the Romans, for the word seems to be a barbarous
name that has undergone some modification. Besides the
objects already mentioned, the wooden buckets bound
with bronze form a class by themselves, which some have
considered to be Roman ; but this explanation may be
fairly questioned, for while they frequently occur in
Norway and Denmark, and sometimes in Germany also,
they are very rare in Fi'ance; thus, as we approach Italy,
the number diminishes — a fact that seems to favour their
attribution to the Scandinavians as their inventors.



^ Tacitus, A)i)i., xiii, 57, equi, viri, tern luinc praestut lit in Noricls, aliubi

cunctii victa uccidioni (laiitur ; c<iiiij)are factura ut SuliUDUe. Martial, EjngramSj

Ctcsar, BcU. Gall., vi, 17. i, 49 ; xii, 18, and especially iv, .'>4, where

'•^ F(jr this passage in Orosius, Lib. v, he speaks <if his birthplace, Bilbilis : —

c. xvi, I am indebted to Ur. Kngclhnrdt's SaevoBilbilinoptinianunetall<>,(iuie vincit

Guide Illitslyd flu Musde des Aitt. du Nurd Chalyl)asque Noric()S(iiie, Etferro Plateain

a (Jopenhafjuc, p. 25. suo sonanteni, Quain tinctii tenui .sed

■'' Pliny, Natural Hiftory, xxxiv, <■. 14, inquicto Arniorum Salo temjjerator ambit,

.■i. 145, In nustro orbc aliubi vena bunita- Cf. Uor. C^rm., i, l(j, 9.



THE ANTIQUITIES OF SCANDINAVIA. 253

With respect to Roman antiquities Sweden occupies
an intermediate position between Denmark and Norway.
Denmark contains many domestic utensils as well as
arms and ornaments that are unquestionably of Roman
origin : on the other hand, Sweden exhibits few articles
that relate to comfort or elegunce, but is comparatively
rich in coins.' About 4,000 denarii have been found
altogether, some of the first but most of the second
century after the CJhristian era : approximately 3,200 m
Gotland, 100 in Oland, 600 in Scania, and only twelve in
the rest of the mainland. The cessation of the denarii at
the close of the second century can be easily understood ;
at that period and under the Emperor Septimius Severus
a great deterioration of the Roman coinage took place :
denarii of copper plated with silver, like the modern
groschen, were issued, and these the barbarians natiu^ally
refused to take," just as Tacitus informs us that the
Germans of the preceding century, preferring those kinds
of Roman money with which they were acquainted — liked
the denarii that had a serrated edge, and the biga for
their device.^ In the C(^nstantine period medals and
medallions of gold foiuid their way to Sweden, and rude
imitations of them gave rise to a type of bracteates
exclusively Scandinavian. The total niuiil)er of other
objects discovered in Sweden, including the adjacent
islands, is very small; amongst them are l^ronze dishes
and bowls — one containing burnt bones — and a drinking
vessel of white glass. A bronze vase from the province
of Westmanland, now preserved in the museum at Stock-
holm, is the most conspicuous proof of Roman influence,
because, like that in Norway above-mentioned, it has the
jDeculiarity of being inscribed. The Apollo vase, as it is
usually called, was found in a tumulus, and upon it were
engraved the following words :

^ Lorange, Oin S}}or af Momersl: Kxlfin; Jtoimii//, iii, 232, .speaking of the coinage

(^•c, J). i>. of the first four years of Sept. Sevenis,

'^ Archscological Congre.ss at Stuckhohii, uses the terms fabrique etrangere, tre.s

1874. Le Mus^e royale d'archeulogie de gro.ssiere, ef. ib., note 2, and p. 322 Les

Stockhohn, par !M. Hans Hildebrand, medailles de petit bronze de Septinie

L'a;/c ditfir, i>. O'ZI. Vlcldiel, I)oc(. X/an. Severe me paraissent toutes . . . des

Vif., vii, 167, S.V., L. Septimius Severus, deniers faux antiques,

coniphu-es (mamos) ex his esse fabricic ■' Tacitus, Gcniiaiiio, c. 5. Pecuniam

rudioris . . . ejusmodi .-iunt etiam syn- i^robant veterem et diu notam, serratos

chroni numi Caracalhc et item Dommc. bigatosque. See the notes of Brotier and

Cohen, Jlt'(/<iil/(s frappeis sons V Empire OrelH.



254 THE ANTTQUfTIEf^ OF SCANDTNAVTA.

APOLLINI " GRA.NNO

DONViM " AMMI.LIV.S

CONSTANS. PRAEF. TEMP

IPSIVS

VSLLM.

To Apollo Grannus Ammilius Constans, guardian of his
temple, has offered this gift ; he has paid his vow joyfully,
willingly, and deservedly. This epithet of Apollo seems
to l:>e derived from the Granni, who lived on the river
Granua, a tributary of the Danube. The word is per-
petuated in the modern name of Gran, which belongs
both to a river and to a city well-remembered by tra-
vellers on account of its magnificent Cathedral, whose
vast cupola crowning a hill is visible for many miles. In
this neighbourhood, amid the heaviest anxieties that



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